IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 40,  Number 1, Feb 1993           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




40.1.1    J.Y. Hung, W. Gao, J.C. Hung, "Variable structure control: a survey," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 2-22, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A tutorial account of variable structure control with sliding mode is presented. The purpose is to introduce in a concise manner the fundamental theory, main results, and practical applications of this powerful control system design approach. This approach is particularly attractive for the control of nonlinear systems. Prominent characteristics such as invariance, robustness, order reduction, and control chattering are discussed in detail. Methods for coping with chattering are presented. Both linear and nonlinear systems are considered. Future research areas are suggested and an extensive list of references is included

40.1.2    V.I. Utkin, "Sliding mode control design principles and applications to electric drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 23-36, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The basic concepts, mathematics, and design aspects of variable-structure systems as well as those with sliding modes as a principle operation mode are treated. The main arguments in favor of sliding-mode control are order reduction, decoupling design procedure, disturbance rejection, insensitivity to parameter variations, and simple implementation by means of power converters. The control algorithms and data processing used in variable structure systems are analyzed. The potential of sliding mode control methodology is demonstrated for versatility of electric drives and functional goals of control

40.1.3    K. Furuta, "VSS type self-tuning control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 37-44, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Discrete variable-structure control and its application to self-tuning control are considered. The proposed variable structure control does not use state variables but uses present and past output or input-output signals. Variable-structure control for the deterministic discrete-time system based on the minimum variance and generalized minimum variance control is proposed. The method is then extended so that self-tuning control is realized for the plants with uncertain parameters by identifying the control law online. A simulation study shows the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm

40.1.4    Weibing Gao, J.C. Hung, "Variable structure control of nonlinear systems: a new approach," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 45-55, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new approach for the design of variable structure control (VSC) of nonlinear systems is presented. It is based on a new method called the reaching law method, and is complemented by a sliding-mode equivalence technique. They facilitate the design of the system dynamics in all three modes of a VSC system including the sliding, reaching, and steady-state modes. Invariance and robustness properties are discussed. The approach is applied to a robot manipulator to demonstrate its effectiveness

40.1.5    G.S. Buja, R. Menis, M.I. Valla, "Variable structure control of an SRM drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 56-63, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The applications of a variable-structure system (VSS) to the control of a switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive is presented. After reviewing the operation of an SRM drive, a VSS-based scheme is formulated to control the drive speed. The scheme is then designed and tested by simulation. The results show that the VSS control is effective in reducing the torque ripple of the motor, compensating for the nonlinear torque characteristics, and making the drive insensitive to parameter variations and disturbances

40.1.6    A. Ishigame, T. Furukawa, S. Kawamoto, T. Taniguchi, "Sliding mode controller design based on fuzzy inference for nonlinear systems [power systems]," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 64-70, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Sliding-mode control can deal with nonlinearities of control systems and is robust. However, it has drawbacks, such as high control gain effect and control chattering. A method of nonlinear feedback control that introduces fuzzy interference into sliding-mode control, to treat nonlinearities and reduce chattering is proposed. The stability of the system is discussed using fuzzy stability theory based on Lyapunov's direct method. The method is applied numerically to the stabilizing control of an electric power system, and is shown to give good results

40.1.7    C.-Y. Su, T.-P. Leung, Y. Stepanenko, "Real-time implementation of regressor-based sliding mode control algorithm for robotic manipulators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 71-79, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A regressor-based variable-structure control scheme has been developed for the trajectory control of robot manipulators in the presence of disturbances, parameter variations, and unmodeled dynamics. The method is based on the regressor structure given by J.J.E. Slotine and W. Li, without parameter adaptation. This avoids the requirement of persistency of excitation, and the convergence of the overall transient exponential. The method is robust against a class of state-dependent uncertainties, which may result, for example, from unmodeled dynamics. The problem of chattering is solved by the smoothing control law. It is with respect to a set around the origin, which can be made arbitrarily small. To illustrate the feasibility of this controller, it was implemented using a Motorola M68000 microprocessor on a two-link revolute joint manipulator subjected to a variable payload. Experimental results confirm the validity of accurate tracking capability and the robust performance

40.1.8    A. Suyitno, J. Fujikawa, H. Kobayashi, Y. Dote, "Variable-structured robust controller by fuzzy logic for servomotors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 80-88, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A variable-structure robust controller whose structure is continuously changed by fuzzy logic so that the system responds quickly if the error or its rate is large and vice versa is proposed. Such a controller is insensitive to both the plant noise and the observation noise. It is applied to speed control for an induction servomotor. Experiments show that the controller is superior to both a sliding-mode controller and a proportional integral-derivative (PID) controller. The paper includes the stability analysis of the overall system and the design procedure by using Lyapunov's method

40.1.9    S. Komada, K. Nomura, M. Ishida, T. Hori, "Robust force control based on compensation for parameter variations of dynamic environment," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 89-95, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Force control strategies that are robust against disturbance and parameter variations are proposed. These strategies are expansions of disturbance observer-based control strategy, and require little computation. Observers are proposed that estimate parameter variations of the dynamic environment on which the force is imposed are introduced. Since the observer-based control represents a nominal system, a second derivative of force can be controlled. A force control strategy for controlling the second derivative of force is also proposed. The force response similar to the force command is realized by these strategies in spite of the disturbance and the parameter variations of the control object. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is confirmed by simulation and experimental results

