82. Sathigari, Sateesh Kumar; Ober, Courtney A.; Sanganwar, Ganesh P.; Gupta, Ram B.; Babu, R. Jayachandra, Single-step preparation and deagglomeration of itraconazole microflakes by supercritical antisolvent method for dissolution enhancement, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2011), 100(7), 2952-2965.
Itraconazole (ITZ) microflakes were produced by supercritical antisolvent (SAS) method and simultaneously mixed with pharmaceutical excipients in a single step to prevent drug agglomeration. Simultaneous ITZ particle formation and mixing with fast-flo lactose (FFL) was performed in a high-pressure stirred vessel at 116 bar and 40°C by the SAS–drug excipient mixing (SAS–DEM) method. The effects of stabilizers, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate and poloxamer 407 (PLX), on particle formation and drug dissolution were studied. Drug–excipient formulations were characterized for surface morphology, crystallinity, drug–excipient interactions, drug content uniformity, and drug dissolution rate. Mixture of drug microflakes and FFL formed by the SAS–DEM process shows that the process was successful in overcoming drug–drug agglomeration. PLX produced crystalline drug flakes in loose agglomerates with superior dissolution and flow properties even at higher drug loadings. Characterization studies confirmed the crystallinity of the drug and absence of chemical interactions during the SAS process. The dissolution of ITZ was substantially higher due to SAS and SAS–DEM processes; this improvement can be attributed to the microflake particle structures, effective deagglomeration, and wetting of the drug flakes with the excipients. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 100:2952–2965, 2011