IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 47,  Number 1, Feb 2000           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




                Power Electronics

47.1.1    B.W. Williams, S.J. Finney, "Passive snubber energy recovery for a GTO thyristor inverter bridge leg," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 2-8, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a turn-on and turn-off passive energy recovery snubber circuit suitable for high-voltage high-power gate-turn-off thyristor inverter bridge configurations. The circuit recovers not only inductive turn-on and capacitive turn-off snubber energies, but also energies associated with freewheel diode reverse recovery. Energy is transferred back to the DC supply via a high-frequency transformer, that is fully reset. A method for reducing the transformer secondary diode voltage stress is presented. The performance of the circuit is supported by PSpice simulation, mathematical analysis, and practical results

47.1.2    K. Sheng, S.J. Finney, B.W. Williams, "Thermal stability of IGBT high-frequency operation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 9-16, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Thermal stability of high-frequency insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) operation is studied in this paper. The nonpunch-through IGBT is found to be stable when operated within its rated temperature. Thermal runaway occurs with punch-through IGBTs at temperatures below the maximum junction temperature when operated at high frequency at well below rated current, with snubber or soft-switching circuits

47.1.3    S. Carabelli, F. Maddaleno, M. Muzzarelli, "High-efficiency linear power amplifier for active magnetic bearings ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 17-24, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A modified class-G linear amplifier has been developed to improve the overall efficiency of a transconductance amplifier loaded with the high inductance and low resistance typical of the magnetic bearing coils. A simple theoretical characterization has been used to provide some diagrams to optimize the power efficiency as a function of a nonconstant load such as that due to a rotor unbalance. Experimental results are reported that show a more than satisfactory agreement with the expected results and the developed theory

47.1.4    Ching-Tsai Pan, Jenn-Jong Shieh, "New space-vector control strategies for three-phase step-up/down AC/DC converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 25-35, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, an equivalent DC duty cycle for the generalized zero-voltage space vectors is proposed such that control of the three-phase AC part and the DC part of the converter circuit can be integrated to achieve the ideal characteristic of single-stage step-up/down AC/DC converter. Depending upon how many modes are chosen and which class of generalized zero-voltage space vectors is selected to increase the equivalent DC duty cycle, different control strategies can be obtained. It is seen that not only the control of the six switches is simplified but also the deadtime circuit for avoiding short circuit of the same arm can be eliminated for the proposed converter. In addition, some guidelines for selecting the LC parameters are described briefly and experimental results given for verifying the validity of the proposed converter

47.1.5    Yim-Shu Lee, K.C. Wong, C.K. Ng, "Behavior modeling of magnetizing currents in switch-mode DC-DC converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 36-44, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a new technique to model the behavior of the magnetizing current in a transformer-coupled switch-mode DC-DC converter. The new technique uses a virtual magnetizing winding, together with a virtual magnetizing current source, to account for the effect of the magnetizing inductance on the switching operation of the transformer. By including the effect of the magnetizing current, the behavior model of a switch-mode converter can be made more complete. The model developed is particularly useful for the analysis and low-frequency behavior simulation of complex converters such as actively-clamped converters, where the magnetizing current significantly affects the characteristics of the converter

47.1.6    B.K.H. Wong, H. Shu-Hung Chung, "A systematic graphing technique for small-signal low-frequency characterization of PWM DC/DC converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 45-54, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a systematic graphing technique for the small-signal low-frequency characterization of pulsewidth-modulated (PWM) DC/DC power converters. The methodology starts with using a discrete-time state-space description to formulate a small-signal sensitivity graph for each circuit topology. Each graph correlates state-variable sensitivities with the topology duration, input source and state vector at the beginning of the topology. The overall converter sensitivities in one switching cycle are obtained by cascading the respective graphs in accordance with the sequence of the topologies. As the proposed method integrates with original algorithms for obtaining the time-domain responses and the steady-state operating point of converters, it is unnecessary to have a priori understanding of the converter operation and is possible to obtain actual circuit waveforms within one switching cycle. The proposed method is exemplified by analyzing a PWM boost converter operating in continuous conduction mode and discontinuous conduction mode under open-loop and closed-loop control, respectively. Theoretical predictions are verified with experimental measurements

47.1.7    Yie-Tone Chen, "Small-signal analysis of a synchronous-switch post regulator with coupled inductors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 55-66, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A small-signal model of the synchronous-switch post regulator with coupled inductors is developed. Performance variations of the synchronous switch post regulator due to different coupling coefficients are investigated. Comparison of the multiple-output converter using the technique of post regulation with the multiple-output converter using the scheme of weighted-mode control is also discussed. Experiments are given to verify the validity of the proposed small-signal model

47.1.8    J.H. Chen, K.T. Chau, C.C. Chan, "Analysis of chaos in current-mode-controlled DC drive systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 67-76, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, chaotic behavior in current-mode-controlled dc drive systems has been analyzed. The key is to derive an iterative map that describes the nonlinear system dynamics. Analytical modeling of fundamental and subharmonic oscillations as well as their stability analysis are presented. The results show that current-mode-controlled DC motor drive systems generally exhibit chaotic behavior. To avoid the occurrence of chaos, the stable ranges of various system parameters are determined. Both computer simulation and experimental measurement are given to verify the theoretical analysis


Drive Control


47.1.9    L. Harnefors, H.-P. Nee, "A general algorithm for speed and position estimation of AC motors ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 77-83, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A computationally efficient speed and position estimation algorithm, generally applicable to AC motor drives, is designed and analyzed. Applications include: (a) sensorless permanent-magnet and reluctance synchronous motor drives using the fundamental excitation as information source; (b) sensorless drives using saliency and signal injection; and (c) sensored drives using resolvers. Particular attention is given for case (a). Low parameter sensitivity in the entire speed range (except at low speeds for the reluctance motor)-implying a small position estimation error-and good dynamic properties at nominal speeds are verified

47.1.10    T. Emura, Lei Wang, "A high-resolution interpolator for incremental encoders based on the quadrature PLL method," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 84-90, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new high-resolution interpolator for incremental encoders based on the quadrature phase-locked loop method proposed by Emura. Until now, this method has been applied to controllers of high-precision servomechanisms and has shown excellent performance. In this paper, the authors apply the method for the first time to an interpolator for incremental encoders. The experimental results show that high-speed interpolation is possible, with a maximum output frequency of 25 MHz-20 times higher than that of conventional interpolators. The interpolator proposed was also tested for noise rejection with a high-speed numerically controlled gear grinding machine, and has shown good noise rejection capability. This paper presents the design of the interpolator and the experimental results

47.1.11    Jun-Koo Kang, Seung-Ki Sul, "Vertical-vibration control of elevator using estimated car acceleration feedback compensation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 91-99, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a vibration suppression strategy is proposed for improving the riding comfort of an elevator, using car acceleration feedback compensation. The vertical vibration of a lift car is mainly caused by the resonance of elastic ropes between the car and the sheave, and the resonant frequency of the system is dependent upon both passenger load and lift position. To suppress the vibration of a lift car, the car velocity or acceleration is needed, but only a sheave velocity is measurable in a practical situation. The proposed method applies an extended full-order observer for the simultaneous estimation of car acceleration and the identification of mechanical parameters. Acceleration feedback compensation is used for the vibration suppression control. Experimental evaluation has been performed with a 30 kVA insulated gate bipolar transistor inverter and a medium-speed elevator system in an elevator test tower. Computer simulated and experimental results prove the feasibility of the proposed vertical-vibration controller

47.1.12    S.C. Mukhopadhyay, T. Ohji, M. Iwahara, S. Yamada, "Modeling and control of a new horizontal-shaft hybrid-type magnetic bearing," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 100-108, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper reports on the development of a new horizontal-shaft hybrid-type magnetic bearing system. The bearing system will be used for a horizontal-shaft machine. The rotor is levitated due to the repulsive force between a stator and a rotor permanent magnet (PM). A lower cost and higher radial stiffness have been achieved by using a strontium-ferrite magnet on the rotor and an Nd-Fe-B PM above and below the rotor magnet. A finite-element analysis was performed to calculate the levitation force and radial stiffness. An upper stator magnet subtending an angle of 45° provides the best compromise between a large levitation force and radial stiffness. A model for the horizontal-shaft hybrid magnetic bearing system has been developed and includes the effect of the rotor dynamics and the electromagnetic forces. An integral servocontroller was designed to stabilize the axial position. The controller has been implemented in a digital signal processor. Experimental results performed on a prototype system are in agreement with the theoretical results

47.1.13    Sung Jun Park, Han Woong Park, Man Hyung Lee, F. Harashima, "A new approach for minimum-torque-ripple maximum-efficiency control of BLDC motor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 109-114, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Torque-ripple control of the brushless DC motor has been the main issue of the servo drive systems in which the speed fluctuation, vibration, and acoustic noise should be minimized. Most methods for suppressing the torque ripples require Fourier series analysis and either iterative or least-mean-square minimization. In this paper, a novel approach to achieve ripple-free torque control with maximum efficiency based on the d-q-0 reference frame is presented. The proposed method optimizes the reference phase current waveforms which include the case of three-phase unbalanced conditions. As a result, the proposed approach provides a simple way to obtain optimal motor excitation currents. The validity and practical applications of the proposed control scheme are verified through the simulations and experimental results

47.1.14    C. Mademlis, J. Xypteras, N. Margaris, "Loss minimization in surface permanent-magnet synchronous motor drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 115-122, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The loss minimization in surface permanent-magnet synchronous motor drives is investigated. Based on theoretical analysis, a loss model controller is introduced to specify the optimal air-gap flux that minimizes losses. Theoretical results are verified experimentally. The proposed loss model controller is simple and does not adversely affect the cost and complexity of the drive. Implementation of the loss model controller does not require knowledge of the loss model. The suggested loss minimization method can be applied both in V/f- or current-controlled schemes

47.1.15    G.D. Marques, P. Verdelho, "A simple slip-power recovery system with a DC voltage intermediate circuit and reduced harmonics on the mains," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 123-132, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A different circuit configuration for the slip-power recovery system is presented in this paper. A boost chopper is used to connect the diode rectifier to the DC-link voltage, which is composed of a capacitor and a voltage-source inverter (VSI). The diode rectifier gives rise to mains current harmonies of variable frequency, which can present subharmonics, harmonics, and interharmonics that can lead to flicker in the mains. Two simple solutions to this drawback are studied. In the first solution, additional inductances were connected on the AC side of the rotor circuits to increase the overlap angle. In the second solution, the stator current harmonics are compensated by a VSI that can work simultaneously as an inverter and as an active power filter. This system represents a very interesting and useful application for active power filters. The merits of the configuration presented are cost, control simplicity, the possibility of reactive power control over a wide range, and quasi-optimum exploitation of the electrical machine. The characteristics of the proposed system and its control are presented in this paper. It is concluded that, although the system proposed is much simpler than others, it has interesting performance


Robotics and Vision


47.1.16    Jae Wook Jeon, Young Youl Ha, "A generalized approach for the acceleration and deceleration of industrial robots and CNC machine tools," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 133-139, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Many techniques for the acceleration and deceleration of industrial robots and computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools have been proposed in order to make industrial robots and CNC machine tools perform given tasks efficiently. Although the techniques selecting polynomial functions can generate various acceleration and deceleration characteristics, the major problem is the computational load. The digital convolution techniques are more efficient than the techniques selecting polynomial functions. However, neither velocity profiles of which the deceleration characteristics is independent from the acceleration characteristics nor those of which the acceleration interval is different from the deceleration interval can be generated by the digital convolution techniques. This paper proposes a generalized approach for generating velocity profiles that cannot be generated by the digital convolution techniques. According to the desired characteristics of acceleration and deceleration, each set of coefficients is calculated and is stored. Given a moving distance, and acceleration and deceleration intervals, a velocity profile having the desired characteristics of acceleration and deceleration can be efficiently generated by using these coefficients. Several velocity profiles generated by the proposed technique are applied to one single-axis control system

47.1.17    A. Piazzi, A. Visioli, "Global minimum-jerk trajectory planning of robot manipulators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 140-149, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new approach based on interval analysis is developed to find the global minimum-jerk (MJ) trajectory of a robot manipulator within a joint space scheme using cubic splines. MJ trajectories are desirable for their similarity to human joint movements and for their amenability to path tracking and to limit robot vibrations. This makes them attractive choices for robotic applications, in spite of the fact that the manipulator dynamics are not taken into account. Cubic splines are used in a framework that assures overall continuity of velocities and accelerations in the robot movement. The resulting MJ trajectory planning is shown to be a global constrained minimax optimization problem. This is solved by a newly devised algorithm based on interval analysis and proof of convergence with certainty to an arbitrarily good global solution is provided. The proposed planning method is applied to an example regarding a six-joint manipulator and comparisons with an alternative MJ planner are exposed

47.1.18    W.L. Xu, J.D. Han, S.K. Tso, Y.C. Wang, "Contact transition control via joint acceleration feedback," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 150-158, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Stable and controllable transition from free motion to constrained motion is of central importance for robots in contact with the environment in many applications. In this paper, a joint acceleration feedback control scheme of high bandwidth is employed to damp oscillations during the contact transition when the approaching speed does not vanish. In this control scheme, a classical integral force controller is refined by means of joint acceleration and velocity feedback. This is intended to achieve a stable contact transition without need of adjusting the controller parameters adaptive to the unknown or changing environments. Extensive experiments are conducted on the third joint of a three-link direct-drive robot to verify the proposed scheme for the environments of various stiffnesses, including elastic (sponge), less-elastic (cardboard), and hard (steel plate) surfaces. Results are also compared with those by the transition control without the acceleration feedback. The proposed scheme is shown to be promising in terms of robustness, stability and adaptability

47.1.19    R. Zunino, S. Rovetta, "Vector quantization for license-plate location and image coding," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 159-167, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: License-plate location in sensor images plays an important role in vehicle identification for automated transport systems (ATS). This paper presents a novel method based on vector quantization (VQ) to process vehicle images. The proposed method makes it possible to perform superior picture compression for archival purposes and to support effective location at the same time. As compared with classical approaches, VQ encoding can give some hints about the contents of image regions; such additional information can be exploited to boost location performance. The VQ system can be trained by way of examples; this gives the advantages of adaptiveness and on-field tuning. The approach has been tested in a real industrial application and included satisfactorily in a complete ATS for vehicle identification


Signal Processing and Control


47.1.20    A.R. Pauchard, D. Manic, A. Flanagan, P.A. Besse, R.S. Popovic, "A method for spark rejection in ultraviolet flame detectors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 168-174, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel method is presented to render ultraviolet (UV) flame detectors insensitive to ignition spark radiation. The method involves isolating the signal due to the sparks from the UV sensor output and subtracting a DC signal proportional to it from the output of the flame detector sensor system. A practical demonstration of the method is given using a commercially available UV flame detector with the addition of an analog circuit to perform the necessary signal processing. A selectivity improvement to spark radiation of greater than 130 has been obtained. The method is robust in that it is independent of the distance between the light source and the flame detector and has been designed to work with different spark generators found on the market. The analog circuit is simple, requiring few components, thus ensuring rugged, fail-safe operation and low cost

47.1.21    Weng Khuen Ho, Tong Heng Lee, Wen Xu, J.R. Zhou, Ee Beng Tay, "The direct Nyquist array design of PID controllers," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 175-185, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The gain and phase margins design for single-input single-output proportional-integral-derivative controllers is extended to the multivariable system's Nyquist array. The design method allows the user to specify the robustness and performance of the system through gain and phase margin specifications. The unformatted design procedure given in this paper is well suited for implementing self-tuning PID control for multivariable processes. A laboratory implementation is given in the paper to demonstrate the design method

47.1.22    I. Nancovska, A. Jeglic, D. Fefer, L. Todorovski, "Deterministic predictive models for DC voltage reference source control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 186-192, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we use predictive models for voltage correction in a high-precision DC voltage reference source (DCVRS) based on Zener diodes. Voltage reference elements, which compose the DCVRS, are improved by implementing a control loop with built-in predictors. Thus, the sensitivity of the system is reduced and, thereby, the stability of the DCVRS is improved. The predictive abilities of two different paradigms, neural-network-based predictors and difference equation predictors obtained by equation discovery system LAGRAMGE, are compared

47.1.23    Wen Fang Xie, A.B. Rad, "Fuzzy adaptive internal model control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 193-202, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a fuzzy adaptive internal model controller (FAIMC) for open-loop stable plants is presented. The control scheme consists of two parts: a fuzzy dynamic model and a model-based fuzzy controller. A fuzzy dynamic model, which serves as the internal model of the FAIMC is identified online by using the input and output measurement of the plant. Based on the identified fuzzy model, the fuzzy controller is designed to minimize an H2 performance objective. This FAIMC scheme has been successfully applied to control the flow rate in a laboratory-scale process control unit from Bytronic. The experimental results demonstrate that this class of control scheme is appropriate for control of time-varying stable plants with time delay. The control system is also shown to possess satisfactory robust performance

47.1.24    K.M. Tsang, W.L. Lo, A.B. Rad, "Autotuning of phase-lead controller for integrating systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 203-210, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new method for autotuning of a phase-lead controller for nonselfregulating or integrating systems is proposed. By connecting the system with a suitable high-order derivative filter and a relay with hysteresis, the frequency data of the system can be obtained and phase-lead controllers can be designed based on some phase margin specifications. Simulations and experimental studies are included in the paper to illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithm


Emerging Technology


47.1.25    S. Obayashi, T. Tsukahara, T. Nakamura, "Multiobjective genetic algorithm applied to aerodynamic design of cascade airfoils," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 211-216, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) based on Fonseca-Fleming's Pareto-based ranking and fitness-sharing techniques has been applied to aerodynamic shape optimization of cascade airfoil design. Airfoil performance is evaluated by a Navier-Stokes code. Evaluation of GA population is parallelized on the Numerical Wind Tunnel, a parallel vector machine. The present multiobjective design seeks high pressure rise, high flow turning angle, and low total pressure loss at a low Mach number. Pareto solutions that perform better than existing control diffusion airfoils were obtained


Letters to the Editor


47.1.26    W.G. da Silva, P.P. Acarnley, J.W. Finch, "Application of genetic algorithms to the online tuning of electric drive speed controllers," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 217-219, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Tuning of electric drive speed controllers is complicated by nonlinearities. Usual practice obtains controller settings with conventional linear analysis methods and then tunes the settings using trial-and-error methods during commissioning. An alternative approach, using genetic algorithms for the online tuning, is proved experimentally to optimize the drive's response efficiently. These settings are critically dependent on operating point

47.1.27    P.B. Boyagoda, M. Nakaoka, "An advanced tracking controller with neural networks for servo systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 219-222, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel controller for generic servo systems using a neural network input-output measurement classifier and a staggered proportional plus integral plus derivative-like gain control scheme is proposed. The controller incorporates a knowledge-based control strategy and does not require a priori knowledge of the plant. The system controller is robust to both structured and unstructured uncertainties

47.1.28    S. Ben-Yaakov, S. Glozman, R. Rabinovici, "Envelope simulation by SPICE-compatible models of electric circuits driven by modulated signals," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 222-225, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: SPICE-compatible equivalent circuits were developed to facilitate the analysis and envelope simulation of electric circuits driven by modulated signals. The circuits are based on a novel complex phasor domain transformation. The proposed method facilitates fast simulation of any general linear circuit driven by a modulated signal, such as amplitude, frequency, or phase modulation

47.1.29    Sin-Yeung Cho, T.W.S. Chow, "Shape and surface measurement technology by an improved shape-from-shading neural algorithm," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 225-230, Feb 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new approach for measuring the shape and surface of an object observed from a single camera is proposed. The proposed approach is based on using the neural networks as a parametric representation of the three-dimensional object and the shape-from-shading problem is formulated as the minimization of an intensity error function with respect to the network weights. Experimental results demonstrate that the authors' proposed methodology exhibits high efficiency and accuracy for measuring and inspecting a product's surface in the manufacturing industry

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 47,  Number 2, April 2000           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




                Power Electronics

47.2.1    H.S.-H. Chung, S.Y.R. Hui, S.C. Tang, A. Wu, "On the use of current control scheme for switched-capacitor DC/DC converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 238-244, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an investigation into the use of a current control scheme (CCS) and a comparison with a classical switching scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) step-down DC/DC converters. With the CCS, capacitors are charged with near-constant current, controlled by the gate-source voltage of MOSFETs. By paralleling two SC cells, the converter input current becomes continuous, resulting in much reduced conducted electromagnetic interference with other circuits fed by the same power supply. All MOSFETs are operated for half of the switching period, in order to improve the regulation capability. Static and dynamic behaviors of the converter with the CCS are predicted and confirmed in an experimental 36 W 12 V/9 V prototype

47.2.2    Bor-Ren Lin, Hsin-Hung Lu, "A novel PWM scheme for single-phase three-level power-factor-correction circuit," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 245-252, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a control scheme for a single-phase AC-to-DC power converter with three-level pulsewidth modulation. A single-phase power-factor-correction circuit is proposed to improve the power quality. The hysteresis current control technique for a diode bridge, with two power switches is adopted to achieve a high power factor and low harmonic distortion. A control scheme is presented where the line current is driven to follow the reference sinusoidal current which is derived from the DC-link voltage regulator, the capacitor voltage balance compensator and the output power estimator. The blocking voltage of each power device is clamped to half of the DC-link voltage. The high power factor and low current total harmonic distortion are verified by computer simulations and hardware tests

47.2.3    K.K. Tse, H.S.-H. Chung, S.Y.R. Hui, H.C. So, "A comparative investigation on the use of random modulation schemes for DC/DC converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 253-263, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A comparative investigation on the use of random modulation schemes for DC/DC power converters is presented. The modulation schemes under consideration include randomized pulse position modulation, randomized pulsewidth modulation (PWM) and randomized carrier-frequency modulation with fixed and variable duty cycle. The paper emphasizes the suitability and applicability of each scheme in DC/DC power converters. Issues addressed include the effectiveness of randomness level on spreading the dominating frequencies that normally exist in constant-frequency PWM schemes, and the low-frequency power spectral density (PSD) of each scheme. The validity of the analyses is confirmed experimentally by using a DC/DC buck converter operating in the continuous conduction mode. The PSD of the output under each scheme is presented and compared

47.2.4    V.M. Pacheco, A.J. do Nascimento, V.J. Farias, J. Batista Vieira, L.C. de Freitas, "A quadratic buck converter with lossless commutation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 264-272, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: High switching frequency associated with soft commutation techniques is a new trend in switching converters. Following this trend, the authors present a buck pulsewidth modulation converter, where the DC voltage conversion ratio has a quadratic dependence on duty cycle, providing a large step-down. By introducing two resonant networks, soft switching is attained, providing highly efficient operating conditions for a wide load range at high switching frequency. Contrary to most of the converters that apply soft-switching techniques, the switches presented are not subjected to high switch voltage or current stresses and, consequently, present low conduction losses. The authors present, for this converter, the principle of operation, theoretical analysis, relevant equations and simulation and experimental results