40.1.10    S.T. Hung, D.C. Hopkins, C.R. Mosling, "Extension of battery life via charge equalization control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 96-104, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The primary difficulty in charging storage batteries is in attaining process regulation that allows fast charging while avoiding destructive overcharging. A two-level approach to controlling the charging process is presented. A general background discussion of batteries and charging problems is followed by the presentation of a novel recirculating charge equalization technique that enhances the uniformity of batteries made up from long serial strings of cells. A straightforward means of embedding equalization within an outer-loop supervisory control that maintains a fast charging rate while providing overall protection against overcharging is briefly described. Simulation and experimental results confirm the applicability of the equalization control technique

40.1.11    F. Filicori, C.G. Lo Bianco, A. Tonielli, "Modeling and control strategies for a variable reluctance direct-drive motor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 105-115, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A high-performance ripple-free dynamic torque controller for a variable-reluctance (VR) motor intended for trajectory tracking in robotic applications is designed. A modeling approach that simplifies the design of the controller is investigated. Model structure and parameter estimation techniques are presented. Different approaches to the overall torque controller design problem are discussed, and the solution adopted is illustrated. A cascade controller structure consisting of a feedforward nonlinear torque compensator, cascaded to a nonlinear flux or current closed-loop controller is considered, and optimization techniques are used for its design. Although developed for a specific commercial motor, the proposed modeling and optimization strategies can be used for other VR motors with magnetically decoupled phases, both rotating and linear. Laboratory experiments for model validation and preliminary simulation results of the overall torque control system are presented

40.1.12    C.C. Hang, Y.S. Cai, K.W. Lim, "A dual-rate self-tuning pole-placement controller," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 116-129, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A dual-rate self-tuning pole-placement controller is proposed. It allows the use of a larger sampling interval for on-line parameter estimation and a smaller sampling interval for control. The conversion of model parameters from one sampling interval to another can be readily performed using a pole-zero mapping technique. The major problem encountered is that the process zeros at the slow sampling rate cannot be estimated accurately by using input-output data obtained at the fast sampling rate. The proposed solution of fixing the zeros at z=-1 while keeping the DC gain the same is supported by analysis of the Nyquist plot. The main merits of the dual-rate self-tuning control system are in the simultaneous achievement of robust estimation and reduced computation load and in improved performance in the regulation of deterministic and stochastic load disturbances. Its performance is substantiated by digital simulation and experiments on a pilot plant

40.1.13    S.N. Vukosavic, M.R. Stojic, "On-line tuning of the rotor time constant for vector-controlled induction motor in position control applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 130-138, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The induction motor drive with an indirect field-oriented controller (IFO) exhibits excellent behavior in a low-speed region. Thus, the motor can be advantageously used as an actuator in positioning servomechanisms. The authors propose the adaptation scheme for the continuous on-line tuning of the parameter T*r, suitable for the environment of a position servo. The outlined analytical considerations and experimental results are focused on operation conditions characterized by the zero speed and a light load of the drive. The proposed adaptation scheme is based on the measurement of the terminal voltages that are used as an auxiliary information; then the scheme is designed in such a way that stator resistance fluctuations and nonlinearities within the analog processing circuitry do not affect the estimated value of the rotor time constant. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme gives good results even in conditions at zero speed and dynamic loads that may be as low as 0.2 p.u

40.1.14    P.J. Wolfs, "A current-sourced DC-DC converter derived via the duality principle from the half-bridge converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 139-144, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A current-sourced switch-mode power supply topology is developed by applying a duality principle to a voltage-sourced half-bridge converter. The converter has boost converter characteristics and is suited to low-voltage high-current input applications. It is shown to compare favorably with the center-tapped transformer converter. Two optional enhancements-nondissipative snubber networks and inductor clamping windings-are also examined. Some results obtained with a low-power prototype are presented

40.1.15    S. Murata, T. Hirose, "Onboard locating system using real-time image processing for a self-navigating vehicle," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 145-154, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An onboard location system for a self-navigating vehicle using signposts with bar codes placed along the routes is described. The system has two independent measuring subsystems. The first is a machine vision system composed of an onboard camera, an onboard image processing unit, and signposts. This subsystem measures location and direction of the vehicle by triangulation when the signposts are detected. The second is a dead-reckoning subsystem based on rotation counts for the right and left wheels. Data from these two subsystems are systematically combined by an extended Kalman filter. The experimental results show that an accurate and smooth estimation of the location and direction of the vehicle is obtained

40.1.16    B. Hebert, M. Brule, L.-A. Dessaint, "A high efficiency interface for a biphase incremental encoder with error detection [servomotor control]," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 155-156, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The use of incremental instead of absolute encoders for servomotor control involves the design of an interface to feed bidirectional counters. A robust method that the authors have implemented with a minimum number of components is presented. The method is also suitable for an all-software version that could be used in microcontroller applications with low CPU overhead

40.1.17    Hung-Ching Lu, Wen-Chen Lin, "Robust controller with disturbance rejection for hydraulic servo systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 157-162, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A controller is presented that improves the performance and reduces the sensitivity of hydraulic servo systems in the presence of parameter variations, nonlinear effects, and other disturbances. The control system has enhanced closed-loop stability and can recover from steady-state and transient error quickly and completely. It consists of a servo controller, an auxiliary controller, and a robust controller. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the validity of the controller

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 40,  Number 2, April 1993           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




40.2.1    P.J. Werbos, "Neurocontrol and elastic fuzzy logic: capabilities, concepts, and applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 170-180, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The author shows how elastic fuzzy logic (EFL) nets make it possible to combine the capabilities of expert systems with the learning capabilities of neural networks at a high level. ANN (artificial neural network) implementations have advantages in terms of hardware implementation, ease of use, generality, and links to the brain, which is still the only true intelligent controller available. Neurocontrol is useful in cloning experts, tracking trajectories or setpoints, and optimization (e.g., approximate dynamic programming). There has been substantial success in controlling robot arms (including the main arm of the Space Shuttle), chemical process control, continuous production of high-quality parts, and other aerospace applications. A review of the basic designs and concepts, with reference to both the applications and future research opportunities, is given

40.2.2    M.-Y. Chow, R.N. Sharpe, J.C. Hung, "On the application and design of artificial neural networks for motor fault detection. I," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 181-188, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The general design considerations for feedforward artificial neural networks (ANNs) to perform motor fault detection are presented. A few noninvasive fault detection techniques are discussed, including the parameter estimation approach, human expert approach, and ANN approach. A brief overview of feedforward nets and the backpropagation training algorithm, along with its pseudocodes, is given. Some of the neural network design considerations such as network performance, network implementation, size of training data set, assignment of training parameter values, and stopping criteria are discussed. A fuzzy logic approach to configuring the network structure is presented

40.2.3    M.-Y. Chow, R.N. Sharpe, J.C. Hung, "On the application and design of artificial neural networks for motor fault detection. II," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 189-196, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For part I see ibid., vol.40, no.2, p.181-8 (1993). Some neural network design considerations, such as network performance, network implementation, size of training data set, assignment of training parameter values, and stopping criteria, are discussed. A fuzzy logic approach to configuring the network structure is presented, to automate the network design. Successful results are obtained from using artificial neural networks (ANNs) on motor fault detection and fuzzy logic in the network configuration design. It is concluded that these emerging technologies are promising for future widespread industrial usage

40.2.4    H.H. Szu, "Automatic fault recognition by image correlation neural network techniques," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 197-208, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The image correlation technique, a useful method for online inspection for quality production control, is discussed. A Cauchy machine determines the imperfection by the degree of orthogonality between the automated extracted feature from the send-through image and the class feature of early good samples. The performance measure used for such an automatic feature extraction is based on a certain minimax cost function useful for image classification. Such an inspection theory based on image sequences is simulated by incorporating space-filling Peano curves, fast simulated Cauchy annealing, and minimax classification performance measures. An artificial neural network (ANN) is discussed as a possible implementation

40.2.5    I.E. Alguindigue, A. Loskiewicz-Buczak, R.E. Uhrig, "Monitoring and diagnosis of rolling element bearings using artificial neural networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 209-217, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Vibration monitoring of components in manufacturing plants involves the collection of vibration data from plant components and detailed analysis to detect features that reflect the operational state of the machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology for rolling element bearings (REB) based on neural network technology is presented. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural networks to operate in real-time mode and to handle data that may be distorted or noisy. The significance of this work relies on the fact that REB failures are responsible for a large fraction of the malfunctions in manufacturing equipment. The technique enhances traditional vibration analysis and provides a means of automating the monitoring and diagnosis of vibrating equipment

40.2.6    O.K. Ersoy, D. Hong, "Parallel, self-organizing, hierarchical neural networks. II," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 218-227, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For pt.I see IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, vol.1, p.167-78 (1990). Parallel, self-organizing, hierarchical neural networks (PSHNNs) involve a number of stages with error detection at the end of each stage, i.e., rejection of error-causing vectors, which are then fed into the next stage after a nonlinear transformation. The stages operate in parallel during testing. Statistical properties and the mechanisms of vector rejection of the PSHNN are discussed in comparison to the maximum likelihood method and the backpropagation network. The PSHNN is highly fault tolerant and robust against errors in the weight values due to the adjustment of the error detection bounds to compensate errors in the weight values. These properties are exploited to develop architectures for programmable implementations in which the programmable parts are reduced to on-off or bipolar switching operations for bulk computations and attenuators for pointwise operations

40.2.7    L.J. Olsson, S. Gruber, "Web process inspection using neural classification of scattering light," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 228-234, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Web process inspection requires rapid examination of vast amounts of data. The two resulting issues, the sensory system and the computer processing required to detect faults in the sheet material accurately, were examined. It was found that scattered coherent light from the surface of the material being processed could be directly conditioned by a photodetector so as to produce a small set of features which are then examined by a neural network trained to find unsatisfactory surface conditions. A surface inspection system using measurement of the angular distribution over a 25°C cone angle of the scattering was constructed, calibrated, and evaluated for inspection of coated sheet and steel samples. Features, created by a simulated segmented photodetector, were inputs to a neural network which used classification based upon T. Kohonen's (1989) learning vector quantization (LVQ2). The system was evaluated with CrO2 coated steel samples. Classification by fault or no-fault categorized 133 samples corrected out of 135, while there were seven errors in one attempt at classification by the various common types of surface fault out of the same number of test samples and nine in another

40.2.8    M.S. Obaidat, D.T. Macchiarolo, "An online neural network system for computer access security," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 235-242, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method for identifying computer users based on the individual typing techniques of the users is presented. The identification system is a pattern classification system based on a simulation of an artificial neural network. The user types a known sequence of characters, and the intercharacter times represent a pattern vector to be classified. This vector is presented to the classification system, and the pattern is assigned to a predefined class, thus identifying the user. The major work is divided into two phases: the investigation phase and the implementation phase. Experimental results are discussed, followed by a description of a real-time implementation of this system, using a personal computer, known as the OnLine User Identification System. In an operational trial, the system correctly identified users 97.8% of the time. This intelligent system can be used, in addition to the traditional user name and password procedures, to improve computer security in a cost-effective manner