47.2.5    Tsai-Fu Wu, Yu-Kai Chen, Yong-Heh Huang, "3C strategy for inverters in parallel operation achieving an equal current distribution," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 273-281, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A circular chain control (3C) strategy for inverters in parallel operation is presented in the paper. In the proposed inverter system, all the modules have the same circuit configuration, and each module includes an inner current loop and an outer voltage loop control. A proportional-integral controller is adopted as the inner current loop controller to expedite the dynamic response, while an H robust controller is adopted to reach the robustness of the multimodule inverter system and to reduce possible interactive effects among inverters. With the 3C strategy, the modules are in circular chain connection and each module has an inner current loop control to track the inductor current of its previous module, achieving an equal current distribution. Simulation results of two-module and a three-module inverter systems with different kinds of loads and with modular discrepancy have demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed control scheme. Hardware measurements are also presented to verify the theoretical discussion

47.2.6    A.L. Shenkman, B. Axelrod, V. Chudnovsky, "A new simplified model of the dynamics of the current-fed parallel resonant inverter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 282-286, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the transient analysis of a current-fed parallel inverter, widely used in industrial applications (such as for the heating and melting of metals), is performed. A high-inductance smoothing inductor is usually connected in the input of the inverter and its load may be represented by a parallel resonant circuit characterized by high quality factor Q. To simplify the dynamic analysis of such an inverter, approximating it by a second-order switchless continuous dynamic link (i.e., RLC circuit) is suggested. The comparative analysis of the inverter and approximating circuit, whose parameters are properly chosen, shows the permissibility of such an approximation. It also shows how to assure desired aperiodic dynamic behavior. Then, by analyzing the approximating circuit, the expressions for inverter parameters are found. With these expressions, the values of a smoothing inductor, a compensating capacitance and a voltage factor, in order to ensure the aperiodic behavior of the inverter, can be calculated. The results of the proposed analysis were checked on laboratory and industrial prototypes of the above inverter. The theoretical and experimental results are in good agreement

47.2.7    Tsai-Fu Wu, Chien-Hsuan Chang, Yu-Hai Chen, "A fuzzy-logic-controlled single-stage converter for PV-powered lighting system applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 287-296, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a fuzzy-logic-controlled single-stage power converter (SSC) for photovoltaic (PV)-powered lighting system applications. The SSC is the integration of a bidirectional buck-boost charger/discharger and a class-D series resonant parallel loaded inverter. The designed fuzzy logic controller (FLC) can control both the charging and discharging current, and can improve its dynamic and steady-state performance. Furthermore, a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) based on a perturb-and-observe method is also realized to effectively draw power from PV arrays. Both the FLC and the MPPT are implemented on a single-chip microprocessor. Simulated and experimental results obtained from the proposed circuit with an FLC have verified the adaptivity, robustness and feasibility

47.2.8    W. le Roux, J.D. van Wyk, "The effect of signal measurement and processing delay on the compensation of harmonics by PWM converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 297-304, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The effect of the delay time on the reference signal for compensation due to the data acquisition and digital signal processing is examined. The time delay will cause incorrect compensation and unwanted remaining nonactive power after compensation. A theoretical evaluation is done on the negative effect on compensation due to a single frequency distortion. This evaluation is expanded to handle multiple harmonic distortion to calculate the total theoretical ineffectivity of compensation for a specific load due to a specific time delay. This provides a method of calculating the ineffectivity caused by any delay in compensation, whatever the cause. Finally, the theoretical evaluations are validated by means of experimental results


Drive Control


47.2.9    Duwang Li, R. Tymerski, T. Ninomiya, "Chebyshev series integration method for transient simulation of switched networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 305-314, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An efficient integration routine based on the Chebyshev series expansion is given. Adoption of a Chebyshev expansion minimizes the order of the polynomial approximation which together with a number of basic properties of the expansion results in an efficient integration method. Furthermore, integration error control may conveniently be approached by monitoring the coefficients of the expansion. The proposed error control scheme varies the expansion order while keeping the step size fixed. A software program for the simulation of networks with ideal switches was written which incorporates the above features. Two examples, one of a nonswitched network and the other of a switched network, are given to illustrate the speed and accuracy of the program and effectiveness of the error control scheme. To quantify the advantages of the proposed scheme, a comparison is made with a previously developed simulator (viz., LAPS) and also a commercially available SPICE program

47.2.10    H.Z. Akpolat, G.M. Asher, J.C. Clare, "A practical approach to the design of robust speed controllers for machine drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 315-324, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a practical approach to the robust speed control of electrical drives. The approach is based on sliding mode control (SMC), but it is shown how sampling time, system noise, actuation limit, and antiwindup integrator reduce the control to an online maximum-gain selection constrained by system noise. The paper proposes a trajectory-reference compensator and fuzzy gain interpolator to fully exploit the system actuation while avoiding chattering and remaining within specified noise limits, only the SMC switching line needs to be selected; the remaining control design is systematic and, thus, should be of interest to drive engineers in industry. Experimental results on a vector-controlled AC motor drive rig with variable-inertia loads are presented to verify the approach

47.2.11    S.R. Bowes, Jian Li, "New robust adaptive control algorithm for high-performance AC drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 325-336, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new robust structure for a model reference adaptive control (MRAC) controller for field-oriented-controlled (FOC) drives which requires no prior knowledge of the drive parameters and is guaranteed to provide global asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system. This structure simplifies the design and implementation of the adaptive controller requiring less effort to synthesis than a standard MRAC system. Discussion on theoretical aspects, such as selection of a reference model, stability analysis proof, gain adaptive process, steady-state error elimination, and robustness to unmodeled dynamics are included. The paper describes many practical aspects of the implementation, such as adaptive gain analysis, adaptive rate selection, the gain variation limits, gain windup prevention measure, and initial values. The new robust adaptive controller has been successfully implemented on an FOC drive and experiment results for dynamic tracking, sudden loading and unloading, and gains adaptation under different operation conditions are presented to support the robustness of the proposed controller

47.2.12    J. Hirai, Tae-Woong Kim, A. Kawamura, "Position-sensorless drive of linear pulse motor for suppressing transient vibration," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 337-345, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The linear pulse motor (LPM) has been widely used because of its simple structure and easy control without the use of feedback. However, degradation of the response performance occurs, resulting from the transient vibration which is inherent in the LPM. The fastest way to suppress the vibration is to close the control loop using the position feedback sensor, However, the straightforward use of such a sensor feedback leads to higher cost and complicated configuration, sacrificing the structural advantage of the LPM. Therefore, the authors propose a Kalman filter-based sensorless control for suppressing the transient vibration. In this proposed control method, the LPM mover position and speed are optimally estimated using an extended Kalman filter applied to the nonlinear state equations of excitation winding circuits. The effectiveness of this method is confirmed by experiments on a prototype LPM control system using a digital signal processor

47.2.13    Guchuan Zhu, L.-A. Dessaint, O. Akhrif, A. Kaddouri, "Speed tracking control of a permanent-magnet synchronous motor with state and load torque observer," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 346-355, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper is concerned with the speed tracking control problem for a permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) in the presence of an unknown load torque disturbance. After a brief review of the mathematical model of the PMSM, a speed tracking control law using the exact linearization methodology is introduced. The tracking control algorithm is completed by adding an extended observer which provides, on the one hand, the motor speed and acceleration and, on the other hand, estimates the unknown load torque. The stability of the closed-loop system composed of a nonlinear speed tracking controller and an observer is studied by the way of Lyapunov theory. Furthermore, the decoupling of the state observer and the load torque observer is discussed. Finally, a real-time implementation and the experimental results of the proposed control strategy are presented

47.2.14    Faa-Jeng Lin, Rong-Jong Wai, Chih-Hong Lin, Da-Chung Liu, "Decoupled stator-flux-oriented induction motor drive with fuzzy neural network uncertainty observer," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 356-367, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A stator-flux-oriented induction motor drive using online rotor time-constant estimation with a robust speed controller is introduced in this paper. The estimation of the rotor time constant is made on the basis of the model reference adaptive system using an energy function. The estimated rotor time-constant is used in the current-decoupled controller, which is designed to decouple the torque and flux in the stator-flux-field-oriented control. Moreover, a robust speed controller, which is comprised of an integral-proportional speed controller and a fuzzy neural network uncertainty observer, is designed to increase the robustness of the speed control loop. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is demonstrated by simulation and experimental results

47.2.15    K.R. Thompson, P.P. Acarnley, C. French, "Rotor position estimation in a switched reluctance drive using recursive least squares," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 368-379, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a new algorithm for the estimation of rotor position in a switched reluctance motor. It is based on a recursive least-squares estimator deducing both position and speed. A particular advantage of the algorithm is its ability to extract information about rotor position at very low speeds (one electrical cycle per minute) from voltage and current waveforms sampled only at the converter switching frequency. Experimental results for a 12/8 motor demonstrate that estimation is possible over the full range of operating conditions, including the field-weakening region, with a typical accuracy of better than two mechanical degrees. The paper also illustrates the performance of the algorithm by showing it operating within a sensorless position controller

47.2.16    B. Robyns, F. Berthereau, J.-P. Hautier, H. Buyse, "A fuzzy-logic-based multimodel field orientation in an indirect FOC of an induction motor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 380-388, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Classical indirect field-oriented control is highly sensitive to uncertainties in the rotor resistance of the induction motor. This sensitivity can be reduced by combining two different methods to compute the stator electrical frequency. Fuzzy logic is used to combine both methods to obtain a compromise which reduces the flux control sensitivity to electrical parameter errors at each operating point. The design of the fuzzy logic block is based on a theoretical sensitivity analysis taking magnetic saturation into account, in simulations and in experiments. In this paper, the performance of the proposed control algorithm is theoretically and experimentally studied. The theoretical predictions are validated by experiments, by considering the stator current variations, to develop a given steady-state torque, induced by the imperfect flux control


Robotics and Vision


47.2.17    N. Kasa, H. Watanabe, "A mechanical sensorless control system for salient-pole brushless DC motor with autocalibration of estimated position angles," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 389-395, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a mechanical sensorless control system is reported for salient-pole brushless DC motor drives. Here, two new methods are proposed for obtaining the position angle, the accuracy of which affects the operation of the switching devices of the inverter that drives the motor. First, the method for estimating the position angle is proposed. Secondly, the correcting method for reducing the errors involved in the estimation of position angle is given. The experimental results show that the estimated position angles are calibrated automatically, and then the proposed sensorless control system can control the speed and the position angles of the motor precisely

47.2.18    M. Kaufhold, H. Aninger, M. Berth, J. Speck, M. Eberhardt, "Electrical stress and failure mechanism of the winding insulation in PWM-inverter-fed low-voltage induction motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 396-402, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The winding insulation of low-voltage induction motors in adjustable-speed drive systems with voltage-fed inverters is substantially more stressed than in line-powered motors. Consequently, this operation is subject to limitations depending on the electrical stress and on the failure behavior of the winding insulation. Actual recommendations do not consider sufficiently the physics behind these phenomena and contain large utilizable reserves

47.2.19    Seul Jung, T.C. Hsia, "Robust neural force control scheme under uncertainties in robot dynamics and unknown environment," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 403-412, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The original impedance function is known to lack robustness due to unknown robot dynamic model and the environment. In order to improve that result, a new impedance function is derived which specifies a desired force directly. This results in a new robust robot force tracking impedance control scheme, which employs a neural network as a compensator to cancel out all uncertainties. The proposed neural force control scheme is capable of making the robot track a specified desired force as well as of compensating for uncertainties in environment location and stiffness, and in robot dynamics. Separate training signals for free-space motion and contact-space motion control are developed to train the neural compensator online. The design of the training signals is justified. Simulation studies with a three-link rotary robot manipulator are carried out and the results show excellent force tracking performance


Signal Processing and Control


47.2.20    S. Komada, N. Machii, T. Hori, "Control of redundant manipulators considering order of disturbance observer," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 413-420, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A manipulator control method using a disturbance observer with no inverse dynamics has been proposed. The order of the disturbance observer affects the performance of control system, because nominalization of plant is dependent on the control object and the order of the disturbance observer. This paper proposes a unique choice of disturbance observers of different order in joint and task space to improve system performance of hybrid position/force control of redundant manipulators. Also, it has been shown that a proper selection of a coefficient of the disturbance observer is capable to improve robust stability, while not influencing basic performance. The proposed strategy can realize acceleration control and second derivative of force control in the task space, which realizes robust and precise control of manipulators. Experimental results using a redundant manipulator show the effectiveness of the proposed strategy

47.2.21    Shiuh-Jer Huang, Ji-Shin Lee, "A stable self-organizing fuzzy controller for robotic motion control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 421-428, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: It is well known that robotic manipulators are highly nonlinear coupling dynamic systems. It is difficult to establish an appropriate mathematical model for the design of a model-based controller. Although fuzzy logic control has a model-free feature, it still needs time-consuming work for the rules bank and fuzzy parameters adjustment. In this paper, a stable self-organizing fuzzy controller (SOFC) is proposed to manipulate the motion trajectory of a 5-degrees-of-freedom robot. This approach has a learning ability for responding to the time-varying characteristic of a robot. Its control rules bank can be established and modified continuously by online learning with zero initial fuzzy rules. In addition, this control strategy has effectively improved the stability problem of a previous SOFC. The experimental results show that this intelligent controller has a stable learning ability and good motion control capability

47.2.22    Xinkai Chen, S. Komada, T. Fukuda, "Design of a nonlinear disturbance observer," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 429-437, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new disturbance observer based on the variable structure system theory for minimum-phase (with respect to the relationship between the disturbance and output) dynamical systems with arbitrary relative degrees. The model uncertainties and the nonlinear parts of the system are merged into the disturbance term and are regarded as a part of the disturbances. The upper and lower bounds of the disturbance are assumed to be known as a priori information. Simulation results are presented to show the robustness and effectiveness of the new disturbance observer. Experimental results show the practicality of the new observer


Emerging Technology


47.2.23    D. Cole, S. Sridharan, M. Moody, "Frequency offset correction for HF radio speech reception," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 438-443, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: High-frequency single-sideband (HF-SSB) radio communication suffers from highly variable propagation conditions and high levels of interference noise. One common distortion is frequency shifting of the received signal due to differences in carrier frequencies at transmitter and receiver, or to Doppler shifts due to the transmission path. This paper presents a novel and efficient technique to compensate for this frequency offset using only the received speech signal to determine and correct the frequency error. Good improvement in received speech quality is achieved, using a mean opinion score measurement

47.2.24    Kuo-Kai Shyu, Cheng-Yuan Chang, "Modified FIR filter with phase compensation technique to feedforward active noise controller design," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 444-453, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a finite-impulse response (FIR) filter with phase compensation is proposed to design the digital controller for active noise cancellation in ducts. This method can overcome the influence of delay effects, which arise from the analog devices, and then help to improve the ability of noise reduction. Moreover, all the control algorithms are implemented in a fixed-point-type digital signal processor that produces an antinoise signal to cancel noise in the authors' experiments. Experiments are demonstrated in a polyvinyl chloride material circular duct. It is proved that, by using the FIR filter with phase compensation, the reduction of broadband noise is about 20 dB, and about 50 dB of narrowband noise. The system also provides the ability to cancel the noise with two harmonic components, like automobile noise

47.2.25    W.L. Xu, S.K. Tso, Y. Tso, "Reuse of existing design information in the development of new electronic PTC devices via a neural network approach," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 454-469, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Burning events and voltage endurance are two important aspects that need to be predicted during the design and development stage of a new series of electronic positive temperature coefficient (PTC) devices. In this paper, these problems are identified by experiments conducted on well-developed devices, and are resolved by improving the resistance-temperature characteristics of the PTC devices in order to overdamp, underdamp, or critically damp high-current/high-voltage surges. The use of neural networks is proposed, to learn the empirical or experimental design information that already exists, and then to predict the occurrence of burning events and the voltage endurance of new PTC devices at the design/development stage. Two predictive schemes are presented separately, for burning events and for voltage endurance, where the training patterns for the desired outputs are either generated from empirical formulae or collected from experiments on already-developed PTC devices. The predicted results are discussed against the experimental results that are available, and an overall concept is finally given for the integration of the neural predictive models into the computer-aided design/computer-aided engineering system used for the PTC devices

47.2.26    M.H.R. Fazlur Rahman, R. Devanathan, Zhu Kuanyi, "Neural network approach for linearizing control of nonlinear process plants," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 470-477, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The application of a feedback linearization technique using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for a nonlinear industrial process plant is considered in this paper. The process plant is modeled first using an ANN, and then the dynamic neural network model acting as a process plant emulator is feedback linearized. A novel configuration for linearization of an ANN emulator using only backpropagation is used. Effective control of the linearized emulator is then exhibited using a linear controller. Experimentation and simulation results on the linearized emulator are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the feedback linearization technique

47.2.27    T.W.S. Chow, Xiao-Dong Li, Yong Fang, "A real-time learning control approach for nonlinear continuous-time system using recurrent neural networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 478-486, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a real-time iterative learning control (ILC) approach for a nonlinear continuous-time system using recurrent neural networks (RNNs) with time-varying weights is presented. Two RNNs are utilized in the ILC system. One is used to approximate the nonlinear system and another is used to mimic the desired system response. The ILC rule is obtained by combining the two RNNs to form a neural network control system. Also, a kind of iterative RNNs training algorithm is developed based on the two-dimensional (2-D) system theory. An RNN using the proposed 2-D training algorithm is able to approximate any trajectory to a very high degree of accuracy. Simulation results show that the proposed ILC approach is very efficient. The newly developed 2-D RNNs training algorithms provides a new dimension to the application of RNNs in a nonlinear continuous-time system

47.2.28    M. Onder Efe, O. Kaynak, B.M. Wilamowski, "Stable training of computationally intelligent systems by using variable structure systems technique," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 487-496, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel training algorithm for computationally intelligent architectures, whose outputs are differentiable with respect to the adjustable design parameters. The algorithm combines the gradient descent technique with the variable-structure-systems approach. The combination is performed by expressing the conventional weight update rule in continuous time and application of sliding-mode control method to the gradient-based training procedure. The proposed combination therefore exhibits a degree of robustness with respect to the unmodeled multivariable internal dynamics of gradient descent and to the environmental disturbances. With conventional training procedures, the excitation of this dynamics during a training cycle can lead to instability, which may be difficult to alleviate due to the multidimensionality of the solution space and the ambiguities on the free design parameters, such as learning rate or momentum coefficient. This paper develops a heuristic that a computationally intelligent system, which may be a neural network architecture or a fuzzy inference mechanism, can be trained such that the adjustable parameter values are forced to settle down (parameter stabilization) while minimizing an appropriate cost function (cost optimization). The proposed approach is applied to the control of a robotic arm in two different ways. In one, a standard fuzzy system architecture is used, whereas in the second, the arm is controlled by the use of a multilayer perceptron. In order to demonstrate the robustness of the approach presented, a considerable amount of observation noise and varying payload conditions are also studied


Letters to the Editor


47.2.29    P. Pejovic, Z. Janda, "An improved current injection network for three-phase high-power-factor rectifiers that apply the third harmonic current injection," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 497-499, April 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel current injection network for low-harmonic rectifiers that apply the third harmonic current injection is proposed in this paper. The current injection network requires one inductor, two capacitors, and one 1:1 transformer with a voltampere rating of only 0.16% of the input power. The transformer is introduced to provide complete rejection of harmonic components of the injected currents at even triples of the line frequency, resulting in significant reduction of the input current total harmonic distortion (THD). Dependence of the input current THD on the current injection network Q factor is computed. The THD is shown to be in the range 4%<THD<5.125%. Analytically obtained results are experimentally verified on a 1.5 kW rectifier

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 47,  Number 3, June 2000           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




                 Power Electronics

47.3.1    S. Buso, G. Spiazzi, "A line-frequency-commutated rectifier complying with IEC 1000-3-2 standard," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 501-510, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Consumer and household appliances require low-cost AC/DC power supplies complying with EMC standards. The commonly employed passive solutions are bulky and do not provide output voltage stabilization. Active solutions, based on power-factor correctors with high-frequency switching, provide compactness and regulation capability, but are generally expensive due to the need for fast-recovery diodes and complex EMI filters. This paper presents a high-power-factor rectifier, based on a modified conventional rectifier with passive L-C filter, which improves both the harmonic content of the input current and the power factor by means of a low-frequency-commutated switch and a small line-frequency transformer, and allows compliance with IEC 1000-3-2 standard with reduced overall inductive components' volume

47.3.2    S.R. Shaw, C.R. Laughman, S.B. Leeb, R.F. Lepard, "A power quality prediction system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 511-517, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes two hardware prototypes and estimation schemes for determining the parameters of a simple, physically based, point-of-use electric utility model using transient measurements. Parameters of the utility model are estimated using data collected by the prototypes. Frequency-dependent effects observed in previous work in this area are modeled. Performance of the techniques given is demonstrated by comparison of measured and predicted line voltage distortion during current transients created by several loads

47.3.3    H. Benqassmi, J.-C. Crebier, J.-P. Ferrieux, "Comparison between current-driven resonant converters used for single-stage isolated power-factor correction," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 518-524, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the power factor correction capability of isolated current-source resonant converter topologies with two energy storage elements, which takes advantage of the leakage inductance of the HF transformer. These converter topologies are studied and modeled. Computer simulation results are also given. Thanks to its interesting characteristics, a converter topology is chosen and a converter prototype is built in order to validate theoretical study. Using this converter topology, a very good power factor is achieved

47.3.4    H.D. Laird, S.D. Round, R.M. Duke, "A frequency-domain analytical model of an uncontrolled single-phase voltage-source rectifier," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 525-532, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The harmonic currents generated by the single-phase rectifier are well known. As the levels of these currents become larger, the use of power conditioners, such as shunt active filters, to lower the levels is becoming more attractive. In order to analyze the interaction between the condition, AC system and rectifier, it is necessary to have an accurate model of the rectifier. This paper describes a frequency-domain analytical model of the single-phase rectifier. The model includes the dominant frequency transfer mechanisms. These are the direct transfer and that due to the modulation of the switching instants. A small-signal linearized analysis is presented and the behavior predicted is confirmed by perturbation analysis using time-domain simulation. Accurate results are obtained, and the importance of including the switching instant modulation is shown

47.3.5    Z. Wang, Y. Liu, "Modeling and simulation of a cycloconverter drive system for harmonic studies," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 533-541, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper discusses the steady-state harmonic modeling and simulation of a cycloconverter drive system (CDS). The operation and control of a cycloconverter drive and a synchronous motor load were modeled in the time domain. Based on the duality principle of electric and magnetic circuits, four types of three-phase transformer models with detailed nonlinear magnetizing characteristics were implemented. The harmonic behaviors of the entire system were studied under several worst operation conditions. The goal of this paper is to understand the harmonic problems associated with a CDS from an integrated system point of view, with special attention given to harmonic filtering and cancellation effect of converter coupling transformers