40.2.9    T.-S. Low, T.-H. Lee, H.-K. Lim, "A methodology for neural network training for control of drives with nonlinearities," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 243-249, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The learning process of a multilayered feedforward neural network involves extracting a desired function from the training data presented through an appropriate training algorithm. To achieve the desired function, the generation of good training data is necessary. A closed-loop methodology for neural network training for control of drives with nonlinearities is presented. Problems associated with the more common open-loop training scheme, and how these are addressed by the proposed closed-loop method, are discussed. An inverse nonlinear control using a neural network (INC/NN), a control strategy which incorporates the neural network for control of nonlinear systems, is described and used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the closed-loop training scheme. Simulation studies and experimental results are presented to verify the improvement achieved by the closed-loop training methodology

40.2.10    W.E. Snyder, M.-L. Hsiao, J.N. Campbell, "Restoration of ultrasonic NDE images," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 250-258, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The problem of determining the ultrasonic reflectivity function resulting from density changes in a material is posed as an image restoration problem. The received time-domain signal is modeled as resulting from convolution of the acoustic pulse with the reflectivity function with additive noise. A new deconvolution method is used to estimate the reflectivity function. The method operates by an iterative maximum-a-posteriori (MAP) optimization method that not only estimates the deconvolved function but incorporates the a prior knowledge that the material is relatively uniform, except for step discontinuities. Finally, an annealing algorithm is added that allows the optimization to avoid many local minima. Initial results, based on application of the method to synthetic signals and to real signals from a nondestructive evaluation sensor, are presented

40.2.11    T. Murakami, F. Yu, K. Ohnishi, "Torque sensorless control in multidegree-of-freedom manipulator," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 259-265, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A torque sensorless control for a multi-degree-of-freedom manipulator is described. In the method, two disturbance observers are applied to each joint. One is used to realize a robust motion controller. The other is used to obtain a sensorless torque controller. A robust acceleration controller based on the disturbance observer is shown. To obtain the sensorless torque control, it is necessary to calculate the reaction torque when the mechanical system performs a force task. The calculation method for the reaction torque is explained. Then the method is expanded to workspace force control in the multi-degree-of-freedom manipulator. Several experimental results are shown to confirm the validity of the proposed sensorless force controller

40.2.12    Jia Yush Yen, Gu Jeng Wang, Yung-Jaw Chen, "A fuzzy scheduling controller for a computer disk file track-following servo," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 266-272, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A fuzzy scheduling capability is superimposed on a computer disk drive track-following servocontroller to adjust for the plant variation as the actuator is locked onto different tracks on the disk. The fuzzy algorithm is found to best represent the complex relationship among the controllers for various tracks. Models of a Zentek 3100 disk drive actuator as it locks on a number of different tracks are experimentally identified to be the reference points. H design technique is employed to obtain a robust optimal controller for each reference point. The actual controller for the disk drive actuator is calculated using fuzzy interpolation. It is shown that with the controller scheduling action, the closed-loop performance is improved for the actuator at every track position. Error can be kept at a lower level than is the case when only a single controller is used

40.2.13    B.W. Drake, T.C.S. Hsia, "Implementation of a unified robot kinematics and inverse dynamics algorithm on a DSP chip," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 273-281, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The feasibility and performance of implementing kinematics and inverse dynamics algorithms on a DSP chip for real-time robot arm control is investigated. The algorithms include the following modules: forward and inverse kinematics; Jacobian, inverse Jacobian, and Jacobian derivative term; and Newton-Euler inverse dynamics. These modules are unified under a common coordinate system, and then computationally optimized by eliminating the redundancies among the modules. Further optimization is indicated for the PUMA-like arms. The algorithms are implemented on a TI TMS320C30 DSP chip. It is found that the execution time for the entire set of algorithms is about 0.78 ms for a six-degree-of-freedom robot with a spherical wrist, and is about 0.63 ms for a PUMA-specific arm. The communication time between the host PC and the DSP chip is about 0.376 ms. Thus, it is possible to implement a complete Cartesian controller at a 1000 Hz sampling rate. The algorithms have been successfully tested on a PUMA arm with a PC-based advanced controller

40.2.14    K. Liu, J.M. Fitzgerald, F.L. Lewis, "Kinematic analysis of a Stewart platform manipulator," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 282-293, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The Stewart platform manipulator is a fully parallel kinematic linkage system that has major mechanical differences from typical serial link robots. Its closed kinematic chain and parallel linkage structure give it greatly rigidity and a high force-to-weight ratio. However, due to the lack of efficient algorithms for solving the kinematic equations, its potential application as a robotic manipulator is difficult to realize. A simplified algorithm for solving the forward kinematics of a six-link, six-degrees-of-freedom Stewart platform is proposed. The algorithm involves solving only three nonlinear simultaneous equations. Explicit expressions for some special configurations that can directly give the geometric limitations to motion (such as the highest position, lowest position, most titled position, most twisted position, etc.) in terms of the geometric dimensions of the platforms and the legs are derived. This information is being used to direct the design of an actual Stewart platform

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 40,  Number 3, June 1993           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