47.3.6    K. Chatterjee, B.G. Fernandes, G.K. Dubey, "A novel high-power low-distortion synchronous link converter-based load compensator without the requirement of VAr calculator," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 542-548, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A high-power low-distortion static VAr compensator based on a synchronous link converter has been proposed, where the harmonics are eliminated by incorporating a low-power insulated-gate-bipolar-transistor-based controlled current auxiliary converter in conjunction with a high-power gate-turn-off-thyristor-based converter. In this paper, a new load compensator based on this topology is proposed which does not require the information of the voltampere required by the load. As the requirement of the reactive voltampere calculator is eliminated, the scheme becomes insensitive to system frequency variations, temperature, and component aging. The control scheme required for the compensator is developed. The operation of the scheme is validated through extensive simulation studies. Experimental results obtained from a laboratory prototype are provided to demonstrate the viability of the scheme

47.3.7    A.C.S. De Lima, H.W. Dommel, R.M. Stephan, "Modeling adjustable-speed drives with long feeders," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 549-556, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the modeling of different topologies of electric drive systems when the cable that connects the converter to the motor has a significant length. The long feeder together with converter harmonics decrease the performance of the motor. To correctly assess the voltage and the current throughout the drive system, frequency-dependent models for the cable and the motor should be used. A frequency-dependent cable model is necessary for an accurate voltage evaluation while a frequency-dependent motor model responds for accuracy in the current. The models were validated through experimental results carried out on an actual oil platform and from a prototype system. The latter system was used to test the system's performance when very long motor leads (longer than 5 km) are involved

47.3.8    Nambo Hur, Kwanghee Nam, Sangchul Won, "A two-degrees-of-freedom current control scheme for deadtime compensation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 557-564, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A current controller having an inverse dynamic model and a proportional-integral (PI) controller has been proposed with the aim of compensating the effects of deadtime. The proposed control scheme, having two degrees of freedom, can be used for compensating the effects of disturbance without degrading tracking performance. To be specific, the disturbance-rejection property is enhanced by increasing the gains of the PI controller, but the PI gain does not affect the transfer function between the current command and its output. By nature, it is robust to the parameter mismatch error between the model and the plant, since the mismatch error can be counted as another disturbance. With the experimental results, we have shown the superiority of the proposed method in suppressing the current distortion caused by deadtime

47.3.9    A.H. Anbuky, P.E. Pascoe, "VRLA battery state-of-charge estimation in telecommunication power systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 565-573, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the logical analysis of valve-regulated lead-acid battery discharge behavior and suggests a model for obtaining estimates of the state of charge (SOC) and reserve time throughout discharge. The basis of the model is the relationship between the discharge voltage and SOC. This relationship is valid for a wide range of discharge rates and ambient temperatures as related to the telecommunications backup power supply application. Due to the robust nature of this relationship, only a single discharge characteristic under nominal operating conditions is required by the model. Case studies reveal that the model enables accuracy in estimation of SOC of better than 10% of actual SOC after discharging 10% of the rated capacity. As the discharge proceeds, the error reduces substantially. A feature of the model is that it is easily adaptable to changes in battery characteristics which occur as a result of extreme stress


Drive Control


47.3.10    D. Munoz, D. Sbarbaro, "An adaptive sliding-mode controller for discrete nonlinear systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 574-581, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a sliding-mode controller for a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems. The proposed controller uses a modified switching function that produces a low-chattering control signal. In order to improve the controller performance, an adaptive term is added to the original sliding-mode algorithm. This new feature uses an artificial neural network for online identification of the modeling error. Simulations and experimental results illustrate the main characteristics and performance of this approach,

47.3.11    Z. Chen, M. Tomita, S. Doki, S. Okuma, "New adaptive sliding observers for position- and velocity-sensorless controls of brushless DC motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 582-591, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new adaptive sliding observer is proposed for position- and velocity-sensorless controls of a cylindrical brushless DC motor. Stability of the proposed observer is guaranteed easily, because it is based on a linear model of the motor. Sliding mode is applied for the current estimation. Under the sliding mode, the order of the observer's error equation is reduced. This makes the stability analysis easier, so that robust position and velocity estimations might be achieved by the pole assignment. Experimental results show that the proposed method is very effective

47.3.12    G.-W. Chang, G. Espinosa-Perez, E. Mendes, R. Ortega, "Tuning rules for the PI gains of field-oriented controllers of induction motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 592-602, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors have previously shown that field-oriented controllers for induction motors preserve stability under a wide range of variations of the motor and controller parameters. However, as is well known, the transient performance critically depends on the tuning of the gains of the proportional-integral (PI) velocity loop, a task which is rendered difficult because of the high uncertainty on the rotor resistance. The problem we address in this paper is how to develop an offline procedure to choose these gains. The main contribution of our work is a very simple frequency-domain test that, for each setting of the PI gains, evaluates the maximum range of the relative rotor resistance estimate for which global stability is guaranteed. In this way, we provide a quantitative estimate of the performance of the PI controller. The stability result may also be used in a dual manner, fixing now the range of the rotor resistance, and estimating an admissible interval for the PI gains that preserves global stability. Instrumental for our study is the exploitation of an energy dissipation (strict passivity) property of the system

47.3.13    G. Zhang, "Speed control of two-inertia system by PI/PID control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 603-609, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to develop systematic analysis and design methods for a two-inertia system. A conventional proportional-integral speed control system with a torsional load is redesigned, and the damping characteristic of the system is derived and analyzed. It is shown that the dynamic characteristic of the system strongly depends on the inertia ratio of load to motor. Three kinds of typical pole assignments with identical radius/damping coefficient/real part are applied and compared, and the merits of each pole-assignment design are concluded. Furthermore, for small inertia ratio, we present how to improve the damping of the system by a derivative feedback of motor speed

47.3.14    F. Betin, D. Pinchon, G.-A. Capolino, "Fuzzy logic applied to speed control of a stepping motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 610-622, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Nowadays, thanks to the development of microprocessors, stepping motors are widely used in robotics and in the numerical control of machine tools where they have to perform high-precision positioning operations. Nevertheless, the variations of the mechanical configuration of the drive, which are common to these two applications, can lead to a loss of synchronism for high stepping rates. Moreover, the classical open-loop speed control is weak and a closed-loop control becomes necessary. In this paper, the fuzzy logic principle is applied to control the speed of a stepping motor drive with feedback. An advanced test bed is used in order to evaluate the tracking properties and the robustness capacities of the fuzzy logic controller when variations of the mechanical configuration occur. The experiment has been performed using a low-cost 16 bit microcontroller in order to verify the design performance

47.3.15    C.M. Bingham, D.A. Stone, N. Schofield, D. Howe, D. Peel, "Amplitude and frequency control of a vibratory pile driver," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 623-631, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the digital control of a vibratory pile driver in which the vibration is generated via two tandem pairs of electrically driven, geared, contra-rotating eccentrics. Experimental results are included to show the controller-induced system dynamics for a variety of load conditions, and to highlight the fact that, if the relative phase of the eccentric pairs is not controlled, the natural tendency at high excitation frequency is for the pile driver to operate with a low vibration amplitude. An analytical technique for identifying the system parameters is presented, and analytical performance predictions are compared with experimental results. Analysis of the power flow in the system shows that, although significant power transfer occurs between the two electrical drives, the net power dissipation during pile driving is relatively low

47.3.16    O. Ojo, O. Omozusi, A.A. Jimoh, "The operation of an inverter-assisted single-phase induction generator," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 632-640, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The enhancement of the operability range of a stand-alone single-phase induction generator scheme with an inverter-battery system connected to the auxiliary winding is the theme of this paper. The reactive power requirement of the load connected to the main winding is met by the inverter system operating with either of two proposed pulsewidth modulation techniques, in the process of which the load voltage and frequency are regulated. The proposed schemes have potential application as power sources for autonomous systems and for utility interface to single-phase power system grids. Simulation and calculation results of the generator system connected to an impedance and motor loads, confirmed with some experimental results, are also set forth to validate some of the conclusions of the paper


Robotics and Vision


47.3.17    K. Kiguchi, T. Fukuda, "Position/force control of robot manipulators for geometrically unknown objects using fuzzy neural networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 641-649, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In order to carry out the tasks of grinding, deburring, polishing or wiping, the end-effector of the robot manipulator has to follow the contour of an object. In this paper, the authors propose a fuzzy vector method, which enables the controller to deal efficiently with force sensor signals which include noise and/or unknown vibrations caused by the working tool, to search the direction of the constraint surface of an unknown object

47.3.18    G.G. Yen, K.-C. Lin, "Wavelet packet feature extraction for vibration monitoring," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 650-667, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Condition monitoring of dynamic systems based on vibration signatures has generally relied upon Fourier-based analysis as a means of translating vibration signals in the time domain into the frequency domain. However, Fourier analysis provided a poor representation of signals well localized in time. In this case, it is difficult to detect and identify the signal pattern from the expansion coefficients because the information is diluted across the whole basis. The wavelet packet transform (WPT) is introduced as an alternative means of extracting time-frequency information from vibration signatures. The resulting WPT coefficients provide one with arbitrary time-frequency resolution of a signal. With the aid of statistical-based feature selection criteria, many of the feature components containing little discriminant information could be discarded, resulting in a feature subset having a reduced number of parameters without compromising the classification performance. The extracted reduced dimensional feature vector is then used as input to a neural network classifier. This significantly reduces the long training time that is often associated with the neural network classifier and improves its generalization capability

47.3.19    S.G. Tzafestas, E.J. Kyriannakis, "Regulation of GMA welding thermal characteristics via a hierarchical MIMO predictive control scheme assuring stability," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 668-678, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with the regulation of the thermal characteristics of gas metal arc welding (GMAW). A complete treatment of the welding control problem requires the regulation of both the geometrical and thermal characteristics of the weld. Both classes of characteristics are of critical importance, but the thermal ones have received less attention in the majority of previous work. The present paper proposes a hierarchical predictive control scheme for the metallurgical characteristics of GMAW. A previously developed model for the regulation of the heat-affected zone, the cooling rate and the nugget cross-sectional area is used for the open-loop predictions. At the first level of the hierarchy, a parameterized generalized predictive control (GPC) algorithm is selected, among other control techniques, due to the inherited difficulty of the welding thermal process and the robustness of this algorithm against modeling errors and parameter variations. The main drawback of GPC is that it does not guarantee stability. The second level of the control hierarchy, where a coordinator specifies a set of reliable values for the parameters of GPC, so that stability is assured, and transmits them to the controller of the first level overcomes this difficulty. This paper provides a representative set of simulation results obtained by the present hierarchical GPC scheme, including a comparison with the classical linear-quadratic optimal control scheme. These results show the superiority of the GPC scheme


Signal Processing and Control


47.3.20    So-Young Jeong, Minho Lee, Soo-Young Lee, Jin-Man Cho, Cheol Hoon Park, "Improving lookup table control of a hot coil strip process with online retrainable RBF network," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 679-686, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an online retrainable radial basis function (RBF) network to control the coiling temperature for a hot coil strip at the Pohang Iron and Steel Company, Pohang, Korea. The proposed RBF network is designed to replace the conventional rule-based lookup table, the output of which is a heat transmission coefficient in the temperature control system. In order to make the controller more adaptable to the changing environments in the steelmaking process, specific interconnection weights were additionally devised for the hidden-to-output weights of a conventional RBF network. These weights were locally adjustable to reduce the immediate temperature error of a coil strip, while the global information of the RBF network trained with offline past data was largely unaltered. As a result, the proposed RBF network substantially alleviated the effect of catastrophic interference-completely forgetting old information in the presence of new inputs. Moreover, a rejection network was incorporated within the proposed control scheme to ensure reliable operation in the actual process. Results applied to the real steelmaking process indicated an improvement of 2.2% in control performance compared to conventional methods

47.3.21    H.-Z. Tan, T.W.S. Chow, "Blind identification of quadratic nonlinear models using neural networks with higher order cumulants," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 687-696, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel approach to blindly estimate kernels of any discrete- and finite-extent quadratic models in higher order cumulants domain based on artificial neural networks is proposed in this paper. The input signal is assumed an unobservable independently identically, distributed random sequence which is viable for engineering practice. Because of the properties of the third-order cumulant functions, identifiability of the nonlinear model holds, even when the model output measurement is corrupted by a Gaussian random disturbance. The proposed approach enables a nonlinear relationship between model kernels and model output cumulants to be established by means of neural networks. The approximation ability of the neural network with the weights-decoupled extended Kalman filter training algorithm is then used to estimate the model parameters. Theoretical statements and simulation examples together with practical application to the train vibration signals modeling corroborate that the developed methodology is capable of providing a very promising way to identify truncated Volterra models blindly


Emerging Technology


47.3.22    X. Li, A. Djordjevich, P.K. Venuvinod, "Current-sensor-based feed cutting force intelligent estimation and tool wear condition monitoring," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 697-702, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Tool wear condition monitoring has the potential to play a critical role in ensuring the dimensional accuracy of the workpiece and prevention of damage to cutting equipment. It could also help in automating cutting processes. In this paper, the feed cutting force estimated with the aid of an inexpensive current sensor installed on the AC servomotor of a computerized numerical control tuning center is used to monitor tool wear condition. To achieve this, the feed drive system is modeled, using neuro-fuzzy techniques, to provide the framework for estimating the feed cutting force based on the feed motor current measured. Functional dependence of the feed cutting force on tool wear and cutting parameters are then expressed in the form of a difference equation relating variation in the feed cutting force to tool wear rate. The computerized system automatically compares successive feed cutting force estimates and determines the onset of accelerated tool wear in order to issue a request for tool replacement. Experimental results show that the tool wear condition monitoring is effective and industrially applicable

47.3.23    Daijin Kim, "An implementation of fuzzy logic controller on the reconfigurable FPGA system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 703-715, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper concerns an implementation of a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) on a reconfigurable field-programmable gate array (FPGA) system. In the proposed implementation method, the FLC is partitioned into many temporally independent functional modules, and each module is implemented individually on the FLC automatic design and implementation system, which is an integrated development environment for performing many subtasks such as automatic VHSIC hardware description language description, FPGA synthesis, optimization, placement and routing, and downloading. Each implemented module forms a downloadable hardware object that is ready to configure the FPGA chip. Then, the FPGA chip is consequently reconfigured with one module at a time by using the run-time reconfiguration method. This implementation method is effective when a single FPGA chip cannot fit the FLC due to the limited size of its constituent cells. We test the proposed implementation method by building the FLC for the truck backer-upper control on VCC Corporation's EVC-1 reconfigurable FPGA board directly


Letters to the Editor


47.3.24    Febg-Hyoun Youm, Hyun-Lark Do, Bong-Hwan Kwon, "A single-stage electronic ballast with high power factor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 716-718, June 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A single stage electronic ballast with high power factor (HPF) is proposed in this letter. The single-phase boost-type rectifier provides HPF. A saturable transformer constituting the self-oscillating drive limits the lamp current and dominates the switching frequency of the ballast. Experimental results obtained on a 40 W fluorescent lamp are discussed

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 47,  Number 4, August 2000           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




                Power Electronics

47.4.1    P.J.M. Menegaz, J.L.F. Vieira, D.S.L. Simonetti, "A magnetically coupled regenerative turn-on and turn-off snubber configuration," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 722-728, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a magnetically coupled regenerative turn-on and turn-off snubber configuration applied to a boost converter, which operates in continuous conduction mode (CCM). In addition to reducing the stresses in the switch, providing soft transitions in its turn-off voltage and turn-on current, it transfers the energy stored in the snubber capacitor to the load. This is achieved by using a coupled inductor mounted on the main inductor of the converter, which resets the capacitor voltage at each switching period. Design equations, as well as experimental results are presented, showing the high performance of the boost converter using the proposed snubber

47.4.2    A. Wolf, M. Thamodharan, "Reactive power reduction in three-phase electric arc furnace," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 729-733, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A conventional three-phase electric arc furnace causes flicker at the point of common coupling with AC mains. This generally occurs with AC mains having a low short-circuit capacity. The flicker is caused by flucluating reactive power consumption of the furnace. This paper describes a way, through computer simulation, of increasing the dynamic performance of the furnace and keeping reactive power consumption constant. This can be achieved with the addition of a three-phase power controller and a booster transformer to the power source and the introduction of a new control method of regulating the reactive power input. The problem of flicker can thus be minimized. This was experimentally tested on a single-phase model and the results obtained were very satisfying. Due to laboratory facilities, the three-phase testing was not performed

47.4.3    E.P. Wiechmann, R.P. Burgos, J. Holtz, "Sequential connection and phase control of a high-current rectifier optimized for copper electrowinning applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 734-743, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes an optimized sequential control technique for copper electrowinning high-current rectifiers. The converter comprises two series-connected six-pulse double-wye rectifiers, a step-down transformer, and a tuned input filter. The six-pulse rectifiers are fed from delta and polygon primary windings with different turns ratio and phase shifted by 5°. Under the proposed control scheme, one rectifier is kept at nominal output voltage, and the other one is phase controlled to control the load's current. The proposed strategy greatly improves the rectifier's performance, reducing its reactive power maximum demand by 62% compared to conventional rectifiers and, therefore, reduces the input filters power rating also by 62%. This is accomplished while keeping the input power factor above 0.95 throughout the whole operating range. Further, the converter's reactive power consumption presents a low varying characteristic, allowing it to use a fixed filter, even when operating from a power system not capable of withstanding large reactive power variations. Finally, it presents a harmonic current distortion comparable to conventional 12-pulse high-current rectifiers. This paper presents the design and optimization procedure of the rectifying system. A 2.5 kVA laboratory prototype was used to validate the converter model, later employed in evaluating the converter operating in a 10.5 MVA copper electrowinning facility. The results obtained confirm the advantages of the proposed converter and its control strategy

47.4.4    Junyang Luo, Y.C. Liang, byung Jin Cho, "Design of LIGBT protection circuit for smart power integration," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 744-750, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Development of a monolithic power integrated circuit by making the lateral insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) the main switching device is a current topic. The overcurrent protection scheme is usually necessary to be built as part of the function in such a power integrated circuit. The protection circuit requires distinguishing various fault conditions and reacting differently based on the device safe operating area (SOA) limitation. At the same time, the protection circuit should also be relatively concise and suitable for integration. In this paper, a concise circuit suitable for integration and with gate drive capability is proposed to provide the complete function of overcurrent SOA protection for the LIGBT. The operational principle was described in detail and the circuit performance was verified with experimental results from both the discrete circuit and the fabricated LIGBT integrated circuit

47.4.5    S.E. Lyshevski, "Resonant converters: nonlinear analysis and control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 751-758, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The current trends in development and deployment of advanced switching converters have facilitated the unified activities in topology design, nonlinear analysis, optimization, and control. In this paper, by using nonlinear models of resonant converters, bounded controllers are designed to ensure a spectrum of performance objectives required. To attain high efficiency and power density, new converter topologies were developed. It is recognized that advanced closed-loop configurations must be designed to guarantee a spectrum of specifications and requirements imposed on the converter dynamics. The output voltage of converters is regulated by changing the duty ratio, which is constrained by lower and upper limits. In this paper, to approach design tradeoffs and analyze converter performance (settling time, overshoot, stability margins, and other quantities), the constraints and nonlinearities are thoroughly examined. Innovative controllers are synthesized to ensure performance improvements. To illustrate the control laws designed and to validate these algorithms, analytical and experimental results are presented and discussed. In particular, nonlinear analysis and design with experimental verification are performed and documented for a resonant converter with zero-current-switching

47.4.6    K.K. Tse, H. Shu-Hung Chung, S.Y.R. Hui, H.C. So, "Spectral characteristics of randomly switched PWM DC/DC converters operating in discontinuous conduction mode," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 759-769, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper addresses a comparative study of the spectral characteristics of four random-switching schemes that apply to the basic pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) DC/DC converters operating in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). They include randomized pulse position modulation, randomized pulsewidth modulation, and randomized carrier frequency modulation with fixed duty cycle and with fixed duty time, respectively. Mathematical models that characterize the input current and output voltage of the three basic PWM converters operating in DCM are derived. In particular, the effectiveness of spreading the dominant switching harmonics in the input current that normally exist in the standard PWM scheme and the introduction of low-frequency harmonics in the output voltage with respect to the randomness level are investigated. The validity of the models and analyses are confirmed experimentally by using a DC/DC buck converter

47.4.7    Gang Chen, Yim-Shu Lee, S.Y.R. Hui, Dehong Xu, Yousheng Wang, "Actively clamped bidirectional flyback converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 770-779, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An actively clamped bidirectional flyback converter is proposed. The converter's operation is examined in detail. All switches in the converter have zero-voltage-switching characteristics. A low-frequency behavior model and small-signal transfer functions are derived. It is found that the flow of current is directly under the control of the duty cycle, and that the transformer's leakage inductance has a significant effect on the control characteristic of the converter. It is expected that such bidirectional converters will find wide applications in the interconnection of multiple sources of DC power to a common bus (e.g., in a DC uninterruptible power supply). Simulation and experiment results are also presented

47.4.8    Chang-Shiarn Lin, Chern-Lin Chen, "Single-wire current-share paralleling of current-mode-controlled DC power supplies," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 780-786, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new single-wire autonomous current-share paralleling of current-mode-controlled DC power supplies. The proposed control scheme makes use of the nature of fast response of the inner current loop and the share bus injected signal to improve the response of the power supplies. It reduces the unbalance of current distribution during the transient state and avoids the fault alarm for the current limit. Through the theoretical derivation, the proposed control circuit can be designed by the three-loop control method. A design example of two 400 V/48 V 20 A parallel modules is set up and experimental recordings verify the performance of current sharing

47.4.9    Po-Wa Lee, Yim-Shu Lee, D.K.W. Cheng, Xiu-Cheng Liu, "Steady-state analysis of an interleaved boost converter with coupled inductors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 787-795, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Boost converters are widely used as power-factor corrected preregulators. In high-power applications, interleaved operation of two or more boost converters has been proposed to increase the output power and to reduce the output ripple. A major design criterion then is to ensure equal current sharing among the parallel converters. In this paper, a converter consisting of two interleaved and intercoupled boost converter cells is proposed and investigated. The boost converter cells have very good current sharing characteristics even in the presence of relatively large duty cycle mismatch. In addition, it can be designed to have small input current ripple and zero boost-rectifier reverse-recovery loss. The operating principle, steady-state analysis, and comparison with the conventional boost converter are presented. Simulation and experimental results are also given