40.3.1    S. Cavalieri, A. Di Stefano, O. Mirabella, "Optimization of acyclic bandwidth allocation exploiting the priority mechanism in the FieldBus data link layer," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 297-306, June 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In process control applications, the bandwidth assigned to acyclic traffic is oversized in order to ensure that the time constraints of control traffic are met. In the FieldBus, a protocol designed to support the exchange of information between sensors/actuators and regulating elements in an automation environment, this means allocating an excessive portion of the macrocycle to acyclic traffic. The use of traffic management based on priority can allow more efficient management of the available bandwidth. The authors analyze the priority mechanism provided for in the FieldBus data link layer and assess various strategies for management of aperiodic traffic and different application scenarios

40.3.2    T.-S. Low, T.-H. Lee, K.-T. Chang, "A nonlinear speed observer for permanent-magnet synchronous motors ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 307-316, June 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The application of vector control techniques in AC motor drives demands accurate position and velocity feedback information for the current control and servo control loops. The authors describe a speed observer system suitable for use with permanent magnet synchronous motors as a software transducer. The observer is developed from the dq model of the machine. Design considerations for the observer are discussed. The nonlinearities in the machine model present a problem to the observer design, so a state detection technique is used to achieve global stability and consistent convergence of the observer system. The simulations show that the performance of the observer is robust against noise and parameter uncertainties

40.3.3    N.S. Gehlot, P.J. Alsina, "A discrete model of induction motors for real-time control applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 317-325, June 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The real-time digital control of induction motors and AC servomotor drives often involves estimation, identification, and adaptive control algorithms. An efficient and numerically stable discrete model of the induction motor is required to implement these algorithms in real time. A predictor-corrector discrete model of induction motors is developed here for real-time model is analyzed by a discrete root locus technique. The digital simulation of the model is presented and compared with a rigorous solution, and satisfactory results are obtained

40.3.4    D.-G. Ni, G. Rojat, G. Clerc, J.-P. Chante, "Numerical modeling of gate turn-off thyristor using SICOS," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 326-333, June 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A numerical model of gate turn-off thyristors (GTOs) is presented. The concept of a controlled switch realized by a controlled current source is first introduced. Using this basic model, an equivalent circuit for the GTO is given. Using the GTO characteristics given by manufacturers, the equations connected with all the parameters of the equivalent circuit are deduced, and all of the parameters are determined. A sample study is presented. Simulation of this numerical model with the SICOS program gave results in accordance with the experiment

40.3.5    M.M. Swamy, A.K.S. Bhat, "Analysis, design, and optimization of a secondary-side resonant converter operating in the discontinuous capacitor voltage mode," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 334-346, June 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A high-frequency link parallel resonant DC/DC power converter (PRC) operating in the lagging power factor mode with the resonating capacitor on the secondary side of the high-frequency (HF) transformer is analyzed for operation in the discontinuous capacitor voltage mode (DCVM) using a state-space approach. Converter equations are solved for operation under steady-state condition. Based on the analysis, design curves are obtained for DCVM operation. A method of obtaining the optimum operating point under certain constraints for DCVM operation is developed and is used to develop a simple design procedure. Experimental results obtained with a MOSFET-based 1 kW PRC are presented to support the theory

40.3.6    N. Abdel-Rahim, J.E. Quaicoe, "A single-phase delta-modulated inverter for UPS applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 347-354, June 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The performance characteristics of the rectangular wave delta modulation (RWDM) scheme for uninterruptible power supply (UPS) applications is investigated. Normalized characteristic curves that show the effect of various modulator parameters on the frequency spectrum of the inverter output voltage are obtained using discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and harmonic analysis techniques. The performance of a single-phase half-bridge inverter with an LC filter is discussed, and experimental results are provided to validate the predicted and simulated results. It is shown that the harmonic content of the inverter output waveform can be controlled through the control of the modulator parameters

40.3.7    B.-H. Kwon, B. Min, "A fully software-controlled PWM rectifier with current link," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 355-363, June 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A fully-software-controlled pulse-width-modulated (PWM) rectifier with a current link is presented. The rectifier uses six switches to connect the three-phase source of the load directly. Line power factor is controlled while maintaining DC current. The input filter of the rectifier is analyzed, showing that unity power factor is achieved by the lagging of the input current of the rectifier with respect to the source voltage. The PWM technique is developed using a space vector modulation, and its implementation is carried out with a minimal control hardware structure based on a 16 b single-chip microcomputer. It is shown experimentally that the scheme gives good performance

40.3.8    C.A. Karybakas, C.A. Kosmatopoulos, "Filter design method for a PWM feedback inverter system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 364-372, June 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel approach to filter design for a closed-loop, pulse-width-modulated (PWM) DC-AC inverter system driving an RL load is investigated. The system has a rectangular hysteresis in the forward path and it is closed by current feedback. When it is excited by a sinusoidal input reference, it provides square pulses that produce a nearly sinusoidal current in the load. Using a describing function technique, design equations for the filter are derived. The data needed for the filter evaluation are the amplitude of current ripple and the frequency of square pulses delivered by the power bridge. System simulation and experimental results show that the design of the filter can be based on the method proposed and that the filter can provide a significant reduction of current ripple, or otherwise a significant reduction of switching frequency

40.3.9    J.-C. Montano, B.J. Gutierrez, O.A. Lopez, I.M. Castilla, "Effects of voltage-waveform distortion in TCR-type compensators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 373-383, June 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The effect of system voltage distortion on the performance of a thyristor controlled reactor (TCR) type of compensator is examined. Toward this end, the real and imaginary values of harmonic current through the TCR, and the optimal gating angle that controls it, are calculated with a view toward minimizing the RMS value of the supply current and to achieving an optimum power factor (PF). The precision of the formulae obtained, assuming an equal conduction angle of the thyristors in the two half periods, is compared with the results achieved using two different methods for simulating the TCR, one by means of a Pascal program and the other with PSPICE. The optimum PF values, calculated by analytical methods that use the conventional formulation (which assumes that the voltage waveform is sinusoidal), are compared with those obtained using the formulation developed here