47.4.10    C. Branas, F.J. Azcondo, S. Bracho, "Contributions to the design and control of LCsCp resonant inverters to drive high-power HPS lamps," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 796-808, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the design criteria for full-bridge series-parallel (LCsCp) resonant inverters suitable for driving high-power high-intensity discharge lamps. By using the properties derived from the transfer functions of the inverter, a soft startup method is proposed. The lamp ignition is carried out maintaining the voltage and current variables below prefixed peak values, with the addition of no extra components to the power stage for this purpose. In steady-state operation, the proposed control minimizes the reactive voltamperes in the resonant tank. Moreover, the variation of the power delivered to the lamp, caused by the lamp aging, is limited in order to fulfil the standard. This design provides cost-effective circuits, simplifying the DC-AC power stage of an electronic ballast. The experimental results are given for high-pressure sodium lamps of the Sylvania SHP250W type

47.4.11    M.A. Co, D.S.I. Simonetti, J.L.F. Vieira, "High-power-factor electronic ballast based on a single power processing stage," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 809-820, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new high-power-factor (HPF) electronic ballast is introduced in this paper. The proposed topology is based on a single power processing stage, and provides a high-frequency voltage to the fluorescent lamps in addition to presenting an HPF to the utility line. The power processing stage is formed by a half-bridge circuit operating above the resonant frequency, thus providing zero-voltage switching. The self-oscillating technique is employed, which increases the converter reliability with great simplicity. HPF is achieved by using a nonconventional boost stage operating in discontinuous conduction mode, which results in a lower DC-bus voltage than that produced by the conventional boost. Theoretical analysis and experimental results have been obtained for two 40-W fluorescent lamps operating at 40-kHz switching frequency and 220-V line voltage

47.4.12    Yie-Tone Chen, D.Y. Chen, "Small-signal modeling of magnetic amplifier post regulators with current-mode control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 821-831, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The continuous-mode and the discontinuous-mode small-signal dynamic models of the magamp post regulator using the external-reset and the self-reset methods with current-mode control are presented in this paper. Based on the developed models, the dynamic performance of the magamp post regulator can be expressed in terms of circuit parameters. A procedure for designing the feedback compensation is given and experiments were conducted to verify the models


Drive Control


47.4.13    M.B. de Rossiter Correa, C.B. Jacobina, A.M.N. Lima, E.R.C. da Silva, "Rotor-flux-oriented control of a single-phase induction motor drive ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 832-841, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper investigates the vector control of a single-phase induction motor drive to implement low-cost systems for low-power applications. The static power converter side is implemented using a single-phase rectifier cascaded with a four-switch inverter. The vector control is based upon field orientation concepts that have been adapted for this type of machine. Simulation and experimental results are provided to illustrate the system operation

47.4.14    In-Joong Ha, Sang-Hoon Lee, "An online identification method for both stator-and rotor resistances of induction motors without rotational transducers," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 842-853, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes an effective online method for identifying both stator and rotor resistances, which is useful in robust speed control of induction motors without rotational transducers. The identification method for stator resistance is derived from the steady-state equations of induction motor dynamics. On the other hand, the identification method for rotor resistance is based on the linearly perturbed equations of induction motor dynamics about the operating point. The identification method for both stator and rotor resistances uses only the information of stator currents and voltages. It can provide fairly good identification accuracy regardless of load conditions and be easily incorporated into any sensorless speed controller proposed in the prior literature. Some experimental results are presented to demonstrate the practical use of the identification method. A sensorless speed control system has been built for experimental work, in which all algorithms for identification and control are implemented on a digital signal processor. The experimental results confirm that the proposed method allows for high-precision speed control of commercially available induction motors without rotational transducers

47.4.15    Yang Xia, Xinghuo Yu, W. Oghanna, "Adaptive robust fast control for induction motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 854-862, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new induction motor position controller that exhibits fast response and robustness is proposed. The control strategy is based on the well-known linear quadratic regulator design principle. By adaptively adjusting a penalty parameter, it is shown that the control strategy enables the induction motor system to exhibit fast convergence. Meanwhile, since the sliding mode will occur in the transient process, the fast control inherits the robustness in matched uncertainties of the sliding-mode control. In addition, to alleviate the chattering effect of the switching control signal, a low-pass filter is used to smooth the control and its design is integrated with the switching control design. The performance of the proposed control strategy is verified by experimental results

47.4.16    P.Z. Grabowski, M.P. Kazmierkowski, B.K. Bose, F. Blaabjerg, "A simple direct-torque neuro-fuzzy control of PWM-inverter-fed induction motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 863-870, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the concept and implementation of a new simple direct-torque neuro-fuzzy control (DTNFC) scheme for pulsewidth-modulation-inverter-fed induction motor drive are presented. An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is applied to achieve high-performance decoupled flux and torque control. The theoretical principle and tuning procedure of this method are discussed. A 3 kW induction motor experimental system with digital signal processor TMS 320C31-based controller has been built to verify this approach. The simulation and laboratory experimental results, which illustrate the performance of the proposed scheme, are presented. Also, nomograms for controller design are given. It has been shown that the simple DTNFC is characterized by very fast torque and flux response, very-low-speed operation, and simple tuning capability

47.4.17    N. Hur, Kwanghee Nam, "A robust load-sharing control scheme for parallel-connected multisystems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 871-879, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Parallel connection of inverters or converters is one useful method for solving the high power requirements. However, a load-sharing problem among parallel-connected systems is not an easy task, since crosstalk may take place among the subsystems. We develop a general methodology for solving the load sharing problem using the master-slave concept. In synthesizing the input to the slave system, we utilize system-dynamics-dependent filters. With the proposed method, we can equally distribute the load, or can give a certain offset (in load) to a specific subsystem. To show the usefulness of the proposed control scheme, we perform a simulation study with two practical systems: a current-balancing control in parallel-connected pulsewidth modulation converters and a speed and tension control for a bridle roll system in a steel mill

47.4.18    W.C. Lo, C.C. Chan, Z.Q. Zhu, Lie Xu, D. Howe, K.T. Chau, "Acoustic noise radiated by PWM-controllel induction machine drives ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 880-889, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper investigates the acoustic noise radiated from two nominally identical induction motors when fed from sinusoidal, and asymmetric regular sampling subharmonic and space-vector pulsewidth modulation (PWM) converters. The theory for analyzing the noise spectrum is developed further to account for the interaction between the motor and the drive. It is shown that manufacturing tolerances can result in significant differences in the noise level emitted from nominally identical motors, and that mechanical resonances can result in extremely high noise emissions. Such resonances can be induced by stator and rotor slot air-gap field harmonics due to the fundamental component of current, and by the interaction between the airgap field harmonics produced by the fundamental and the PWM harmonic currents. The significance of the effect of PWM strategy on the noise is closely related to the mechanical resonance with vibration mode order zero, while the PWM strategy will be critical only if the dominant cause of the emitted noise is the interaction of the fundamental air-gap field and PWM harmonics

47.4.19    R.C. Kavanagh, "Improved digital tachometer with reduced sensitivity to sensor nonideality," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 890-897, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A constant sample-time digital tachometer, similar to Ohmae's “M/T” method, is described. This system is capable of accurate determination of shaft velocity, based on the outputs of an incremental encoder. Previous error analyses of such devices which consider only the asynchronous nature of counter operation are shown to be specious. It is highlighted that sensor nonidealities, including variations in the transition locations from their nominal values and phasing errors between encoder channels, can produce much larger tachometer errors. An estimate is made of the actual RMS output error, based on a simple encoder model and simplified analysis. It is shown that the error can be significantly reduced by operating four sub-circuits in parallel, each dealing with either a low-to-high or high-to-low transition of a single incremental encoder signal. A field-programmable-gate-array/digital-signal processor-based practical implementation is described. Both simulation and experimental results are presented which confirm the utility of the enhanced digital tachometer

47.4.20    Ruei-Xi Chen, Liang-Gee Chen, Lilin Chen, "System design consideration for digital wheelchair controller," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 898-907, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The design and implementation of a digital wheelchair controller system is presented in this paper. This novel model depicts an information flow between the driving commands and wheel speed. A command interpreter and two speed processing datapaths are proposed as functionally independent blocks for the controller. The control process consists of the following steps: command decoding, speed estimation, and speed serving. Through proper partitioning to concurrent blocks, the design complexity is reduced significantly. Block reconfiguration for field-programmable gate array rapid prototyping is also employed in this paper, and system fidelity and development efficiency are revealed through the experimental results

47.4.21    E.G. Marra, J.A. Pomilio, "Induction-generator-based system providing regulated voltage with constant frequency," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 908-914, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The electrical characteristics of an isolated induction-generator-based system are improved through the association with a voltage-source pulsewidth modulation (PWM) inverter. The electronic converter allows the achievement of a better system behavior in many aspects: voltage regulation, frequency stabilization, and reactive power compensation. The system operation strategy consists of maintaining constant synchronous frequency at the induction generator via an association with a PWM inverter. The system power balance and the generator voltage regulation may be accomplished by two different means: through the rotor speed regulation, or by sending part of the energy stored in the inverter DC side to the grid through a single-phase line, in case the rotor speed is not regulated and a single-phase grid connection is available. The obtained results demonstrated the system is stable, robust, and an effective source of regulated three-phase voltages


Robotics and Vision


47.4.22    P. Pillay, Yaguang Liu, O.G. Durham, "A novel switched reluctance motor drive with optical graphical programming technology," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 915-919, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Due to magnetic nonlinearities, switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive control is complicated and normally requires a microprocessor or a digital signal processor. This paper presents a simple and reliable SRM drive using an innovative encoder based on optical graphical programming technology. There is no microprocessor in the drive, no A/D or D/A circuitry, with a drive system that matches the simplicity of the motor construction. It features a simple and effective control capability. Current waveform optimization for the encoder is carried out offline, for high efficiency, and programmed directly into the encoder. Experimental results validate the concept

47.4.23    R.C. Luo, Tse Min Chen, "Autonomous mobile target tracking system based on grey-fuzzy control algorithm," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 920-931, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new position-based tracking system for autonomous mobile target tracking task. A grey-fuzzy controller (GFC) is developed for motion control of the tracker, in which dynamics models of the target and tracker are not required a priori. The target detection is based on the adaptive visual detector (AVD), which can online adjust the histogram model based on the change of surrounding conditions, such as light variation, in a natural environment. The AVD and GFC are integrated together for mobile target-tracking applications. There are several advantages of the integrated system, in particular: (1) it can rapidly learn the target appearance model for the detection involved with the tracking task; (2) the temporal dynamics model of the target motion can be approximated for the predictive localization of the moving target; and (3) the system can deal with the uncertain environmental conditions to ensure the tracking performance by GFC. Three mobile robots in the authors' laboratory have been used to demonstrate the success of this integrated system experimentally. They also conduct target tracking experiments, in which Chung Cheng-I tracks various moving targets. The results demonstrate the robustness and flexibility of the overall system in dealing with mobile target-tracking problems under varied natural environment conditions

47.4.24    Wen-Hua Chen, D.J. Ballance, P.J. Gawthrop, J. O'Reilly, "A nonlinear disturbance observer for robotic manipulators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 932-938, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new nonlinear disturbance observer (NDO) for robotic manipulators is derived in this paper. The global exponential stability of the proposed disturbance observer (DO) is guaranteed by selecting design parameters, which depend on the maximum velocity and physical parameters of robotic manipulators. This new observer overcomes the disadvantages of existing DOs, which are designed or analyzed by linear system techniques. It can be applied in robotic manipulators for various purposes such as friction compensation, independent joint control, sensorless torque control and fault diagnosis. The performance of the proposed observer is demonstrated by the friction estimation and compensation for a two-link robotic manipulator. Both simulation and experimental results show the NDO works well


Factory Automation


47.4.25    D.M. Wilson, E.D. Blom, M.A. Marra, B.L. Walcott, "Direct sensorimotor control for low-cost mobile tracking applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 939-950, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A biologically inspired system for tracking objects in a visual scene is presented. The uniqueness of the system is in the absence of a microcontroller to convert sensory information to tracking decisions, reducing power, size, weight, and cost of the overall system. The system consists of a mobile vehicle outfitted with a custom analog VLSI architecture for encoding the position of an object of interest in the vehicles's field of view. Once determined, the object of interest retains hysteresis proportional to its size and intensity to limit the potential for distraction by other objects in the sensing environment. The encoded position of the object of interest is directly converted to a series of motor control signals to drive the vehicle in the direction of the object. The motor drive signals are pulse width modulated to control the speed and direction of travel induced by two de motors via a conventional differential steering arrangement. Neural oscillators are used to drive the de motors to provide a compact single-chip system for tracking bright objects. The nature of the system is sufficiently modular so that it can be adapted relatively easily to tracking other features of visual objects and even to objects representative of other sensing modalities. The system described here is one of the first efforts to fully integrate and apply analog VLSI (aVLSI) sensorimotor control to a mobile vehicle and to analyze the complete system from a control systems' perspective. The system described here has the advantages of aVLSI integration in its small size (0.011-mm2 elements), low power (0.3 μW per element), and fast system response time (1.5 ms from sensory input to motor response)


Emerging Technology


47.4.26    G. Cena, A. Valenzano, "FastCAN: a high-performance enhanced CAN-like network," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 951-963, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The controller area network (CAN) is a real-time fieldbus network which today is very popular in industrial environments because of its very appealing characteristics and low implementation costs. It has, however, serious limitations regarding the network extension and the transmission speed which may rule out this protocol in the next few years, at least for the use in high-performance automation systems. This paper presents a modification to the conventional CAN protocol based on a dual channel topology, which overcomes those limitations and exhibits a behavior that is very similar to the original standard protocol. FastCAN features very high communication performance and ensures a certain degree of compatibility with the existing devices and applications developed for the conventional CAN networks


Letters to the Editor


47.4.27    K. Matsuo, "Laser observation of flying ink jet electrostatically extracted: main results and application to tone reproduction of images," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 964-970, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: At present, there are several methods for measuring the diameter of droplets of ink jets. The authors have conceived a method by which not only the droplet diameter but also the state of ink jet flight can be determined using the same optical system by changing the light source only. The electrostatically extracted ink jet method using dielectric ink was used for the experiment. In the case of electrostatically extracted ink jet, a liquid thread of continuous flow is generated from the nozzle tip and disperses in corpuscles from the leading edge of the liquid thread. Observation of dispersing ink flight is difficult by any of the conventional methods. In their study, the state of ink from the liquid thread to corpuscles was observed by controlling applied voltage and ink pressure and with the use of an He-Ne laser beam or dye pulse laser beam depending on the observation objectives. Interesting results obtained are reported in this paper. In designing commercial models of printers using ink jets, their observation method presents new aspects for examining the state of flying ink

47.4.28    F.M.P. Hidalgo, J.R.H. Larmbia, J.L.D. Pat, "Ripple reduction in DC line of a PWM drive by direct reinjection ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 971-973, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This letter describes an alternative solution to passive and active filter arrangements on the DC side of the power converter. The circuits of DC-side ripple elimination are based on direct reinjection of the ripple in series with the DC line

47.4.29    Ming-Tsung Tsai, C. Tsai, "Energy recycling for electrical AC power source burn-in test," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 974-976, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This letter presents a feasible method for electrical AC power source burn-in test. The proposed architecture consists of two power stages. It consumes a lesser amount of energy than the conventional method and provides extra flexibility for the test load. To implement the proposed idea, a simple control strategy and system design is presented in this letter. A case study for an adjustable-speed AC motor drive is demonstrated by means of a prototype experiment to prove its performance and effectiveness

47.4.30    Yu-Kang Lo, Huang-Jen Chiu, Tzu-Herng Song, "A software-based CM and DM measurement system for the conducted EMI ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 977-978, August 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this letter, a software-based measurement system for conducted EMI is presented. A friendly interface is developed to provide an effective communication between the user and the system, the amplitude of either common-mode or differential-mode noise can be obtained by calculations. Experiments show that the proposed system works well on certain types of equipment

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 47,  Number 5, Oct 2000           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




                Special Section on Motor Fault Detection and Diagnosis

47.5.1    Mo-Yuen Chow, "Guest editorial special section on motor fault detection and diagnosis," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 982-983, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

47.5.2    M. El Hachemi Benbouzid, "A review of induction motors signature analysis as a medium for faults detection," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 984-993, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper is intended as a tutorial overview of induction motors signature analysis as a medium for fault detection. The purpose is to introduce in a concise manner the fundamental theory, main results, and practical applications of motor signature analysis for the detection and the localization of abnormal electrical and mechanical conditions that indicate, or may lead to, a failure of induction motors. The paper is focused on the so-called motor current signature analysis which utilizes the results of spectral analysis of the stator current. The paper is purposefully written without “state-of-the-art” terminology for the benefit of practising engineers in facilities today who may not be familiar with signal processing

47.5.3    F. Filippetti, G. Franceschini, C. Tassoni, P. Vas, "Recent developments of induction motor drives fault diagnosis using AI techniques," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 994-1004, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a review of the developments in the field of diagnosis of electrical machines and drives based on artificial intelligence (AI). It covers the application of expert systems, artificial neural networks (ANNs), and fuzzy logic systems that can be integrated into each other and also with more traditional techniques. The application of genetic algorithms is considered as well. In general, a diagnostic procedure starts from a fault tree developed on the basis of the physical behavior of the electrical system under consideration. In this phase, the knowledge of well-tested models able to simulate the electrical machine in different fault conditions is fundamental to obtain the patterns characterizing the faults. The fault tree navigation performed by an expert system inference engine leads to the choice of suitable diagnostic indexes, referred to a particular fault, and relevant to build an input data set for specific AI (NNs, fuzzy logic, or neuro-fuzzy) systems. The discussed methodologies, that play a general role in the diagnostic field, are applied to an induction machine, utilizing as input signals the instantaneous voltages and currents. In addition, the supply converter is also considered to incorporate in the diagnostic procedure the most typical failures of power electronic components. A brief description of the various AI techniques is also given; this highlights the advantages and the limitations of using AI techniques. Some applications examples are also discussed and areas for future research are also indicated

47.5.4    K.A. Loparo, M.L. Adams, W. Lin, M.F. Abdel-Magied, N. Afshari, "Fault detection and diagnosis of rotating machinery," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1005-1014, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A model-based approach to the detection and diagnosis of mechanical faults in rotating machinery is studied in this paper. For certain types of faults, for example, raceway faults in rolling element bearings, an increase in mass unbalance, and changes in stiffness and damping, algorithms suitable for real-time implementation are developed and evaluated using computer simulation

47.5.5    O. Moseler, R. Isermann, "Application of model-based fault detection to a brushless DC motor ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1015-1020, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In comparison to classical DC motors, brushless DC motors are very reliable, Nevertheless, they can also fail, caused by, e.g., overheating or mechanical wear. This paper proposes a parameter estimation technique for fault detection on this type of motor. Simply by measuring the motor's input and output signals, its parameters can be estimated. This method is based on a mathematical model of the process. In the presented work, a square-wave motor is considered. An appropriate model is derived. To be able to implement the method also on low-cost microcontroller-based control units, only the power inverter supply voltage, DC current, and the motor's angular velocity have to be measured. The parameter estimation technique provides information about the electrical resistance and the back-EMF constant as well as about the mechanical parameters. Comparing the nominal with the computed parameters, faults can be detected. The approach might be applied to both end-of-line and online fault detection. Results for simulated data demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed procedure. Finally, a real-world application-an actuation system with a brushless DC motor mounted to a gearbox-is given

47.5.6    Xiang-Qun Liu, Hong-Yue Zhang, Jun Liu, Jing Yang, "Fault detection and diagnosis of permanent-magnet DC motor based on parameter estimation and neural network," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1021-1030, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, fault detection and diagnosis of a permanent-magnet DC motor is discussed. Parameter estimation based on block-pulse function series is used to estimate the continuous-time model of the motor. The electromechanical parameters of the motor can be obtained from the estimated model parameters. The relative changes of electromechanical parameters are used to detect motor faults. A multilayer perceptron neural network is used to isolate faults based on the patterns of parameter changes. Experiments with a real motor validate the feasibility of the combined use of parameter estimation and neural network classification for fault detection and isolation of the motor

47.5.7    N. Arthur, J. Penman, "Induction machine condition monitoring with higher order spectra ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1031-1041, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a novel method of detecting and unambiguously diagnosing the type and magnitude of three induction machine fault conditions from the single sensor measurement of the radial electromagnetic machine vibration. The detection mechanism is based on the hypothesis that the induction machine can be considered as a simple system, and that the action of the fault conditions are to alter the output of the system in a characteristic and predictable fashion. Further, the change in output and fault condition can be correlated allowing explicit fault identification. Using this technique, there is no requirement for a priori data describing machine fault conditions, the method is equally applicable to both sinusoidally and inverter-fed induction machines and is generally invariant of both the induction machine load and speed. The detection mechanisms are rigorously examined theoretically and experimentally, and it is shown that a robust and reliable induction machine condition-monitoring system has been produced. Further, this technique is developed into a software-based automated commercially applicable system

47.5.8    C. Kral, R.S. Wieser, F. Pirker, M. Schagginger, "Sequences of field-oriented control for the detection of faulty rotor bars in induction machines-the Vienna Monitoring Method," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1042-1050, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Rotor cage asymmetries of induction machines cause disturbances of the air-gap flux pattern. These deviations affect torque and speed as well as stator terminal voltages and currents. The proposed fault detection technique senses the actual machine state with the help of real-time space-phasor models. The Vienna Monitoring Method compares online a voltage model output with a current model and observes the deviations in a rotor fixed reference frame. High accuracy and robustness allow the detection of a faulty rotor bar out of the switched voltage and current signals of an inverter-fed machine in an early state. The focus of this paper is the detection of a single rotor bar increase under transient speed conditions without the necessity of a clutched load. During an inverter-controlled acceleration, lasting only 200 ms, the Vienna Monitoring Method evaluates currents, voltages, and rotor position for the calculation of an indication quantity that allows for reliable detection. As only one acceleration task does not excite every rotor cage bar sufficiently, a set of acceleration and deceleration cycles has to be driven

47.5.9    T.W.S. Chow, H.-Z. Tan, "HOS-based nonparametric and parametric methodologies for machine fault detection," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1051-1059, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A framework for the detection and identification of machine faults through vibration measurements and higher order statistics (HOS) analysis is presented. As traditional signal processing techniques are based on the nonparametric magnitude analysis of vibration signals, in this paper, two different state-of-the-art HOS-based methods, namely, a nonparametric phase-analysis approach and a parametric linear or nonlinear modeling approach are used for machine fault diagnostic analysis. The focus of this paper is on the application of the techniques, not on the underlying theories. Each technique is described briefly and is accompanied by an experimental discussion on how it can be applied to classify the synthetic mechanical and electrical faults of induction machines compared with their normality. Promising results were obtained which show that the presented methodologies are possible approaches to perform effective preventive maintenance in rotating machinery