40.3.10    J.-T. Lim, G.-H. Shim, "Asymptotic performance evaluation of token-passing networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 384-385, June 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Analytical formulae for evaluating the performance of token passing networks with a finite number of buffered users are presented. The effect of the buffer capacity of users on performance characteristics is investigated, and the maximum achievable throughput with respect to the buffer capacity of users is derived

40.3.11    B.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Suh, S.-H. Han, "Novel transformer active filters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 385-388, June 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Novel transformer active filters are proposed to obtain high attenuation of voltage or current ripple without deteriorating the transient response of the system considered. Experimental results show that the scheme gives good steady-state performance of the power supply

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 40,  Number 4, August 1993           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




40.4.1    P. Chiacchio, F. Pierrot, L. Sciavicco, B. Siciliano, "Robust design of independent joint controllers with experimentation on a high-speed parallel robot," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 393-403, August 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A linear independent joint control scheme is proposed. The design is made robust by closing another feedback loop that uses acceleration information besides the typical position and velocity loops. Reconstruction of acceleration measurements is performed via a suitable state-variable filter. Linear feedforward compensation is used to improve tracking performance of the closed-loop scheme. The control algorithm is tested first in a discrete-time simulation on a single-joint drive system with imposed disturbance torques. Then, real-time implementation on a high-speed parallel robot is presented. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique

40.4.2    A.E. Elnakhal, H. Rzehak, "Design and performance evaluation of real-time communication architectures," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 404-411, August 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For an in-depth analysis of the delay characteristics and to demonstrate the feasibility of a reduced architecture, a pilot implementation based on the token bus was performed in the author's laboratory. The theoretical and measurement results of this work are reported. It is shown that using the immediate response option in all situations within the intended field of application leads to greater delays. Problems such as the mapping of the application services-manufacturing message standard (MMS)-onto logical line control (LLC) services are discussed

40.4.3    H.S. Park, S.C. Ahn, W.H. Kwon, "Performance and parameter region for real-time use in IEEE 802.4 token bus network," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 412-420, August 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The upper and lower bounds for the mean cycle time and the mean message transmission time of class six and class four in the IEEE 802.4 token bus network, within which the minimum utilization constraint of class four is guaranteed, are derived. Stability conditions for the token bus network are also derived. These bounds and stability conditions are represented in terms of the high-priority token hold time, the token rotation time, the arrival rate, the total number of stations, etc. A parameter-tuning algorithm in a partially symmetric token bus network with two classes is suggested. This algorithm maximizes the utilization of class four for a given high-priority token hold time and at the same time meets the constraints of the stability condition of the network, the real-time constraint, and the minimum utilization of class four

40.4.4    D.-W. Kim, H.S. Park, W.H. Kwon, "The performance of a timer-controlled token passing mechanism with finite buffers in an industrial communication network," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 421-427, August 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The timer-controlled token-passing mechanism widely used in industrial communication networks is analyzed. Several real network parameters, such as finite buffers and finite token-holding time (THT), which generally determine the overall performance of a network, are considered. The approximate matrix equation between the queue length distribution and the token rotation time is derived. Based on this matrix equation, the equations for the mean waiting time and the blocking probability are also derived. These equations can be easily solved using personal computers, due to its simple matrix structure and small computation time. Using these equations, the performance of field bus or other timer-controlled token-passing networks can be more accurately evaluated, since finite size buffers and finite THT are considered. The approximation error is shown to be small by computer simulation

40.4.5    T. Kajima, "Development of a high-speed solenoid valve-investigation of the energizing circuits," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 428-435, August 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The electrical circuits developed for the purpose of energizing the solenoid valve are examined. These circuits, called the dummy coil method, where energy stored in a dummy coil in the form of a magnetic field is transferred to an energizing solenoid, and the pre-energize method, where the solenoid is electrically energized in advance by taking advantage of the solenoid's attraction force characteristics, are discussed. The results of experiments show that the pre-energize method is highly effective in speeding up the operation of solenoid valves. These experimental results are discussed along with the results of calculations conducted using a mathematical model

40.4.6    G. Joos, P.D. Ziogas, "On maximizing gain and minimizing switching frequency of delta modulated inverters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 436-444, August 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A simple modification to the structure of three-phase delta modulators is proposed that stabilizes and reduces the switching frequency, particularly at low modulation indexes, and increases the voltage gain to the level of optimized techniques. The proposed delta modulator is described and analyzed, and design equations are derived. The modulator is implemented and the theoretical results are verified experimentally

40.4.7    P.P. Kumar, R. Parimelalagan, B. Ramaswami, "A microprocessor-based DC drive control scheme using predictive synchronization," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 445-452, August 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: With the advent of fast microprocessors, refinements in the control systems for thyristor-fed DC drives have become possible. In such drives, the problem of detecting the true zero crossings of the input voltage, when the main supply is contaminated with noise spikes, is quite important. A new approach for this problem, based on the predictive synchronization concept, is presented. The algorithm also covers other aspects, like generation of firing pulses and closed-loop calculations for the drive control. The microcomputer-based system has been tested on a separately excited DC motor, and the test results are presented