47.5.10    B. Li, M.-Y. Chow, Y. Tipsuwan, J.C. Hung, "Neural-network-based motor rolling bearing fault diagnosis," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1060-1069, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Motor systems are very important in modern society. They convert almost 60% of the electricity produced in the US into other forms of energy to provide power to other equipment. In the performance of all motor systems, bearings play an important role. Many problems arising in motor operations are linked to bearing faults. In many cases, the accuracy of the instruments and devices used to monitor and control the motor system is highly dependent on the dynamic performance of the motor bearings. Thus, fault diagnosis of a motor system is inseparably related to the diagnosis of the bearing assembly. In this paper, bearing vibration frequency features are discussed for motor bearing fault diagnosis. This paper then presents an approach for motor rolling bearing fault diagnosis using neural networks and time/frequency-domain bearing vibration analysis. Vibration simulation is used to assist in the design of various motor rolling bearing fault diagnosis strategies. Both simulation and real-world testing results obtained indicate that neural networks can be effective agents in the diagnosis of various motor bearing faults through the measurement and interpretation of motor bearing vibration signatures

47.5.11    D. Fuessel, R. Isermann, "Hierarchical motor diagnosis utilizing structural knowledge and a self-learning neuro-fuzzy scheme," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1070-1077, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A fault diagnosis system contains a classification system that can distinguish between different faults based on observed symptoms of the process under investigation. Since the fault symptom relationships are not always known beforehand, a system is required which can be learned from experimental or simulated data. A fuzzy-logic-based diagnosis is advantageous. It allows an easy incorporation of a priori known rules and enables the user to understand the inference of the system. In this paper, a new diagnosis scheme is presented and applied to a DC motor. The approach is based on the combination of structural a priori knowledge and measured data in order to create a hierarchical diagnosis system that can be adapted to different motors. Advantages of the system are its transparency and an increased robustness over traditional classification schemes

47.5.12    G.M. Joksimovic, J. Penman, "The detection of inter-turn short circuits in the stator windings of operating motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1078-1084, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper develops a winding-function-based method for modeling polyphase cage induction motors with inter-turn short circuits in the machine stator winding. Analytical consideration which sheds light on some components of the stator current spectra of both healthy and faulty machines is developed. It is shown that, as a result of the nature of the cage rotor, no new frequency components of the line current spectra can appear as a consequence of the fault. Only a rise in some of the frequency components which already exist in the line current spectra of a healthy machine can be observed. An experimental setup comprising a 3 kW delta-connected motor loaded by a generator was used to validate this approach. The experimental results obtained clearly validate the analytical and simulation results

47.5.13    R. Ong, J.H. Dymond, R.D. Findlay, "Bearing damage analysis in a large oil-ring-lubricated induction machine," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1085-1091, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, an alternative method of online detection capable of discerning machine failure modes resulting in shaft current is proposed. The relationship between shaft current and fault conditions such as asymmetrical flux due to joints in the lamination segments, broken rotor bars, air-gap eccentricity, saturation, and slot harmonics are investigated. The diagnostic equipment used in the investigation of a three-phase medium-voltage squirrel-cage induction machine is described. The experimental results using the alternative method of online detection of shaft current are presented

47.5.14    A.M. Trzynadlowski, E. Ritchie, "Comparative investigation of diagnostic media for induction motors: a case of rotor cage faults," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1092-1099, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Results of a comparative experimental investigation of various media for noninvasive diagnosis of rotor faults in induction motors are presented. Stator voltages and currents in an induction motor were measured, recorded, and employed for computation of the partial and total input powers and of the estimated torque. Waveforms of the current, partial powers pAB and pCB, total power, and estimated torque were subsequently analyzed using the fast Fourier transform. Several rotor cage faults of increasing severity were studied with various load levels. The partial input power pCB was observed to exhibit the highest sensitivity to rotor faults. This medium is also the most reliable, as it includes a multiplicity of fault-induced spectral components

47.5.15    B.M. Wilamowski, O. Kaynak, "Oil well diagnosis by sensing terminal characteristics of the induction motor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1100-1107, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Oil well diagnosis usually requires dedicated sensors placed on the surface and the bottom of the well. There is significant interest in identifying the characteristics of an oil well by using data from these sensors and neural networks for data processing. The purpose of this paper is to identify oil well parameters by measuring the terminal characteristics of the induction motor driving the pumpjack. Information about oil well properties is hidden in instantaneous power waveforms. The extraction of this information was done using neural networks. For the purpose of training neural networks, a complex model of the system, which included 25 differential equations, was developed. Successful application of neural networks was possible due to the proposed signal preprocessing which reduces thousands of measured data points into 20 scalar variables. The special input pattern transformation was used to enhance the power of the neural networks. Two training algorithms, originally developed by authors, were used in the learning process. The presented approach does not require special instrumentation and can be used on any oil well with a pump driven by an induction motor. The quality of the oil well could be monitored continuously and proper adjustments could be made. The approach may lead to significant savings in electrical energy, which is required to pump the oil

47.5.16    D.A.G. Pedder, A.D. Brown, J.N. Ross, A.C. Williams, "A parallel-connected active filter for the reduction of supply current distortion," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1108-1117, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The use of switching regulators and power supplies in domestic and light industrial environments is becoming more common. Their popularity derives from a number of desirable characteristics, but a highly undesirable feature, often overlooked by the designer, is the highly nonlinear load imposed by these systems on the supply. For a single load, it is not uncommon to find more than 90% of the power extracted during the central 30° of the supply halfwave. When large numbers of these systems are connected to a common supply (for example, a bank may have literally hundreds of PCs in a dealing room in a single building), significant harmonic distortion can be induced in the supply and thus experienced by other loads. In this paper, we discuss a practical implementation of a waveform correcting circuit; the system stores energy in a capacitor and injects it appropriately into the local supply distribution subsystem, such that the overall load experienced by the external supply is sinusoidal. The system is physically small, and dissipates little power in its own right. It is thus suitable for installation in, for example, an office environment


Power Electronics


47.5.17    Horng-Bin Hsu, Chern-Lin Chen, Song-Yi Lin, Kun-Ming Lee, "Regenerative power electronics driver for plasma display panel in sustain-mode operation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1118-1125, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A regenerative power electronic circuit is proposed to drive a plasma display panel (PDP) in sustain-mode operation. This driver utilizes inductors to resonate with the equivalent intrinsic capacitance of the PDP to avoid the abrupt charging/discharging operation. The energy losses due to conventional hardswitching driving and the displacement current of the PDP are mainly recovered. Compared with prior approaches, this driving circuit has a quite simple structure and is suitable for asymmetrical operation

47.5.18    M.S. Islam, J. Husain, "Torque-ripple minimization with indirect position and speed sensing for switched reluctance motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1126-1133, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A torque-ripple-minimization controller is realized along with indirect position and speed sensing for switched reluctance motors (SRMs). The position and speed estimations are derived from a sliding-mode observer that requires terminal measurements of only phase voltages and currents. The research shows that position- and speed-sensorless observers can be reliably used for control of an SRM. Experimental results using a four-phase, 8/6 SRM and the TMS320C30 digital signal processor are presented. The results demonstrate position- and speed-sensorless closed-loop operation of a torque-ripple-minimized SRM drive


Drive Control


47.5.19    S. Bolognani, M. Zordan, M. Zigliotto, "Experimental fault-tolerant control of a PMSM drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1134-1141, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper describes a study and an experimental verification of remedial strategies against failures occurring in the inverter power devices of a permanent-magnet synchronous motor drive. The basic idea of this design consists of incorporating a fourth inverter pole, with the same topology and capabilities of the other conventional three poles. This minimal redundant hardware, appropriately connected and controlled, allows the drive to face a variety of power device fault conditions while maintaining a smooth torque production. The achieved results also show the industrial feasibility of the proposed fault-tolerant control, that could fit many practical applications

47.5.20    N. Teske, G.M. Asher, M. Sumner, K.J. Bradley, "Suppression of saturation saliency effects for the sensorless position control of induction motor drives under loaded conditions," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1142-1150, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an automated commissioning procedure used for the elimination of the saturation saliency effects in the sensorless position control of field-orientated cage induction motor drives. The position control itself is based on extracting a rotor position estimate from a high-frequency signal injection interacting with natural or engineered rotor position saliencies within the machine. The paper shows that this estimate cannot be robustly or accurately obtained if saturation saliencies are present. The paper introduces a method for suppressing the effects of the saturation saliency through information gained in a prior commissioning procedure. The effectiveness of the procedure is demonstrated through experimental results showing both good suppression of the saturation harmonics and true sensorless position control under high load torques


Robotics and Vision


47.5.21    Meng Joo Er, Swee Hong Chin, "Hybrid adaptive fuzzy controllers of robot manipulators with bounds estimation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1151-1160, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A hybrid adaptive fuzzy controller comprises a weighted combination of a direct and an indirect adaptive fuzzy controller, with a continuously switched supervisory controller. The direct and indirect adaptive fuzzy controllers allow fuzzy control rules and fuzzy descriptions to be incorporated respectively, to achieve better adaptation speed. In the design of the supervisory controller, the bounds of the unknown robot dynamics are not required; they are adaptively estimated in the Lyapunov sense. Experimental evaluation conducted on a SEIKO TT-3000 SCARA robot shows that the proposed hybrid adaptive fuzzy controller is robust and stable. It also outperforms both the direct and indirect adaptive fuzzy controllers designed by the authors in their previous work in terms of tracking accuracy and the magnitude of control torque required


Emerging Technology


47.5.22    S.Y. Foo, "A fuzzy logic approach to fire detection in aircraft dry bays and engine compartments," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1161-1171, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a fuzzy logic approach is applied to detect hydrocarbon fires in aircraft dry bays and engine compartments. The inputs to the fuzzy system consist of a set of statistical measures derived from the histogram and image subtraction analyses of successive image frames. Specifically, fuzzy rules based on the median, standard deviation, and normalized first-order moment statistical measures of histogram data and the mean statistical measure of image subtraction data of successive frames are used to compute the probability of a fire event. This fuzzy logic approach is also tested for false alarms such as those due to flashlights and high-power halogen lights. It is shown that image subtraction analysis can be used to accurately distinguish fires from false alarms


Letters to the Editor


47.5.23    Yu-Kang Lo, Huang-Jen Chiu, Sheng-Yuan Ou, "Constant-switching-frequency control of switch-mode rectifiers without current sensors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1172-1174, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel control scheme for single-phase switch-mode rectifiers is presented in this letter. By utilizing the constant-switching-frequency pulsewidth modulation scheme, the duty ratios of the switches in each switching cycle are determined based on the available input current slopes. No current sensors are required. The simulations and experiments show satisfactory results

47.5.24    Yu-Kang Lo, Huang-Jen Chiu, Sheng-Yuan Ou, "Dual hysteresis loops for a high-performance four-switch boost rectifier," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1174-1176, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new current controller adopting dual hysteresis loops for a high-performance four-switch boost rectifier is proposed in this letter. The four-switch boost rectifier is operated under the so-called phase-adjusted unipolar pulsewidth modulation strategy. The inner loop confines the current ripple within a preset band. The outer loop determines the instants to change the switching patterns. Experimental results are satisfactory

47.5.25    J. Solsona, M.I. Valla, C. Muravchik, "On speed and rotor position estimation in permanent-magnet AC drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1176-1180, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This letter deals with rotor position and speed estimation of permanent magnet AC drives. Two reduced-order observers, a linear (AO) and a nonlinear one (NLO), are compared, an adaptive speed estimation scheme is also considered, analysis and simulations show that the NLO has better performance and demands less computational load than the AO plus the adaptive scheme

47.5.26    X. Yu, M.W. Dunnigan, B.W. Williams, "Phase voltage estimation of a PWM VSI and its application to vector-controlled induction machine parameter estimation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1181-1184, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For high-performance vector control of an induction machine, rotor resistance estimation is required. The commonly used state-space class of estimators requires voltage transducers as instantaneous phase voltages are used in the estimation algorithm. A phase voltage estimator is developed for a pulsewidth modulation voltage-source inverter. The voltage estimates are used in a rotor resistance estimator and practical results show that the usual phase-voltage transducers are unnecessary

47.5.27    Kao-Shing Hwang, Horag-Jen Chao, "Adaptive reinforcement learning system for linearization control ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1185-1188, Oct 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A linearization scheme is proposed to demonstrate how a neural network scheme learns to linearize a system without any identification. The process occurs within an evaluator and a controller, which communicate with each other through reinforcement signals. From simulation results, the proposed learning scheme notably surpasses the conventional neural network approaches

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 47,  Number 6, Dec 2000           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




                Power Electronics

47.6.1    "Acknowledgement of Reviewers," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1195-1199, Dec 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

47.6.2    S. Halasz, B.T. Huu, A. Zakharov, "Two-phase modulation technique for three-level inverter-fed AC drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1200- 1211, Dec 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Two-phase dipolar and unipolar modulation techniques for three-level three-phase inverters are suggested and compared with conventional three-phase pulsewidth modulation (PWM) techniques. Two-phase PWMs with 60/spl deg/ (0/spl deg/ and /spl plusmn/30/spl deg/ shift) and 120/spl deg/ cycles are investigated from the point of view of harmonic losses, motor voltage spectra, and torque pulsations. It is shown that two-phase dipolar PWMs have no advantages in comparison with three-phase PWMs, while two-phase unipolar PWMs-in contrast with three-phase PWMs-considerably decrease the motor harmonic losses and torque pulsations in the whole motor voltage region. At the same time, the inverter neutral point control requires reversing to three-phase PWM technique for the duration of the control.

47.6.3    Chern-Lin Chen, Guo-Kiang Horng, "A new passive 28-step current shaper for three-phase rectification," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1212- 1219, Dec 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new passive 28-step current shaper for three-phase rectification is proposed in this paper. With a phase-shifting transformer on the AC side and six interphase transformers on the DC side, per-phase input current can be shaped into a 28-step sinusoidal waveform. The total harmonic distortion of AC input currents obtained is 6.53%, lower than one-half of that in a conventional 12-pulse converter. The transformer voltampere rating is also lowered down to one-fifth of that in a 12-pulse converter. A 2 kW experiment is performed to verify the proposed circuit.

47.6.4    R.W. Pretorius, I.S. Shaw, J.D. Van Wyk, "A neural-network-based controller for the cost-effective operation of a hybrid compensator for nonactive power," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1220- 1227, Dec 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The need to eliminate distortion from power networks has led to the development of various compensator topologies. The increasing cost of electrical energy requires the choice of the most cost-effective compensator operation. An investigation of a neural-network-based controller that chooses the most cost-effective compensator mode of operation on the basis of a continuous analysis of load conditions and the operational losses of the elements in the compensator structure are reported. The modeling of operational losses of each subtopology and the required control strategy are discussed. The results show that the operational loss savings due to the neural-network-controlled hybrid compensator were 30%-70% as compared to the conventionally controlled hybrid compensator, while also conforming to other control strategy requirements.

47.6.5    King-Jet Tseng, Shuyu Cao, Jijiu Wang, "A new hybrid C-dump and buck-fronted converter for switched reluctance motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1228- 1236, Dec 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an experimentally verified single-pulse-operation switched reluctance motor converter topology based on the basic buck-fronted topology and the modified C-dump topology. Using only (n+1) power switches, this topology is able to achieve full single-pulse operation, thereby reducing switching losses and acoustic noise. It also achieves a greater demagnetizing voltage compared to the basic buck-fronted topology, without having to increase the DC-source voltage. The converter is more robust as its dump capacitor stops being charged if the chopper switch fails. The principle of operation, modes of operation, transient simulation results, and experimental results are presented.

47.6.6    H. Sekiya, M. Matsuo, H. Koizumi, S. Mori, I. Sasase, "New control scheme for class DE inverter by varying driving signals," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1237- 1248, Dec 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new control scheme for the class DE inverter is presented. This method generates the output voltage and power by varying driving signals which turn switches on and off. The advantages of the proposed scheme are the improvement of the power conversion efficiency for low output voltage, the operation at fixed operating frequency, unneccessity of enlargement of the circuit scale, and suitability for controlling the wide output range. An exact analysis and circuit experiments are carried out. It is shown that the experimental results are very similar to the theoretical predictions qualitatively. Measured efficiency is over 93% with 1.0-MHz 1.8-W output.

47.6.7    E. Dallago, M. Passoni, G. Sassone, "Lossless current sensing in low-voltage high-current DC/DC modular supplies," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1249- 1252, Dec 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: New data processing ICs require low-voltage high-current supplies together with high reliability and efficiency. The use of a modular power supply would be the ideal solution, but it requires detecting the current in each module, and resistive shunts are usually used. In this paper, a new lossless current-sensing circuit is presented. This lossless current transducer is obtained by applying the technique used to compensate the parasitic inductance in resistive shunts to the filter inductor of the DC/DC power supply. The causes that can influence transducer response are investigated. The current sensing was implemented in a modular DC/DC power supply and experimental results are reported.

47.6.8    J.M. Alonso, J. Ribas, J.J.D. Coz, A.J. Calleja, E.L. Corominas, M. Rico-Secades, "Development of a distributive control scheme for fluorescent lighting based on LonWorks technology," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1253- 1262, Dec 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new distributive control system for indoor fluorescent lighting based on LonWorks technology is presented. The system features the following elements: microprocessor-controlled fluorescent lamp electronic ballast, communication system using the power line as communication media, and control software for Windows 95 environment. The electronic ballast has been especially designed to be operated under the proposed distributive control system. Thus, it features high-input power factor, high-frequency lamp supply, lamp power regulation against line voltage variations, dimming capability, and lamp failure detection. With this scheme, a low-cost distributive control system for lighting applications has been achieved, allowing energy and maintenance savings and increase in the reliability of the fluorescent lighting systems.

47.6.9    Chang-Shiarn Lin, Chern-Lin Chen, "Single-switch electronic ballast with continuous input current charge pump power-factor correction," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1263- 1270, Dec 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a single-switch electronic ballast with continuous input current charge pump power-factor correction. The ballast circuit is composed of a series/parallel inverter, a charge pump power-factor corrector, and a dimming controller. The characteristics and design considerations of this ballast are discussed in this paper. Dimming control is achieved by varying the switching frequency. The frequency-modulation scheme is used to reduce the low-frequency output current ripple. A prototype of a 36WT8 fluorescent lamp ballast has been implemented and tested. Experimental results verify the analytical derivations.

47.6.10    Chen-Chang Liu, Chern-Lin Chen, Kun-Ming Lee, "A novel energy-recovery sustaining driver for plasma display panel," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1271- 1277, Dec 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel energy-recovery driver is proposed to drive a plasma display panel (PDP) in the sustaining operation. The proposed circuit uses the parallel resonance between the inductor and the intrinsic capacitance of PDP to mainly recover the energy lost by the capacitive displacement current of the PDP. The parasitic resonance caused by the parasitic inductance and the stray capacitance is prevented greatly. A 34-in AC PDP equipped with the proposed driving circuit, operated at 100 kHz, is investigated. In addition, some prior work is shown in this paper for comparison, in which the power consumption of driving the same 34-in panel is measured. The experimental results show that the proposed driver has a low-cost structure and better performance than the prior ones.

47.6.11    Duwang L, R. Tymerski, "Comparison of simulation algorithms for accelerated determination of periodic steady state of switched networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1278- 1285, Dec 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a comparison of the following algorithms for accelerated determination of periodic steady state of switched networks: Newton's method with analytically determined Jacobian; Newton's method with numerically determined Jacobian; Newton's method with Broyden updates of an initial numerically determined Jacobian; Newton's method with a globally convergent strategy (and numerical Jacobian); Bukowski's method; and Skelboe's method. Each algorithm is incorporated into a very accurate power electronics' simulator (PECS) at source-code level and compared on a common basis. The results on several switching converters suggest the analytical Newton's method to be the most accurate and fastest. When analytical derivatives are not available, both Broyden's and Skelboe's methods are competitive.


Drive Control


47.6.12    Zhang Yan, Changxi Jin, V. Utkin, "Sensorless sliding-mode control of induction motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1286- 1297, Dec 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper develops the ideas of speed- and flux-sensorless sliding-mode control for an induction motor illustrated in previous work by one of the authors. A sliding-mode observer/controller is proposed in this paper. The convergence of the nonlinear time-varying observer along with the asymptotic stability of the controller is analyzed. Pulsewidth modulation implementation using sliding-mode concepts is also discussed. Major attention is paid to torque control, and then the developed approach is utilized for speed control. Computer simulations and experiments have been carried out to test the proposed estimation and control algorithm. The experimental results demonstrated high efficiency of the proposed estimation and control method.

47.6.13    T. Emura, Lei Wang, M. Yamanaka, H. Nakamura, "A high-precision positioning servo controller based on phase/frequency detecting technique of two-phase-type PLL," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1298- 1306, Dec 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new method proposed for high-precision positioning servomechanisms. The servo controller uses a two-phase-type phase-locked loop (PLL) to detect position tracking error and speed fluctuation with high resolution. Because the two-phase-type PLL has a wide frequency range and high noise suppression performance, we applied the new controller to high-power and high-velocity servo-spindles and achieved high control performance. The developed servo-spindles were used by a high-productivity numerically controlled gear grinding machine. Experiments of gear grinding were carried out, and the results confirmed the performance of the developed controller.

47.6.14    M.A. Inerfield, S.L. Garverick, W.S. Newman, Yuandao Zhang, "A SPICE model for a novel brushless adjustable-speed drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1307- 1318, Dec 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A SPICE circuit model was developed to accurately simulate the i-v characteristics of a brushless AC motor commutated by semiconductor switches. The model is based on Fourier curve fits to measured mutual inductance interactions between all combinations of field and armature windings, as well as coil resistance and inductance. The model is able to accurately predict current and voltage characteristics, both statically, and dynamically when interfaced with a commutation model. The model has been demonstrated to agree with electrical tests of an inverted motor on a large time scale. It has also given reliable predictions of small time-scale details, where it is desirable to predict power MOSFET switch behavior after a command to open or close. Data were collected and analyzed for simulations of the motor model combined with a commutation model containing MOSFET switches. Metrics were compared to data collected from an inverted brushless motor with good agreement.

47.6.15    P. Crnosija, B. Kuzmanovic, S. Ajdukovic, "Microcomputer implementation of optimal algorithms for closed-loop control of hybrid stepper motor drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1319- 1325, Dec 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper discusses optimal algorithms for closed-loop control of hybrid stepper motor drives and their microprocessor implementation. The torque characteristics and the optimal control angle of hybrid stepper motor drives with added series resistance and reluctant stepper motor drives have been described in detail in the literature. The specific contribution of the paper to this field of research consists of the analysis of the torque characteristics and the optimal control angle of hybrid stepper motor drives with a chopper amplifier and current controller. Analytical expressions for the average torque and the optimal control angle of a two-phase hybrid stepper motor with chopper amplifier and current controller have been developed. An actual hybrid stepper motor drive and the microcontroller-based implementation of the suboptimal and exact optimal control algorithms have been described. The experimental results obtained by positioning a two-phase hybrid stepper motor drive with chopper amplifier, phase current controller, and incremental encoder suggested that the derived optimal control algorithm provided maximum acceleration and minimum positioning time of the hybrid stepper motor drive.