40.4.8    D.R. Zrudsky, J.W. Webb, "Proportional AC power control with zero-fire capability," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 453-458, August 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The interface circuit presented facilitates closed-loop feedback control of AC load currents under strict zero-fire switching and is primarily intended for heating applications. The circuit converts an input analog signal to a time-proportioned series of full-cycle energy pulses, interspersed with missing integral numbers of half cycles. The circuit thus provides a power average in time delivered to the load proportional to analog control voltage, continuously minimizing the number of off-power half cycles, or wink time. Lamp load transient current data show the improved zero-crossing control capability of the interface circuits driving a commercial solid-state relay. The linearity and monotonicity of the interface circuit are verified under steady-state conditions. The temperature response in time of a lamp-heated sample under PID closed-loop temperature control shows the success of the interface circuit for its intended application

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 40,  Number 5, Oct 1993           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




40.5.1    F.H.F. Leung, P.K.S. Tam, C.K. Li, "An improved LQR-based controller for switching DC-DC converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 521-528, Oct 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A general approach for controlling pulse-width-modulated (PWM) -type switching DC-DC converters digitally using state-feedback techniques and linear optimal control theory is reported. The methodology for redesigning the state estimator is investigated, and a method derived from the general linear-quadratic-regulator (LQR) problem, is proposed. The method is found to offer better transient responses and robustness to uncertainties in plant parameters when compared with the typical eigenvalue-assignment method. Special attention is directed to plant models with possible migrations of the open-loop zeroes across the stability boundary during operation. Results of applying these techniques to a published Cuk converter are reported to illustrate different points of interest

40.5.2    V. Catania, A. Puliafito, L. Vita, "A modeling framework to evaluate performability parameters in gracefully degrading systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 461-472, Oct 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A systematic approach to modeling and assessing gracefully degrading systems, exploiting the formalism offered by Petri nets, is provided. The procedure followed is based on the definition of some fundamental modules, the composition of which allows a complete model of the system to be obtained. The model can then be solved by computer simulation or analytically by means of a class of Petri nets to obtain interesting performability parameters either at steady state or when the system is time-varying. A number of real cases are examined and the results obtained are described

40.5.3    T. Umeno, T. Kaneko, Y. Hori, "Robust servosystem design with two degrees of freedom and its application to novel motion control of robot manipulators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 473-485, Oct 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel robust servosystem design method based on the two-degree-of-freedom (TDOF) controller and its application to advanced motion control for a robot manipulator is proposed. This servosystem is derived from the simple parametrization. The command input response and the closed loop characteristics can be specified independently by using two parameters which belong to the ring of stable and proper rational functions. The sensitivity and the complementary sensitivity functions can be determined straightforwardly through the optimization of the two design parameters. The control performance of the servosystem has been demonstrated. A completely decentralized joint control system for multiaxis robut manipulators has been realized. In particular, various kinds of robot motion controls, such as compliance, force, and hybrid controls, are realized in a unified way based on the robust position control. This servosystem has been implemented using DSP

40.5.4    F.J. Lin, C.M. Liaw, "Control of indirect field-oriented induction motor drives considering the effects of dead-time and parameter variations," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 486-495, Oct 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A speed controller that considers the effects of system dead time and parameter variations is presented. An indirect field-oriented induction motor drive is implemented, and its dynamic model is found, using a stochastic approach. A two-degree-of-freedom speed controller is designed to match the prescribed speed command tracking and load regulating specifications. Since the performance of the closed-loop controlled plant is greatly influenced by the presence of the inherent system dead time and parameter variations during wide-range operations, a dead-time compensator and a model-following controller are proposed to enhance the robustness of the two-degree-of-freedom speed controller. The simulated and experimental results show that good control performance both in speed command tracking and load regulating characteristics is achieved

40.5.5    L. Salvatore, S. Stasi, L. Tarchioni, "A new EKF-based algorithm for flux estimation in induction machines ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 496-504, Oct 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A reduced-order algorithm for estimating the rotor flux components of induction motors with schemes such as field-oriented control is described. The algorithm is based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) theory and estimates the desired quantities online using only measurements of the stator voltages and currents and the rotor speed. The online adaptation of the inverse rotor time constant makes it possible to obtain very accurate estimates of rotor flux components, in spite of temperature and magnetic saturation effects. The algorithm order reduction decreases the computational complexity and makes the proposed estimator superior to others based on EKF theory

40.5.6    R. Weidenbrug, F.P. Dawson, R. Bonert, "New synchronization method for thyristor power converters to weak AC-systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 505-511, Oct 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An improved approach to obtaining good zero-voltage-crossing signals is presented. These signals are subsequently used as synchronization signals for a phase-controlled thyristor power converter. Detection of accurate zero crossings is possible even when there are large frequency changes, sudden load changes, or large commutation overlap angles. The improved accuracy in the integrity of the zero crossing is obtained by reconstructing a voltage representing the AC source voltage. This voltage is determined from the distorted thyristor converter input voltage, the converter input current, and an online identification of the source impedance using a microcontroller-based adaptive algorithm. The improvement provided by the new zero crossing detection scheme is verified experimentally

40.5.7    J.S. Ko, J.H. Lee, S.K. Chung, M.J. Youn, "A robust digital position control of brushless DC motor with dead beat load torque observer," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 512-520, Oct 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method for the robust position control of brushless DC (BLDC) motors is presented. The linear quadratic controller plus load torque observer is used to obtain an approximately linearized robust BLDC motor system for an AC servo, using the field-orientation method. The gains are obtained systematically from a discrete state space analysis. The robustness is obtained without affecting the overall system response. The load disturbance is detected by a zero-observer of the unknown and inaccessible input, and is feedforward compensated without requiring noisy current information. The overall system is controlled using a microprocessor, and the performance of each control algorithm is compared with both the simulation and the experimental results for two types of machines, a BLDC motor and a brushless direct drive (BLDD) motor