Signal Processing and Control


47.6.16    Man Hyung lee, Jog Il Bae, Kang Sup Yoon, F. Harashima, "Real time and an in-process measuring system for the grinding process cylindrical workpieces using Kalman filtering," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1326- 1333, Dec 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper introduces an in-process measurement system that does not pause during the machining processes. The system could result in enhanced productivity and quality control in manufacturing processes that use a surface grinding spindle. For the gauging sensor of the measurement system, we propose an eddy-current sensor because it is a noncontact type, which uses an eddy current induced when a metallic material is placed in a high-frequency electromagnetic field. Also, it is very insensitive to other kinds of interference such as cutting fluids, coolants, contact pressure, and wear at the contact point. For data analysis, the measurement system was modeled as a linearized discrete form, and the states with noises were estimated by an extended Kalman filter. Validation of this system was performed through a simulation and an experiment.


Emerging Technology


47.6.17    Sam Kwong, D.W.F. Lam, K.S. Tang, Kim-Fung Man, "Optimization of spare capacity in self-healing multicast ATM network using genetic algorithm," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1334- 1343, Dec 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to optimize the amount of spare capacity reserved for the backup virtual paths (BVPs) in multicast asynchronous transfer mode networks. In this paper, we study the capacity and routing assignment problem arising in the design of self-healing networks using the VP concept. A major contribution of this work is to apply a genetic algorithm (GA) to the backup path search process instead of the trivial exhaustive search method. Experimental results indicate that both approaches have very comparable results in finding the multicast backup paths. Further, it also indicated that using a GA approach has a number of advantages over the exhaustive search approach, such as the computational requirement for a GA in finding good BVPs is small when compared to the exhaustive search method. A major drawback of our approach is that we cannot guarantee the finding of global optimum in real time.


Letters to the Editor


47.6.18    P.I. Ro, Byoung-Gook Loh, J. Santiago, "Feasibility of contact and noncontact material handling using traveling waves and transition characteristics," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1344- 1345, Dec 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The feasibility of using traveling waves as a mechanism for industrial material handling is examined. A prototype was constructed to experimentally investigate the feasibility of the proposed method. Two kinds of transport methods are investigated: frictional drive and acoustic levitation. Experimental transport speed characteristics are presented. The transition characteristics from acoustic levitation to frictional drive are also experimentally examined.

47.6.19    Siu-Yeung Cho, T.W.S. Chow, "A neural-learning-based reflectance model for 3-D shape reconstruction," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1346- 1350, Dec 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this letter, the limitation of the conventional Lambertian reflectance model is addressed and a new neural-based reflectance model is proposed of which the physical parameters of the reflectivity under different lighting conditions are interpreted by the neural network behavior of the nonlinear input-output mapping. The idea of this method is to optimize a proper reflectance model by a neural learning algorithm and to recover the object surface by a simple shape-from-shading (SFS) variational method with this neural-based model. A unified computational scheme is proposed to yield the best SFS solution. This SFS technique has become more robust for most objects, even when the lighting conditions are uncertain.

47.6.20    A.B. Rad, W.L. Lo, K.M. Tsang, "Adaptive time-delay controller," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1350- 1353, Dec 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A time-delay controller is proposed in this letter. This controller possesses attractive properties, such as requiring only one tuning parameter. Furthermore, it can be applied to higher order systems as well as systems with dominant delay. The basic structure is integrated with an online estimation algorithm to form an adaptive time-delay controller. An experimental study is included to demonstrate its performance and merits compared with two similar controllers.

47.6.21    "Author Index," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1354-1359, Dec 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

47.6.22    "Subject Index," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1359-1375, Dec 2000.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 48,  Number 1, Feb 2001           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




                Special Section on Computational Intelligent Methodologies and Sliding Mode Control

48.1.1    O. Kaynak, "Guest editorial special section on computationally intelligent methodologies and sliding-mode control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 2-3, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

48.1.2    O. Kaynak, K. Erbatur, M. Ertugnrl, "The fusion of computationally intelligent methodologies and sliding-mode control-a survey," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 4-17, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper surveys how some “intelligence” can be incorporated in sliding-mode controllers (SMCs) by the use of computational intelligence methodologies in order to alleviate the well-known problems met in practical implementations of SMCs. The use of variable-structure system theory in design and stability analysis of fuzzy controllers is also discussed by drawing parallels between fuzzy control and SMCs. An overview of the research and applications reported in the literature in this respect is presented

48.1.3    R.G. Berstecher, R. Palm, H.D. Unbehauen, "An adaptive fuzzy sliding-mode controller," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 18-31, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with a new adaptive fuzzy sliding-mode controller and its application to a robot manipulator arm. The theory for this approach and for the heuristics-based linguistic adaptation is presented, and a mathematical description is derived. Furthermore, an application of this adaptive controller for a two-link robot arm is shown. The obtained results show the high efficiency of the new controller type

48.1.4    L.K. Wong, F.H.F. Leung, P.K.S. Tam, "A fuzzy sliding controller for nonlinear systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 32-37, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: It is well known that sliding-mode control can give good transient performance and system robustness. However, the presence of chattering may introduce problems to the actuators. Many chattering elimination methods use a finite DC gain controller which leads to a finite steady-state error. One method to ensure zero steady-state error is using a proportional plus integral (PI) controller. This paper proposes a fuzzy logic controller which combines a sliding-mode controller (SMC) and a PI controller. The advantages of the SMC and the PI controller can be combined and their disadvantages can be removed. The system stability is proved, although there is one more state variable to be considered in the PI subsystem. An illustrative example shows that good transient and steady-state responses can be obtained by applying the proposed controller

48.1.5    Q.P. Ha, Q.H. Nguyen, D.C. Rye, H.F. Durrant-Whyte, "Fuzzy sliding-mode controllers with applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 38-46, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper concerns the design of robust control systems using sliding-mode control that incorporates a fuzzy tuning technique. The control law superposes equivalent control, switching control, and fuzzy control. An equivalent control law is first designed using pole placement. Switching control is then added to guarantee that the state reaches the sliding mode in the presence of parameter and disturbance uncertainties. Fuzzy tuning schemes are employed to improve control performance and to reduce chattering in the sliding mode. The practical application of fuzzy logic is proposed here as a computational-intelligence approach to engineering problems associated with sliding-mode controllers. The proposed method can have a number of industrial applications including the joint control of a hydraulically actuated mini-excavator as presented in this paper. The control hardware is described together with simulated and experimental results. High performance and attenuated chatter are achieved. The results obtained verify the validity of the proposed control approach to dynamic systems characterized by severe uncertainties

48.1.6    Chih-Lyang Hwang, Chau Feb, Ye-Hwa Chen, "Piezomechanics using intelligent variable-structure control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 47-59, Jan 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The so-called piezomechanics contain three parts: piezoelectric translator, carriage mechanism, and control system. It is well known that piezomechanics have three drawbacks: (1) it should only be loaded axially; (2) it contains a hysteresis feature; and (3) its expansion is dependent on temperature. The first drawback is tackled by the design of the carriage mechanism. This paper focuses on dealing with the second and third drawbacks by using an intelligent variable-structure control. First, a neural network is employed to learn the dynamics of the piezomechanism. Second, a novel forward control based on the learned model is employed to achieve an acceptable tracking result. Because the tracking performance by a forward control cannot be guaranteed as the system is subject to uncertainties, a discrete-time variable-structure control is synthesized to improve the performance. No state estimator is required for the proposed control. The stability of the overall system is verified via the Lyapunov analysis. Experiments are also presented to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control

48.1.7    Faa-Jeng Lin, Rong-Jong Wai, "Sliding-mode-controlled slider-crank mechanism with fuzzy neural network," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 60-70, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The dynamic response of a sliding-mode-controlled slider-crank mechanism, which is driven by a permanent-magnet (PM) synchronous servo motor, is studied in this paper. First, a position controller is developed based on the principles of sliding-mode control. Moreover, to relax the requirement of the bound of uncertainties in the design of a sliding-mode controller, a fuzzy neural network (FNN) sliding-mode controller is investigated, in which a FNN is adopted to adjust the control gain in a switching control law on line to satisfy the sliding mode condition. In addition, to guarantee the convergence of tracking error, analytical methods based on a discrete-type Lyapunov function are proposed to determine the varied learning rates of the FNN. Numerical and experimental results show that the dynamic behaviors of the proposed controller-motor-mechanism system are robust with regard to parametric variations and external disturbances. Furthermore, compared with the sliding-mode controller, smaller control effort results and the chattering phenomenon is much reduced by the proposed FNN sliding-mode controller

48.1.8    J.R. Espinoza, G. Joos, J.I. Guzman, L.A. Moran, R.P. Burgos, "Selective harmonic elimination and current/voltage control in current/voltage-source topologies: a unified approach," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 71-81, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a unified approach for generating pulsewidth-modulated patterns for three-phase current-source rectifiers and inverters (CSR/Is) that provides unconstrained selective harmonic elimination and fundamental current control. The approach uses the chopping angles or gating patterns developed for voltage-source rectifiers and inverters in combination with a logic circuit to generate the gating patterns for CSR/Is. The circuit also includes naturally and symmetrically distributed shorting pulses. Thus, the approach avoids the hassle of positioning the shorting pulses and defining and solving a set of nonlinear equations dedicated to CSR/Is. Moreover, the approach can eliminate an even or odd arbitrary number of harmonics (e.g., fundamental current control and elimination of the 5th, 7th, and 11th harmonics). This is an improvement over existing techniques and a new approach to pattern generation. Simulated and experimental results for both static and dynamic operating conditions are presented in order to validate the effectiveness of the approach


Power Electronics


48.1.9    M. Ehsani, K.M. Rahman, M.D. Bellar, A.J. Severinsky, "Evaluation of soft switching for EV and HEV motor drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 82-90, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Soft switching has the potential of reducing switch stresses and of lowering the switching losses as compared to hard switching. To understand the effectiveness of the soft-switching technique, when applied to electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) systems, it may be necessary to first evaluate their system requirements and performance. This evaluation process would require knowledge of the vehicle dynamics. The vehicle load requires a special torque-speed profile from the drivetrain for minimum power ratings to meet the vehicle's operational constraints, such as initial acceleration and gradability. The selection of motor and its control for EV and HEV applications are dictated mainly by this special torque-speed requirement. As a consequence, this requirement will have a strong influence on the converter operation. This paper makes an attempt to evaluate EV and HEV running in both standard Federal Test Procedure 1975 city driving and highway driving cycles. A simplified analysis is carried out for several of the most commonly used electric motors operating on the optimal torque-speed profile. Special attention is given to the converter conduction and switching losses, by analyzing the switching losses, and by assuming that an ideal soft-switching scheme will have zero switching losses, one can evaluate the improvement in the system efficiency if a soft-switching control is used. The relative significance of soft switching for EV and HEV systems is then established

48.1.10    W. le Roux, J.D. van Wyk, "Modeling of distortion compensation ineffectivity in filters for nonactive power," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 91-100, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper evaluates the error in compensation due to two main limitations. The first limitation is the lagging of the compensation reference caused by the sampling and processing due to digital signal processing equipment. The second limitation is the di/dt capability of the switching converter. Models are derived to evaluate the error due to these two limitations, as well as the percentage contribution to the total ineffectivity of compensation. Experimental results confirm that the mentioned limitation that has the most detrimental effect on compensation can easily be determined with the use of the models derived in this paper

48.1.11    F.-S. Hamdad, A.K.S. Bhat, "A novel pulsewidth control scheme for fixed-frequency zero-voltage-switching DC-to-DC PWM bridge converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 101-110, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new gating pulse scheme is proposed for the control of DC-to-DC pulsewidth-modulated (PWM) bridge converter that provides zero-voltage switching (ZVS) for all the switches for a wide variation in load and input voltage. This new complementary fixed-edge gating control scheme is compared to the traditional phase shift control scheme. Modes of operation are presented and analyzed. Based on the analysis, design procedure and design curves are obtained. An optimum design is given and a design example is presented. Results obtained from PSPICE simulation for the converter designed are given to verify the performance of the proposed converter for varying load as well as line voltage. Detailed results obtained from a 500 W experimental converter are given to verify the advantages of the proposed gating scheme

48.1.12    J. Paramesh, A. von Jouanne, "Use of sigma-delta modulation to control EMI from switch-mode power supplies," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 111-117, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) is a major cause of concern in switch-mode power supplies (SMPSs) which commonly use standard pulsewidth modulation (PWM). In this paper, sigma-delta (ΣΔ) modulation is proposed as an alternative switching technique to reduce conducted EMI from an SMPS. The result of using ΣΔ modulation is a spread in the spectrum of the conducted emissions so that large concentrations of power at discrete frequencies are avoided. Experimental time-domain waveforms and spectra of the switching function of first-order and second-order ΣΔ modulators are presented to prove the viability of the scheme for EMI mitigation. These modulators are then applied to a DC-DC converter in an off-the-shelf computer power supply and experimental results show a reduction of roughly 5-10 dB·μV in EMI emissions over standard PWM modulators

48.1.13    Xiangning He, Kuang Sheng, B.W. Williams, Zhaoming Qian, S.J. Finney, "A composite soft-switching inverter configuration with unipolar pulsewidth modulation control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 118-126, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new composite soft-switching configuration for single-phase inverters where power bridge leg modules are used. The presented configuration consists of only one inductor and one capacitor as well as two low-power-rated switches/diodes for full-bridge circuits. It can realize snubber functions and/or resonant zero-current switching at any load current for switches in power inverters with unipolar sinusoid pulse width modulation control. The idea presented here is that soft-switching processes at turn-on and turn-off for each active switch in inverters can be different. The detailed circuit operational processes, simulation waveforms, and experimental results are included

48.1.14    T. Suntio, "Analysis and modeling of peak-current-mode-controlled buck converter in DICM," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 127-135, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a unified method to obtain both small- and large-signal models for a peak-current-mode-controlled buck converter which accurately predict its behavior. The models show that the peak-current-mode transfer functions are effectively of first order, as can be expected due to the heavy bounding of inductor current. The large-signal behavior can be accurately predicted by using a simple algebraic equation including the mode limit of basic-switching-frequency operation as well as the input-output relations. It is also pointed out that a buck converter can have stable open-loop as well as closed-loop operation modes at basic switching frequency and at its even and odd harmonics. The subharmonic modes are, however, not controllable in a conventional way

48.1.15    Byungcho Choi, Sung-Soo Hong, Hyokil Park, "Modeling and small-signal analysis of controlled on-time boost power-factor-correction circuit," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 136-142, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A large-signal average model for the controlled on-time boost power-factor-correction (PFC) circuit is developed and subsequently linearized, resulting in a small-signal model for the PFC circuit. AC analyses are performed using the small-signal model, revealing new results on the small-signal dynamics of the PFC circuit. The analysis results and model predictions are confirmed with experimental measurements on a 200-W prototype PFC circuit

48.1.16    P.I. Po, Byoung-Gook Loh, "Feasibility of using ultrasonic flexural waves as a cooling mechanism," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 143-150, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The potential convective heat transfer capability of an ultrasonic flexural wave (UFW) is experimentally investigated. The UFW includes an ultrasonic flexural standing wave (USW) and an ultrasonic flexural traveling wave (UTW). The factors that might affect the cooling performance of the UFW are investigated. Those include the vibration amplitude of the UFW, the gap between the cooling source and the object above it, and the temperature of the object being cooled. It was observed that the temperature drop increased with the vibration amplitude. At gaps below 100 μm, a temperature drop was not observed. As the gap was increased to more than 100 μm, the temperature drop increased until it reached an optimum gap producing maximum temperature drop. Beyond the optimum gap, the temperature drop began to decrease. Also, it was observed that the temperature drop increased as the temperature difference between the object and ambient air increased. The cooling performance of the USW and UTW was investigated and compared. The differences in cooling performance were found to be insignificant. This indicates that acoustic streaming is the dominant factor in the convective heat transfer using the UFW. However, using resonance, the UTW creates a temperature drop six times greater than the UTW for a given power supply. With the USW having a vibration amplitude of 25 μm, an object at 98°C was cooled down to 58°C in 5 min. The temperature drop obtained by using the USW was approximately 80% of a conventional fan oriented with respect to the heated object such that the maximum heat transfer occurs. The UFW-based fan offers advantages over the conventional fan, such as silent operation, minimal heat dissipation, lack of wearing parts, and slim profile. These benefits make the fan an ideal candidate for cooling miniature parts in an enclosed workspace. Finally, a possible design option for minimizing the fan using thin-film PZT is presented

48.1.17    L.R. Nerone, "Analysis and design of a self-oscillating class E ballast for compact fluorescent lamps," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 151-160, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The Class E inverter is the basis for a low-cost high-frequency ballast, but the control system is more complex than the self-oscillating Class D inverter. The added complexity neutralizes any cost savings gained by the single switch inverter. This paper explores a novel self-oscillating Class E ballast from a design perspective. A qualitative analysis shows how this self-oscillating system operates, from startup, through ignition to the steady state. Optimum component values are found from a quantitative analysis of the inverter. This mathematical model is the basis for the design methodology. Analytical results are compared with the physical model

48.1.18    L. Harnefors, K. Pietilainen, L. Gertmar, "Torque-maximizing field-weakening control: design, analysis, and parameter selection," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 161-168, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The torque-maximizing field-weakening control scheme proposed by Kim and Sul is developed further. The performance under imperfect field orientation conditions is investigated, and it is shown that an overestimated-rather than an underestimated-model leakage inductance should be used. A slightly modified algorithm, which offers better robustness and reduced computational complexity, is presented. The importance, for good performance, of combining the scheme with current and speed controllers featuring antiwindup and improved disturbance rejection is emphasized. The dynamics of the resulting closed-loop system are analyzed. Obtained in the process, are rules for selection of all controller parameters, allowing tuning without trial-and error steps. Good performance of the resulting system is verified experimentally


Drive Control


48.1.19    Kok Kiong Tan, T.H. Lee, S.N. Huang, Xi Jiang, "Friction modeling and adaptive compensation using a relay feedback approach," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 169-176, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the application of a dual-relay feedback approach toward modeling of frictional effects in servomechanisms is addressed. The friction model consists of Coulomb and viscous friction components, both of which can be automatically extracted from suitably designed relay experiments. At the same time, the dynamical model of the servomechanical system can be obtained from the experiments. Thus, a proportional-integral-derivative feedback motion controller and a feedforward friction compensator can be automatically tuned in this manner. The friction model obtained is also directly applicable to initialization of an adaptive control scheme proposed. Results from simulation and experiments are presented to illustrate the practical appeal of the proposed method

48.1.20    K.M. Tsang, Guomin Li, "Robust nonlinear nominal-model following control to overcome deadzone nonlinearities," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 177-184, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A robust nonlinear nominal-model following control is proposed to overcome deadzone nonlinearities which are unavoidable in many physical systems due to the imperfections of system components. First, an ideal linear nominal model of the plant and a model controller are employed to generate an ideal reference output. Then, a nonlinear robust loop controller is added to force the actual output to follow the ideal reference output. The robust loop controller contains an ordinary proportional-integral-derivative controller combined with a deadband relay. The added deadband relay has the capability of reducing nonlinear effects of the plant. A systematic design methodology is established and it is linked to the conventional control system design. The proposed scheme is practically applied to the control of a DC motor position servo system containing a severe deadzone nonlinearity. Both simulation and experimental results have illustrated the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed technique

48.1.21    M. Tsuji, Shuo Chen, K. Izumi, E. Yamada, "A sensorless vector control system for induction motors using q-axis flux with stator resistance identification," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 185-194, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a sensorless vector control system for general-purpose induction motors, which is based on the observer theory and the adaptive control theories. The proposed system includes a rotor speed estimator using a q-axis flux and stator resistance identifier using the d-axis flux. The advantages of the proposed system are simplicity and avoidance of problems caused by using only a voltage model. Since the mathematical model of this system is constructed in a synchronously rotating reference frame, a linear model is easily derived for analyzing the system stability, including the influence of the observer gain, motor operating state, and parameter variations. In order to obtain stable low-speed operation and speed control accuracy, an algorithm for compensating for the deadtime of the inverter and correcting the nonideal features of an insulated gate bipolar transistor was developed. The effectiveness of the proposed system has been verified by digital simulation and experimentation

48.1.22    S.N. Vukosavic, A.M. Stankovic, "Sensorless induction motor drive with a single DC-link current sensor and instantaneous active and reactive power feedback," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 195-204, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel torque and speed control structure for low-cost induction motor variable-speed drives with a single DC-link current sensor. The controller is based on reconstruction of the active and instantaneous reactive power from the DC-link current without the use of a shaft sensor. An effective way of achieving tracking of set values of motor torque and flux is to base the estimation on the instantaneous active (P) and reactive power (Q). The paper proposes a way for extracting instantaneous P and Q information from the DC-link current and the pulsewidth modulation pattern. Torque and flux controllers suitable for general purpose and traction applications are proposed. The paper presents analytical considerations, straightforward design guidelines, and experimental results obtained from a traction system with a battery-fed three-phase inverter and a 7.5 kW traction motor

48.1.23    Ching-Heng Ku, Wen-Hsiang Tsai, "Obstacle avoidance in person following for vision-based autonomous land vehicle guidance using vehicle location estimation and quadratic pattern classifier," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 205-215, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An obstacle avoidance method for use in person following for vision-based autonomous land vehicle (ALV) guidance is proposed. This method is based on the use of vehicle location estimation and a quadratic pattern classifier, and aims to guide the ALV to follow a walking person in front by navigating along a derived collision-free path. Before generating the collision-free path, the person's location is obtained from extracted objects in the image by a person detection method. The object closest to a predicted person location is regarded as the followed person and the remaining objects are regarded as obstacles. The collision-free navigation path is designed for ALV guidance in such a way that the ALV not only can keep following the person but also can avoid collision with nearby obstacles. The navigation path results from a quadratic classifier that uses the vehicle and all of the objects in the image as input patterns. A turn angle is then computed to drive the ALV to follow the navigation path. Successful navigation sessions confirm the feasibility of the approach


Robotics and Vision


48.1.24    Xinkai Chen, T. Fukuda, K.D. Young, "Adaptive quasi-sliding-mode tracking control for discrete uncertain input-output systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 216-224, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a discrete robust adaptive quasi-sliding-mode tracking controller is presented for input-output systems with unknown parameters, unmodeled dynamics, and bounded disturbances. The robust tracking controller is comprised of adaptive control and a sliding-mode-based control design. The bounded motion of the system around the sliding surface and the stability of the global system in the sense that all signals remain bounded are guaranteed. The adaptive algorithm, in which the deadzone method is employed even though the upper and lower bounds of the disturbances are unknown, is the extension of the authors' previous work for the state-space systems. An example and its simulation results are presented to illustrate the proposed approach


Signal Processing and Control


48.1.25    S.A. Amman, M. Das, "An efficient technique for modeling and synthesis of automotive engine sounds," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 225-234, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new method for modeling and synthesis of automotive engine sounds using a deterministic-stochastic signal decomposition approach. First, the deterministic component is extracted using a synchronous discrete Fourier transform method and this is subtracted out from the original signal. Next, the (residual) stochastic component is modeled (and synthesized) using a new multipulse excited time-series modeling technique. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated using recorded data sets of actual engine sounds. The results of both numerical and subjective assessment tests are presented

48.1.26    M.H. Pong, X. Wu, C.M. Lee, Z. Qian, "Reduction of crosstalk on printed circuit board using genetic algorithm in switching power supply," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 235-238, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Crosstalk between printed circuit board (PCB) traces in switching power supplies may cause high electromagnetic interference emission. PCB layout plays an important part and a genetic algorithm (GA) is used to produce a layout with reduced crosstalk. A coupling index and a new way of representing a trace for the GA process is presented


Letters to the Editor


48.1.27    K. Sundareswaran, "An improved energy-saving scheme for capacitor-run induction motor ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 238-240, Feb 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Conventionally, the speed of a capacitor run single-phase induction motor is controlled by using an AC voltage controller (generally a triac) between the supply voltage and the motor. This letter proposes a new scheme, in which the triac is inserted in series with the main winding, while the motor auxiliary winding remains directly connected across the supply voltage. The experimental results indicate the superiority of the new method suggested in this letter

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 48,  Number 2, April 2001           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




                Special Section on Microsensors and Microsystems for Harsh Environments

48.2.1    W.R. Fahrner, M.R. Werner, "Guest editorial special section on microsensors and microsystems in harsh environments," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 247-248, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

48.2.2    M.R. Werner, W.R. Fahrner, "Review on materials, microsensors, systems and devices for high-temperature and harsh-environment applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 249-257, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The considerable investment in silicon technology has rarely addressed device use in harsh environments such as high temperatures, aggressive media, and radiation exposure. A clear future requirement is to save weight, volume, and reduce costs in “unfriendly” environments like high temperatures. This can be achieved either by cooling systems or by electronic microsystem components suited to withstand high temperatures. The current status of cooling systems, harsh-environment sensors, and microsystems in view of markets, realized devices, material, properties, process maturity, and packaging technologies are reviewed. Possible semiconductor candidates for high-temperature applications are discussed. The main obstacles for the future of high-temperature and harsh-environment microsystems is highlighted

48.2.3    J.W. Mrosk, L. Berger, C. Ettl, H.-J. Fecht, G. Fischerauer, A. Dommann, "Materials issues of SAW sensors for high-temperature applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 258-264, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The technology of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices allows the integration of signal processing and sensor functions within one product. In the past, SAW sensors have been operated at room temperature or 100°C-200°C at most, material-related problems become obvious if one attempts to increase this operating temperature to a value as high as 1000°C. First experimental results are presented based on a variation of the metallization and the use of diffusion barriers. It is expected that the use of these specially tailored materials with particular functional properties will lend to a considerable improvement of the lifetime and reliability of SAW sensors and the development of devices resistant to high temperatures as well as high pressures and chemically aggressive environments. The high-temperature characteristics of such novel devices are investigated by finite-element simulation and by experimental deformation analysis. Which assembly, interconnection, and packaging techniques are applicable at 1000°C are also discussed

48.2.4    W.-E. Bulst, G. Fischerauer, L. Reindl, "State of the art in wireless sensing with surface acoustic waves ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 265-271, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Surface acoustic wave (SAW) passive devices can be used in novel applications such as wireless identification and sensing. For identification purposes, a SAW transponder picks up an electromagnetic request signal and stores it until all echoes caused by multipath propagation have died away. Then, a characteristic response is beamed back to the receiver. In radio-link sensors, a physical or chemical quantity influences the propagation properties of the SAW and consequently changes the response pattern of the device. This paper surveys the operating principle of such sensors and their state-of-the-art performance. Examples include temperature sensors and sensors for mechatronic applications

48.2.5    L. Demeus, V. Dessard, A. Viviani, S. Adriaensen, D. Flandre, "Integrated sensor and electronic circuits in fully depleted SOI technology for high-temperature applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 272-280, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The electrical characteristics of devices and circuits realized in CMOS technology on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates and operated at elevated temperatures are presented and compared with results obtained using other materials (bulk Si, GaAs, SiC). It is demonstrated that fully depleted CMOS on SOI is the most suitable process for the realization of complex electronic circuits to be operated in high-temperature environments, up to more than 300°C

48.2.6    J. Schutze, H. Ilgen, W.R. Fahrner, "An integrated micro cooling system for electronic circuits," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 281-285, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A fully FR4-compatible integrated cooling system has been developed. Cooling channels have been etched into a thick copper layer to form microchannels. The structure is reinforced by two prepreg layers toward the component and solder side. Several cooling channels can be independently run. The heat dissipation capability of the system is 20 W per channel (and heat source). Typical coolants are water or methoxynonafluorobutane. For an outlet to inlet temperature difference of 25°C and a power dissipation of 30 W, a (water) flow rate of 20 ml/min is required. Pressure losses are below 300 mbar (for water)

48.2.7    D. Lorenzen, J. Bonhaus, W.R. Fahrner, E. Kaulfersch, E. Worner, P. Koidl, K. Unger, D. Muller, S. Rolke, H. Schmidt, M. Grellmann, "Micro thermal management of high-power diode laser bars," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 286-297, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Lifetime and reliability of high-power diode laser bars are sensitively related to operating temperature, mounting stress, and solder electromigration. These three factors have been taken into account for the development of a new packaging technology for 1 cm laser bars of gallium arsenide. We examine the use of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond as heatspreaders in order to reduce thermal resistance of a microchannel cooler for liquid cooling. We show that it is possible to perform hard soldering on a CVD-diamond with a new technique. Additionally, we present a controlled water cooling system fit to the flow characteristics of the cooler. It permits one to adjust the emission wavelength of the diode lasers by changing the water flux

48.2.8    H. Baumann, P. Heinemeyer, W. Staiger, M. Topfer, K. Unger, D. Muller, "Optimized cooling systems for high-power semiconductor devices," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 298-306, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Straightforward air cooling of semiconductor devices has gradually been replaced by methods using liquid coolants, especially water cooling. In this paper, more advanced cooling devices for hockey-puck-type and module-type semiconductors are suggested. An established heat sink made of aluminum nitride for the water cooling of hockey-puck-type semiconductors has been used as a basis for the development of high-performance heat sinks for increased heat flux densities. By means of thermal and fluid dynamics simulation tools the internal geometry has been optimized with regard to improved heat transfer and reduced pressure drop. The simulation results have been confirmed by a number of experiments using various measuring techniques. As an alternative cooling method for semiconductor modules, a modified baseplate comprising a number of fins for direct water cooling has been suggested. For an intelligent temperature management control algorithms have been developed, resulting in a prototype application-specific integrated circuit which has been implemented for test purposes

48.2.9    W. Wondrak, R. Held, E. Niemann, U. Schmid, "SiC devices for advanced power and high-temperature applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 307-308, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Silicon carbide (SiC) process technology has made rapid progress, resulting in the realization of very promising electronic devices and sensors, enabling advanced solutions in power industry and mobile systems. In particular, for electronics working under harsh environmental conditions, SiC devices reach unprecedented performance. Transfer to production has already started for some applications

48.2.10    Byoung-Kuk Lee, M. Ehsami, "A simplified functional simulation model for three-phase voltage-source inverter using switching function concept," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 309-321, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a functional simulation model for the voltage-source inverter (VSI) using the switching function concept is studied and the actual implementation of the model is proposed with the help of Matlab Simulink. Also, this concept is extended to the voltage-doubler-type pulse width-modulated (PWM) AC-DC rectifier and the PWM AC-DC-AC converter. With the developed functional model, the simplification of the static power circuits can be achieved so that the convergence and long run-time problems can be solved. Also, in the functional model, the design parameters, such as voltage and current ratings of the power semiconductor switches and load current, can be easily calculated. The general switching function concept is reviewed in brief and the proposed functional models for the VSI, voltage-doubler rectifier, and PWM AC-DC-AC converter and their implementations using Matlab Simulink are explained in detail. Also, several informative simulation results verify the validity of the proposed models


Power Electronics


48.2.11    F.T. Wakabayashi, M.J. Bonato, C.A. Canesin, "Novel high-power-factor ZCS-PWM preregulators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 322-333, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper introduces novel zero-current-switching (ZCS) pulsewidth-modulated (PWM) preregulators based on a new soft-commutation cell, suitable for insulated gate bipolar transistor applications. The active switches in these proposed rectifiers turn on in zero current and turn off in zero current-zero voltage. In addition, the diodes turn on in zero voltage and their reverse-recovery effects over the active switches are negligible. Moreover, based on the proposed cell, an entire family of DC-to-DC ZCS-PWM converters can be generated, providing conditions to obtain naturally isolated converters, for example, derived buck-boost, Sepic and Zeta converters. The novel AC-to-DC ZCS-PWM boost and Zeta preregulators are presented in order to verify the operation of this soft-commutation cell. In order to minimize the harmonic contents of the input current, increasing the AC power factor the average-current-mode control is used, obtaining preregulators with AC power factor near unity and high efficiency at wide load range. The principle of operation, theoretical analysis, design example, and experimental results from test units for the novel preregulators are presented. The new boost preregulator was designed to nominal values of 1.6 kW output power, 220 Vrms input voltage, 400 Vdc output voltage, and operating at 20 kHz. The measured efficiency and power factor of the new ZCS-PWM boost preregulator were 96.7% and 0.99, respectively, with an input current total harmonic distortion (THD) equal to 3.42% for an input voltage with THD equal to 1.61%, at rated load

48.2.12    P. Mattavelli, G. Escobar, A.M. Stankovic, "Dissipativity-based adaptive and robust control of UPS," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 334-343, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the output voltage control for a three-phase uninterruptible power supply (UPS) using controllers based on ideas of dissipativity. To provide balanced sinusoidal output voltages, even in the presence of nonlinear and unbalanced loads, we first derive a dissipativity-based controller using a frequency-domain representation of system dynamics. Adaptive refinements have been added to the controller to cope with parametric uncertainties. Second, based on the first adaptive controller, we propose a controller which turns out to have the proportional-plus-integral-type structure on rotating-frame variables, but with a special design of gain matrices. A sufficient condition in terms of the design parameters is presented for this controller that guarantees stability of the desired equilibrium and robustness against parameter uncertainties. Finally, simulation and experimental results on a three-phase prototype show effectiveness and advantages of the proposed approach

48.2.13    Chen-Chang Liu, Horng-Bin Hsu, Shin-Tai Lo, Chern-Lin Chen, "An energy-recovery sustaining driver with discharge current compensation for AC plasma display panel," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 344-351, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel driver with discharge current compensation is proposed to drive an AC plasma display panel (PDP). This proposed circuit uses resonance between the inductor and the AC PDP to avoid abrupt charging/discharging. The four switches of the full bridge are all operated with zero-voltage-switching turn-on. In addition, an 8-in AC PDP equipped with the proposed driving circuit, operating at 100 kHz, is investigated. With the discharge current compensation, the experimental results show that the proposed driver can maintain the AC PDP to light at lower voltage (129 V)

48.2.14    Guan-Chyun Hsieh, Chang-Hua Lin, "Harmonized strategy for breaking the striations in the fluorescent lamp," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 352-366, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A harmonized strategy for breaking the striations in the fluorescent lamp is proposed. The harmonized circuit (HC) presented is a dependent current source and is used to modulate the lamp current by making the amplitudes of the even harmonics nearly the same as the neighboring odd harmonics. The time and frequency responses of the lamp current without and with HC are respectively simulated and experimented for describing the striation behavior. The dimmer system with HC can actually provide better immunity from striation for the lamp during a wide dimming range from 10% to 100%. In addition, the lighting efficiency increases up to 16.2%

48.2.15    D. Li, R. Tymerski, T. Ninomiya, "PECS-an efficient solution for simulating switched networks with nonlinear elements," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 367-376, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: PECS (Power Electronics Circuit Simulator) enables the time-domain simulation of switched networks that may contain nonlinear elements. Focus has been placed not only on obtaining high speed, but also on achieving a very high degree of accuracy. A set of optimized computer algorithms that have been incorporated into PECS to achieve these objectives are explained. Examples run, which include a power-factor correction circuit containing a multiplier/divider element, have shown over an order of magnitude speed advantage over other leading approaches


Drive Control


48.2.16    Jung-Hwan Kim, Byung-Ro Moon, "Adaptive elevator group control with cameras," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 377-382, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new elevator group control system is proposed. The system learns dynamic traffic flows by analyzing passenger traffic without prespecified patterns. A genetic algorithm continuously generates dispatch functions according to changes in passenger traffic. By considering the status inside elevators, the directions of passenger movement, and the number of waiting passengers, the system occasionally allocates multiple elevators for a single hall call, which assists in reducing passengers' waiting time. Experimental results showed up to 25% improvement over a system without the above features

48.2.17    L. Harnefors, "Design and analysis of general rotor-flux-oriented vector control systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 383-390, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Reduced-order observers for rotor flux estimation of induction motors are considered. The “current” model and “voltage” model are obtained as special cases. It is shown that the flux dynamics form a nonlinear closed-loop system when the flux estimate is used for field orientation. The observer gain selection is extremely critical for good behavior of this system. A framework is developed, in which the properties of any gain selection can easily be assessed. Four candidate gain selections are considered, two of which yield schemes that do not use the rotor speed in their equations (inherently sensorless schemes). It is also shown that for any gain selection, an equivalent synchronous-frame implementation (i.e., indirect field orientation) always exists

48.2.18    An-Ming Lee, Li-Chen Fu, Chin-Yu Tsai, Yu-Chao Lin, "Nonlinear adaptive speed and torque control of induction motors with unknown rotor resistance," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 391-401, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a nonlinear adaptive speed and torque controller of induction motors with unknown rotor resistance. All the system parameters except rotor resistance are assumed to be known, and only the stator currents and rotor speed are assumed to be available. The desired speed and torque should be a smooth bounded function. A complete proof of the global stability without singularity is given, and the output error will converge to zero asymptotically. Finally, the simulation and experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller

48.2.19    T. Senjyu, T. Shingaki, K. Uezato, "Sensorless vector control of synchronous reluctance motors with disturbance torque observer," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 402-407, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The elimination of the position sensor has been one important requirement in vector control systems because the position sensor spoils the reliability and simplicity of drive systems. Therefore, we present a sensorless vector control technique for synchronous reluctance motors. The rotor position is calculated easily from ds-qs-axes flux linkages which are estimated with a first-order lag compensator. Furthermore, utilizing estimated rotor position as the input of the full-order observer, the rotor speed and disturbance torque are estimated. The proposed sensorless vector control scheme is demonstrated with experimental results

48.2.20    Gou-Jen Wang, Chuan-Tzueng Fong, K.J. Chang, "Neural-network-based self-tuning PI controller for precise motion control of PMAC motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 408-415, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In general, proportional plus integral (PI) controllers used in computer numerically controlled machines possess fixed gain. They may perform well under some operating conditions, but not all. To increase the robustness of fixed-gain PI controllers, we propose a new neural-network-based self-tuning PI control system. In this new approach, a well-trained neural network supplies the PI controller with suitable gain according to each operating condition pair (torque, angular velocity, and position error) detected. To demonstrate the advantages of our proposed neural-network-based self-tuning PI control technique, both computer simulations and experiments were executed in this research. During the computer simulation, the direct experiment method was adopted to better model the problem of hysteresis in the AC servo motor. In real experiments, a PC-based controller was used to carry out the control tasks. Results of both computer simulations and experiments show that the newly developed dynamic PI approach outperforms the fixed PI scheme in rise time, precise positioning, and robustness


Robotics and Vision


48.2.21    Young-Kiu Choi, Min-Jung Lee, Sungshin Kim, Young-Chul Kay, "Design and implementation of an adaptive neural-network compensator for control systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 416-423, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Recently, many studies have been made for intelligent controls using the neural-network (NN). These NN approaches for control strategies are based on the concept of replacing the conventional controller with a new NN controller. However, it is usually difficult and unreliable to replace the factory-installed controller with another controller in the workplace. In this case, it is desirable to install an additional outer control loop around the conventional control system to compensate for the control error of the preinstalled conventional control system. This paper presents an adaptive NN compensator for the outer loop to compensate for the control errors of conventional control systems. The proposed adaptive NN compensator generates a new command signal to the conventional control system using the control error that is the difference between the desired reference input and the actual system response. The proposed NN-compensated control system is adaptable to the environment changes and is more robust than the conventional control systems. Experimental results for a SCARA-type manipulator show that the proposed adaptive NN compensator enables the conventional control system to have precise control performance


Signal Processing and Control


48.2.22    R. Safaric, M. Debevc, R.M. Parkin, S. Uran, "Telerobotics experiments via Internet," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 424-431, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Many enterprises experience difficulty in training people to work with expensive equipment, which is needed for carrying out profitable work tasks (e.g., production line robots). Similar problems are found when work is of a complex and safety-critical nature (e.g., nuclear environments, explosive placement, surgery). This paper describes a method of education and training involving offline usage of virtual environments for task planning. When tasks are developed to the satisfaction of the trainee, they are exported to remote physical hardware, via the Internet, for real-world execution. Development of the system and the training experiments is discussed, along with some of the issues raised for telerobotics and solutions to the problem of detecting collisions in the virtual world. The approach has been shown to be viable and increases the education and training possibilities for key workers while maintaining a low cost of ownership. The downtime of mission-critical equipment is minimized while the gaining of valuable experience is maximized

48.2.23    Sinn Kim, Jong-Hwan Kim, "Adaptive fuzzy-network-based C-measure map-matching algorithm for car navigation system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 432-441, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Most car navigation systems estimate the car position from dead reckoning and the Global Positioning System (GPS). However, because of the unknown GPS noise, the estimated position has an undesirable error. To solve this problem, a map-matching method is introduced, which uses a digital road map to correct the position error. In this paper, a novel adaptive-fuzzy-network-based C-measure algorithm is proposed, which can find the exact road on which a car moves. The C-measure algorithm is easy to calculate, and calculation time does not increase exponentially with the increase of junctions. For the experiments, a car navigation system is implemented with a small number of sensors. The real road experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed algorithm and the developed car navigation system

48.2.24    A. Scottedward Hodel, C.E. Hall, "Variable-structure PID control to prevent integrator windup," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 442-451, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the authors propose a new variable-structure (switching) method for the prevention of proportional-integral-derivative controller integrator windup in both continuous and discrete-time implementations. The method is easily implemented and tuned by practicing engineers. This new method is compared with several existing methods for the prevention of integrator windup


Factory Automation


48.2.25    Kit-Sang Tang, Kim-Fung Man, S. Kwong, "Wireless communication network design in IC factory," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 452-459, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A wireless local area network (WLAN) is designed for an IC factory in Hong Kong using the hierarchical genetic algorithm (HGA). The HGA is capable of handling multiobjective functions and discrete constraints. Because of this uniqueness, together with the adoption of a Pareto ranking scheme, a solution can be reached even when skewed multiobjective functions and constraints confinements are being imposed. It has been found from this study that a precise number of base stations can be identified for the WLAN network, while it can satisfy a number of objectives and constraints. This added feature provides a further design tradeoff between cost and performance at no extra effort

48.2.26    Kwang-Hyun Cho, Jong-Tae Lim, "Multiagent supervisory control for antifault propagation in serial production systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 460-466, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a multiagent supervisory control methodology is proposed for antifault propagation in serial production systems by incorporating the idea of multiagent control within the fault-tolerant supervisory control scheme. Especially, the concept of antifault propagation between cascaded processes is established and the synthesis of agent supervisors is investigated based on this concept. A case study of a polypropylene polymerization process in the petrochemical industry is provided to illustrate the proposed control policy


Emerging Technology


48.2.27    Sung Hoe Kim, Chongkug Park, F. Harashima, "A self-organized fuzzy controller for wheeled mobile robot using an evolutionary algorithm," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 467-474, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Designing the controller of a wheeled mobile robot is not as easy as might be supposed, on account of nonholonomic constraints. To overcome such difficulties and gain more accurate position and velocity control, a self-organized fuzzy controller is proposed. To find solutions of optimal fuzzy input and output membership functions and to determine a rule base, an evolutionary process is proposed. The procedure that derives this solution is composed of three steps, each step having its own unique evolutionary process. The elements of an output term set are increased first, and then the rule base is varied according to increase of the elements. The varied fuzzy system competes with a system that has no element increase. If the varied fuzzy system loses in competition, then the system naturally disappears. On the other hand, if the varied system survives, the fitness with each increased element of the output term set and rule base is tested and unnecessary parts are removed. After having finished regulation of output term set and rule base, searching for input membership functions is processed with constraints to reduce the unsuitability of the system. The searching constraints do not produce a 0 membership value for any input. After completing the search for the input membership function, fine tuning of output membership functions is processed


Letters to the Editor


48.2.28    A. Okuno, L. Gamage, M. Nakaoka, "Performance evaluations of high-frequency inverter-linked DC/DC converter with noncontact pickup coil," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 475-477, April 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This letter presents performance evaluations of an inductive coupling power transferring system using a current-source high-frequency transformer resonant inverter which is designed for an electric conveyance. The performance is evaluated on the basis of circuit analysis and feasible experiments. This power conversion system can implement an innovative noncontact power transfer from the viewpoints of less maintenance, controllability, safety, and clean performance

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 48,  Number 3, June 2001           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




                 Power Electronics

48.3.1    A. Raciti, G. Belverde, A. Galluzzo, G. Greco, M. Melito, S. Musumeci, "Control of the switching transients of IGBT series strings by high-performance drive units," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 482-490, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the field of power electronics, the use of series-connected insulated gate devices, such as insulated gate bipolar transistors or power MOSFETs, is interesting in order to obtain fast and efficient power switches in medium-range power converters. In this kind of application, the control of the voltage sharing across the series strings of devices is an important aspect to be considered. The proposed technique allows obtaining safe commutations of the switches by simple and effective control circuits acting on the gate side of the power devices. In particular, the gate drive units are arranged in order to ensure good performance during the switching transients, while preventing overvoltage peaks on the devices. Both the design criteria and analysis of the control circuit are developed. Several experimental tests are reported in order to demonstrate the validity and correctness of the proposed approach