40.5.8    L. Goras, C. Marcuta, "On linear inductance- and capacitance-time conversions using NIC-type configurations," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 529-531, Oct 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The problem of linear inductance- and capacitance-time (L/T, C/T) conversion is approached through the systematic study of four approaches to building astable multivibrators using piecewise linear resistances obtained from one operational amplifier (OA) negative impedance converter (NIC) configuration. A new L/T converter with grounded inductance is found. Formulas for the time period taking into consideration the losses as well as the OA saturation output resistance are derived

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 40,  Number 6, Dec 1993           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




40.6.1    R.J. Lalonde, T.T. Hartley, J.A. de Abreu-Garcia, "Least-squares model order reduction enhancements," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 533-541, Dec 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Two enhancements to the least-squares (LS) discrete-time model order reduction (MOR) method are presented: scaling and frequency response matching. Scaling generally improves the low-frequency fit between the reduced-order model (ROM) and the original model. For exact gains at specific frequencies, optional frequency response constraints can easily be added to the LS MOR method. An example is presented that illustrates these enhancements. The example model is reduced with the Hankel norm, weighted impulse response gramian, and LS MOR methods. Plots of error versus frequency are given for each of the three MOR methods

40.6.2    M.K. Kazmierczuk, D. Czarkowski, N. Thirunarayan, "A new phase-controlled parallel resonant converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 542-552, Dec 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A phase-controlled resonant converter was obtained by connecting in parallel the AC loads of two identical parallel resonant inverters. A phase shift between the drive signals of the two inverters controls the amplitude of the output voltage of the new inverter. A voltage-driven rectifier is used as an AC load of the inverter, which results in a phase-controlled parallel resonant DC-DC converter. A frequency-domain analysis is performed for the steady-state operation of the inverter, and two types of voltage-driven rectifiers and design equations are derived. The converter can be operated at a constant switching frequency, which reduces EMI problems. It is found that for switching frequencies higher than the resonant frequency by a factor of 1.07, the load of each switching leg is inductive. The converter is capable of regulating the output voltage in the range of load resistance from full-load to no-load. Experimental results are presented for a prototype of the phase-controlled parallel resonant converter with a center-taped rectifier tested at an output power of 50 W and a switching frequency of 116 kHz

40.6.3    M. Iwasaki, N. Matusi, "Robust speed control of IM with torque feedforward control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 553-560, Dec 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors describe a digital signal processor-based (DSP-based) robust speed control for an induction motor (IM) with the load-torque observer and the torque feedforward control. In the proposed system, the load torque is estimated by the minimal-order state observer based on the torque component of a vector-controlled IM. Using the load-torque observer, a speed controller can be provided with a torque feedforward loop, thus realizing a robust speed control system. The control system is composed of a DSP-based controller, a voltage-fed pulsewidth modulated (PWM) transistor inverter and a 3.7 kW IM system. An eccentric load with an arm and a weight is coupled to the IM and it generates the sinusoidal gravitational fluctuating torque. Experimental results show robustness against disturbance torque and system parameter change

40.6.4    S.M. Abdulrahman, J.G. Kettleborough, I.R. Smith, "Fast calculation of harmonic torque pulsations in a VSI/induction motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 561-569, Dec 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors present a frequency-domain model for the accurate and efficient prediction of harmonic torque pulsations in three-phase VSI/induction motor drives, which enables rapid consideration to be given to their potentially harmful effects in producing uneven shaft rotation. A detailed analysis is provided for both quasi-square wave (QSW) and optimal pulse-width modulated (PWM) modes of switching operation, with the latter technique designed to improve the low-speed drive performance by eliminating low-order harmonic components. A comparison is made with practical results obtained from an experimental 0.56 kW drive and from a comprehensive time-domain model using a numerical solution of the machine equations. It is shown that accurate prediction of the actual performance is provided

40.6.5    C.C. Chan, J.Z. Jiang, G.H. Chen, K.-T. Chau, "Computer simulation and analysis of a new polyphase multipole motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 570-576, Dec 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new configuration for a high-power-density, high-efficiency polyphase multipole permanent magnet motor and its control system are presented. The mathematical model and simulation for this motor drive are presented in detail. The motor is essentially a kind of brushless DC motor with a novel arrangement of its magnet and winding. The control system is virtually a dual closed-loop system with a current controller as the inner loop and a speed controller as the outer loop. State-space equations are used for the mathematical model of the motor, and real-time simulation is applied for the controller and switching devices. The simulation results are verified with the experimental results and shown to be very satisfactory

40.6.6    J. Xu, M. Grotzbach, "Time-domain analysis of half-wave zero-current switch quasi-resonant converters by using SPICE," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 577-579, Dec 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A SPICE-compatible time-domain equivalent circuit model of half-wave zero-current switch (HW-ZCS), based upon which half-wave zero-current-switch quasi-resonant converters (HW-ZCS-QRCs) can be analyzed by using SPICE, is proposed. As an example, the open-loop time-domain behavior of a buck (HW-ZCS-QRC) can be analyzed without any simplifying assumptions by using SPICE to illustrate the applications of the equivalent circuit model proposed