48.3.2    Woo-Cheol Lee, Taeck-Kie Lee, Dong-Seok Hyun, "Comparison of single-sensor current control in the DC link for three-phase voltage-source PWM converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 491-505, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a technique for reconstructing converter line currents using the information from a single current sensor in the DC link of a converter and comparative evaluation of the performance of single sensor control techniques in the DC link for voltage-source pulsewidth modulation (V-S PWM) converters. When 3φ input currents cannot be reconstructed, three methods to acquire the DC-link current are compared. Two of them are methods of modifying the switching state (I, II), and another is a method of using the predictive state observer. Also, compensation of sampling delay, and a simultaneous sample value of input currents in the center of a switching period are included. Suitable criteria for the comparison are identified, and the differences in the performance of these methods are investigated through experimental results for a typical V-S PWM converter rated at 10 kVA

48.3.3    S.J. Chiang, C.Y. Yen, K.T. Chang, "A multimodule parallelable series-connected PWM voltage regulator ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 506-516, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the analysis and design of a single-phase voltage regulator (VR) and its multinodule parallel control. The VR employs the pulsewidth modulation three-arm rectifier-inverter topology. The inverter side adjusts the load voltage with the series regulating structure aiming to minimize converter capacity and attain higher efficiency. The rectifier side regenerates the load power and executes the active power filter function to achieve unity power factor. Based on such high-performance VR, a resistive droop method combined with the P-V droop and Q-δ shift scheme is then proposed to control the current sharing such that multiple VRs can be paralleled directly without any control interconnection. The proposed parallel control technique possesses the features of fast response, precise voltage regulation, equal fundamental and harmonic current sharing, tolerance for parameter mismatch, and so on. Two prototype 1 KVA VRs are implemented, and the effectiveness is demonstrated by some simulation and experimental results

48.3.4    C.B. Jacobina, M.B.deR. Correa, T.M. Oliveiro, A.M.N. Lima, E.R.C. da Silva, "Current control of unbalanced electrical systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 517-525, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The vector modeling approach is employed to describe the behavior of unbalanced three-phase (three-wire), unbalanced two-phase and single-phase systems. In the case of single-phase systems, a fictitious circuit is introduced in order to create the vector model. Continuous-time and discrete-time current controllers based on the vector approach are presented. The current control scheme is based on two controllers, one for the positive sequence and another for the negative sequence. The controllers are implemented in the synchronous reference frame and in the stationary reference frame. In the stationary reference frame, the use of the same integral gains for both controllers simplifies the equations of the control law especially for single-phase systems. Simulation and experimental results obtained with a pulsewidth modulation voltage-source inverter supplying unbalanced systems are presented

48.3.5    D. Graovac, V. Katic, "Online control of current-source-type active rectifier using transfer function approach," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 526-535, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Current-source topology AC/DC converters (buck converters) operated using pulsewidth modulation have significant drawbacks in lack of line current control and AC-side filter damping. Also, an AC-side filter is usually overrated in order to keep harmonic distortion under imposed limits. Discontinuous current at converter line inputs disables the use of current control techniques known from control of voltage-source converters. In order to overcome these problems, an online control method for the buck converter is presented in this paper. This method is based on the AC filter transfer function approach. Such an approach enables a novel solution for line-side filter optimization in the case of hysteresis line current control. This method leads to a filter with minimal apparent power (cost) and the fast and accurate converter's control response. Furthermore, a line current estimation method was developed. It uses only one current sensor at the converter DC side in order to estimate power supply currents. Suggested methods were numerically and experimentally verified

48.3.6    Jung-Won Kim, Jung-Sik Yon, B.H. Cho, "Modeling, control, and design of input-series-output-parallel-connected converter for high-speed-train power system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 536-544, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a charge control with an input voltage feedforward is proposed for an input-series-output-parallel-connected converter configuration for the high-speed-train power system application. This control scheme accomplishes the output current sharing. For the output-parallel-connected modules as well as the input voltage sharing for the input-series-connected modules for all operating conditions including the transients. It also offers the robustness for the input voltage sharing control according to the component value mismatches among the modules. This configuration enables the usage of a MOSFET for a high-voltage system allowing a higher switching frequency for a lighter system weight and smaller size. The performance of the proposed scheme is verified through the experimental results

48.3.7    J.-W. Kang, S.-K. Sul, "Analysis and prediction of inverter switching frequency in direct torque control of induction machine based on hysteresis bands and machine parameters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 545-553, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the influences of the hysteresis bands on the direct torque control (DTC) of an induction motor are analytically investigated, and the switching frequency of the inverter is predicted based on the analysis. The flux and torque hysteresis bands are the only gains to be adjusted in DTC, and the inverter switching frequency and the current waveform are greatly influenced by them. Therefore, the magnitude of the hysteresis band should be determined based on reasonable guidelines which can avoid excessive inverter switching frequency and current harmonics in the whole operating region. This paper predicts the inverter switching frequency according to torque and flux hysteresis bands based on induction machine parameters and control sampling period, and investigates the effect of hysteresis bands to line current harmonics. The simulated and experimental results prove the usefulness and feasibility of the proposed method

48.3.8    Han-Woong Park, Sung-Jun Park, Jin-Gil Park, Cheul-U Kim, "A novel high-performance voltage regulator for single-phase AC sources," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 554-562, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Regulation of load voltage in single-phase applications is becoming an important issue for critical loads. This paper presents a novel high-performance single-phase voltage regulator which has a common arm between the rectifier and inverter, and adopts an appropriate switching strategy. The proposed voltage regulator employs six switches and can be implemented by only one three-phase inverter module. The proposed voltage regulator has the capability of delivering sinusoidal input current with unity power factor, good output voltage regulation, and bidirectional power flow. For these purposes, a fully digital controller is designed and implemented using a TMS320F240 digital signal processor. In addition, a novel low-cost AC capacitor is also presented. This type of capacitor requires two DC capacitors and two diodes, enabling low-cost and compact manufacturing. Consequently, the complete voltage regulator system, which is mainly suitable for an uninterruptible power supply as well as reactive or nonlinear loads, can be constructed compactly and inexpensively. Experimental results are presented to verify the feasibility of the proposed voltage regulator system

48.3.9    D. Biel, E. Fossas, F. Guinjoan, E. Alarcon, A. Poveda, "Application of sliding-mode control to the design of a buck-based sinusoidal generator," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 563-571, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper is devoted to the design of a sliding-mode control scheme for a buck-based inverter, with programmable amplitude, frequency, and DC offset, with no external sinusoidal reference required. A general procedure for obtaining an autonomous (time independent) switching surface from a time-dependent one is presented. For this surface, the system exhibits a zeroth-order dynamics in sliding motion. On the other hand, from the sliding-domain analysis, a set of design restrictions is established in terms of the inverter output filter Bode diagram and the output signal parameters (amplitude, frequency and DC offset), facilitating the subsequent design procedure. The control scheme is robust with respect to both power-stage parameter variations and external disturbances and can be implemented by means of conventional electronic circuitry. Simulations and experimental results for both reactive and nonlinear loads are presented

48.3.10    Jun-Young Lee, Myung-Joong Youn, "A single-stage power-factor-correction converter with simple link voltage suppressing circuit (LVSC)," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 572-584, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A single-stage power-factor-correction AC/DC converter with a simple link voltage suppressing circuit (LVSC) for the universal line application is proposed. A portion of the energy charged in a boost inductor is directly transferred to a load via LVSC without passing the link capacitor. Using simple circuitry, a low link voltage can be realized without input current deadbands at line zero crossings. The proposed converter is analyzed and design guidelines for the proper operation of a converter are given. A universal input (90-265-Vrms ) prototype converter with 5-V 12-A output is implemented to verify performance. The experimental results show that the maximum link voltage stress and efficiency are about 447 V and 81%, respectively. The power factor is above 0.96 under the universal line condition when the load is higher than 30%

48.3.11    Guan-Chyun Hsieh, Liang-Rui Chen, Kuo-Shun Huang, "Fuzzy-controlled Li-ion battery charge system with active state-of-charge controller," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 585-593, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A fuzzy-controlled active state-of-charge controller (FC-ASCC) for improving the charging behavior of a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is proposed. The proposed FC-ASCC is designed to replace the general constant-voltage charging mode by two kinds of modes: sense and charge. A fuzzy-controlled algorithm is built with the predicted charger performance to program the charging trajectory faster and to keep the charge operation in a proposed safe-charge area (SCA). A modeling work is conducted for analyzing and describing the Li-ion battery in charging process. A three-dimensional Y-mesh diagram for describing the charging trajectories of the proposed FC charger is simulated. A prototype of a Li-ion battery charger with FC-ASCC is simulated and realized to assess the predicted charging performance. Experiment shows that the charging speed of the proposed FC charger compared with the general one increases about 23% and the charger can safely work in the SCA

48.3.12    Yeong-Chau Kuo, Tsorng-Juu Liang, Jiann-Fuh Chen, "Novel maximum-power-point-tracking controller for photovoltaic energy conversion system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 594-601, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) controller for a photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion system is presented. Using the slope of power versus voltage of a PV array, the proposed MPPT controller allows the conversion system to track the maximum power point very rapidly. As opposed to conventional two-stage designs, a single-stage configuration is implemented, resulting in size and weight reduction and increased efficiency. The proposed system acts as a solar generator on sunny days, in addition to working as an active power line conditioner on rainy days. Finally, computer simulations and experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed technique


Drive Control


48.3.13    Sung-Don Wee, Myoung-Ho Shin, Dong-Seok Hyun, "Stator-flux-oriented control of induction motor considering iron loss," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 602-608, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Research to consider the influences of iron loss has been made in the vector control of an induction motor. However, little work has been done in the area of a stator-flux-oriented control system of an induction motor. This paper investigates the effects of iron loss in the direct stator-flux-oriented control system of an induction motor, and proposes a control algorithm considering iron loss. The iron loss is modeled by equivalent iron loss resistance in parallel to the magnetizing inductance. Torque control capability is much improved and the speed estimation error for a speed-sensorless drive is reduced by the proposed control algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by simulation and experimental results

48.3.14    Seong-Hwan Kim, Tae-Sik Park, Ji-Yoon Yoo, Gwi-Tae Park, "Speed-sensorless vector control of an induction motor using neural network speed estimation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 609-614, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a novel speed estimation method of an induction motor using neural networks (NNs) is presented. The NN speed estimator is trained online by using the error backpropagation algorithm, and the training starts simultaneously with the induction motor working. The estimated speed is then fed back in the speed control loop, and the speed-sensorless vector drive is realized. The proposed NN speed estimator has shown good performance in the transient and steady states, and also at either variable-speed operation or load variation. The validity and the usefulness of the proposed algorithm are thoroughly verified with experiments on fully digitalized 2.2 kW induction motor drive systems

48.3.15    Kuo-Kai Shyu, Chiu-Keng Lai, J.Y. Hung, "Totally invariant state feedback controller for position control of synchronous reluctance motor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 615-624, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new totally invariant state feedback controller is designed by combining the classical state feedback controller and the variable-structure control (VSC). The combination of these two different control methods has the advantages of both their merits: (1) the easy design of the state feedback and (2) the strong robustness of the VSC. In other words, the system performance can be simply designed for the nominal system by using the classical state feedback, which includes such well-known techniques as the pole placement or the linear quadratic method. Then, VSC is used to ensure the control effect. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the totally invariant state feedback controller, it is applied to the position control of a synchronous reluctance motor. Simulation results are first given. In addition, a prototype hardware system is built and experimentally evaluated

48.3.16    R. Cardenas, R. Pena, G. Asher, J. Clare, "Control strategies for enhanced power smoothing in wind energy systems using a flywheel driven by a vector-controlled induction machine ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 625-635, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel control strategy for power smoothing in wind energy applications, especially those feeding a stand-alone load. The system is based on a vector-controlled induction machine driving a flywheel and addresses the problem of regulating the DC-link system voltage against both input power surges/sags from a wind turbine or sudden changes in load demand. The control is based on a feedforward compensation scheme augmented by a nonlinear controller. Two feedforward compensation schemes are discussed and the limitations and performance of each scheme are analyzed. Experimental results are presented which verify the excellent performance of the feedforward compensation technique

48.3.17    H. Fujimoto, Y. Hori, A. Kawamura, "Perfect tracking control based on multirate feedforward control with generalized sampling periods," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 636-644, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a novel perfect tracking control method based on multirate feedforward control is proposed. The advantages of the proposed method are that: (1) the proposed multirate feedforward controller eliminates the notorious unstable zero problem in designing the discrete-time inverse system; (2) the states of the plant match the desired trajectories at every sampling point of reference input; and (3) the proposed controller is completely independent of the feedback characteristics. Thus, highly robust performance is assured by the robust feedback controller. Moreover, by generalizing the relationship between the sampling period of plant output and the control period of plant input, the proposed method can be applied to various systems with hardware restrictions of these periods, which leads to higher performance. Next, it is shown that the structure of the proposed perfect tracking controller is very simple and clear. Illustrative examples of position control using a DC servomotor are presented, and simulations and experiments demonstrate the advantages of this approach

48.3.18    A. Balestrino, A. Landi, M. Ould-Zmirli, L. Sani, "Automatic nonlinear auto-tuning method for Hammerstein modeling of electrical drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 645-655, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Accurate modeling of electrical drives for online testing is a relevant problem, because of their nonlinear behavior. Efficient modeling for simulation, performance evaluation, and testing must consider accurate as well as simple models. This paper proposes the application of auto-tune methods to identify equivalent Hammerstein models, where the nonlinear process is approximated by a static nonlinear element followed by a linear dynamic second or third-order model. The effectiveness of the presented procedure is first verified by simulation results, showing that Hammerstein models overcome the limitations inherent to small-signal linearizations. A standard implementation of such technique considers a relay adjustment for attempts in a heuristic way. In this paper, two innovations are proposed: the relay adjustment is automatically shifted and the method is applied for complex electric drives. Experimental results are shown in the case of a drive constituted by a DC/AC inverter supplying a single-phase induction motor and of a step-down chopper

48.3.19    Teck-Seng Low, Shixin Chen, Xianke Gao, "Robust torque optimization for BLDC spindle motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 656-663, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A robust design for torque optimization of brushless DC spindle motors applied in a hard disk drive, using the Taguchi method, is described and illustrated in this paper. The optimal design process takes into consideration noises that arise in the manufacturing process, such as manufacturing tolerances for the stator tooth shape and variation of the rotor magnet magnetization distribution due to the magnetization fixture and process. The objective of the optimal design using the combined Taguchi's design of experiment (DOE) and finite-element analysis (FEA) approach is to ensure that the spindle motor torque performance is insensitive to the noise, with moderate computational effort. The optimization is realized by a simulation and analysis tool that integrates Taguchi's DOE with the FEA. In this paper, the design optimization process is described and the results are presented

48.3.20    I. Agirman, A.M. Stankovic, G. Tadmor, H. Lev-Ari, "Adaptive torque-ripple minimization in switched reluctance motors ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 664-672, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper addresses torque-ripple reduction in current-fed switched reluctance motors (SRMs). Ripple-free torque production in SRMs requires an accurate model that is often too complex for practical implementation. The algorithm proposed here combines the use of a simplified model with adaptation. Explicitly, it includes dynamic estimation of low harmonics of the combined unknown load torque and the ripple in the produced torque (due to model simplification), and adds appropriate terms to the commanded current to cancel these harmonics. Several simulations are presented first, suggesting that our method is effective for constant-speed reference commands, even when a very simple model is used in control design. Experimental results are included next to demonstrate that the algorithm performs well in reducing the torque ripple. Finally, limitations of the adaptive algorithm are explored and quantified

48.3.21    R.C. Kavanagh, "Probabilistic learning technique for improved accuracy of sinusoidal encoders," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 673-681, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Sinusoidal-encoder-based digital tachometers are often limited by nonidealities in both encoder construction and interface electronics. A probabilistically based compensation technique is presented which dispenses with the need for specialized calibration equipment. A code-density array, obtained during a learning phase, is utilized to yield a compensation function which approximates to the average relationship over the mechanical cycle between the calculated electrical angle (as determined by an arctangent-based algorithm) and the actual angle. An extended version of this probabilistically compensated sinusoidal encoder technique is used to compensate for variations in the encoder characteristics as it rotates through a mechanical cycle. An analysis of the learning-time requirements of the system is presented. Practical results, utilizing performance measures common in the testing of analog-to-digital converters, confirm the utility of the method. An example of the benefits which accrue from the inclusion of the enhanced sensor in closed-loop systems is also provided


Robotics and Vision


48.3.22    S. Grgic, M. Grgic, B. Zovko-Cihlar, "Performance analysis of image compression using wavelets," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 682-695, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine a set of wavelet functions (wavelets) for implementation in a still image compression system and to highlight the benefit of this transform relating to today's methods. The paper discusses important features of wavelet transform in compression of still images, including the extent to which the quality of image is degraded by the process of wavelet compression and decompression. Image quality is measured objectively, using peak signal-to-noise ratio or picture quality scale, and subjectively, using perceived image quality. The effects of different wavelet functions, image contents and compression ratios are assessed. A comparison with a discrete-cosine-transform-based compression system is given. Our results provide a good reference for application developers to choose a good wavelet compression system for their application

48.3.23    S. Segvic, S. Ribaric, "Determining the absolute orientation in a corridor using projective geometry and active vision," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 696-710, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The capability of a mobile robot to determine its position in the environment (self-localization) is a prerequisite for achieving autonomous navigation. An approach is proposed for determining the absolute orientation of an autonomous robot in a system of corridors, based on the projective geometry and active computer vision. In the proposed approach, the common direction of longitudinal corridor edges is inferred by detecting the vanishing point of the corresponding straight line segments in the image. It is assumed that the knowledge about the vertical direction in the scene is available, so that the image coordinates of these vanishing points are considerably constrained. However, longitudinal corridor edges are not visible in images acquired for many viewing directions, so that the processing in a localization procedure has to be performed on a sequence of images acquired from the given position, for regularly arranged orientations of the camera. Extensive experimentation was performed on real scenes and the obtained results are provided


Letters to the Editor


48.3.24    M. Rodrigues, P.J. Costa Branco, W. Suemitsu, "Fuzzy logic torque ripple reduction by turn-off angle compensation for switched reluctance motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 711-715, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A fuzzy-logic-based turn-off angle compensator for torque ripple reduction in a switched reluctance motor is proposed. The turn-off angle, as a complex function of motor speed and current, is automatically changed for a wide motor speed range to reduce torque ripple. Experimental results are presented that show ripple reduction when the turn-off angle compensator is used

48.3.25    E. Monmasson, A.A. Naassani, J.-P. Louis, "Extension of the DTC concept," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 715-717, June 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors propose to extend the direct torque control (DTC) concept. This extension concerns voltage-vector generation. Based on this, it is possible to generate any voltage vector by the space-vector modulation method and apply DTC strategy at the same time. Experimental results are carried out to validate the proposed approach

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 48,  Number 4, August 2001           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




                 Special section on Intelligent Systems

48.4.1    Kim Fung Man, "Guest editorial special section on intelligent systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 722-723, August 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

48.4.2    M. Watanabe, M. Furukawa, A. Mizoe, T. Watanabe, "GA applications to physical distribution scheduling problem," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 724-730, August 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A physical distribution system has a number of optimization problems. Most of them belong to a combinatorial problem, to which conventional mathematical programming methods may hardly be applied. This paper reports on two applications of the genetic algorithm (GA) to physical distribution scheduling problems, which arise at real physical distribution centers. The developed GA schedulers took the place of conventional schedulers, which were coded by rule-based technologies. Advantages of the introduction of GA schedulers into the physical distribution system are as follows: (1) the GA becomes a general problem-solver engine. Once we develop this engine, we only have to develop interfaces for the applications; and (2) fitness functions necessary for the GA force the physical distribution schedulers to have approximate performance estimation. This was not taken into consideration when the rule-based scheduler was used. Two applications of the discussed schedulers were implemented with real distribution centers, and they brought much efficiency to their management

48.4.3    Suk Lee, Sang Ho Lee, Kyung Chang Lee, Man Hyung Lee, F. Harashima, "Intelligent performance management of networks for advanced manufacturing systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 731-741, August 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper focuses on performance management of communication networks serving various manufacturing systems. The performance management aims to improve the network performance in handling various types of messages by online adjustment of protocol parameters such as timers and queue capacities. The principles of fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, and neural networks have been combined in formulating the performance management rules and fine-tuning the manager. In order to demonstrate the efficacy of this approach, a performance management procedure developed for the IEEE 802.4 protocol standard has been evaluated via discrete-event simulation

48.4.4    V. Varadan, H. Leung, "Reconstruction of polynomial systems from noisy time-series measurements using genetic programming," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 742-748, August 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The problem of functional reconstruction of a polynomial system from its noisy time-series measurement is addressed in this paper. The reconstruction requires the determination of the embedding dimension and the unknown polynomial structure. The authors propose the use of genetic programming (GP) to find the exact functional form and embedding dimension of an unknown polynomial system from its time-series measurement. Using functional operators of addition, multiplication and time delay, they use GP to reconstruct the exact polynomial system and its embedding dimension. The proposed GP approach uses an improved least-squares (ILS) method to determine the parameters of a polynomial system. The ILS method is based on the orthogonal Euclidean distance to obtain an accurate parameter estimate when the series is corrupted by measurement noise. Simulations show that the proposed ILS-GP method can successfully reconstruct a polynomial system from its noisy time-series measurements

48.4.5    Y. Katada, M. Svinin, K. Ohkura, K. Ueda, "Stable grasp planning by evolutionary programming," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 749-756, August 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with the problem of synthesis of stable grasp by multifingered hands. First, a mathematical description of the problem is formulated. The grasp to be synthesized should satisfy equilibrium conditions and unilateral frictional constraints. In addition, it should be stable against disturbances applied to the object. Two types of stability conditions, contact stability and Lyapunov stability, are taken into consideration. Contact points, contact forces and joint stiffnesses are considered as the problem variables. The objective function maximizes admissible linear and rotational disturbances applied to the object, Since the dimension and the complexity of the resulting constrained optimization problem is high enough, the evolutionary programming (EP) approach is explored. Two EP techniques, a conventional one and a specially designed robust technique with a genetic drift, are discussed. The feasibility of these techniques is verified for the synthesis of stable grasp by a three-fingered robotic hand

48.4.6    K.S. Tang, Kim Fung Man, Guanrong Chen, S. Kwong, "An optimal fuzzy PID controller," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 757-765, August 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper introduces an optimal fuzzy proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. The fuzzy PID controller is a discrete-time version of the conventional PID controller, which preserves the same linear structure of the proportional, integral, and derivative parts but has constant coefficient yet self-tuned control gains. Fuzzy logic is employed only for the design; the resulting controller does not need to execute any fuzzy rule base, and is actually a conventional PID controller with analytical formulae. The main improvement is in endowing the classical controller with a certain adaptive control capability. The constant PID control gains are optimized by using the multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA), thereby yielding an optimal fuzzy PID controller. Computer simulations are shown to demonstrate its improvement over the fuzzy PID controller without MOGA optimization

48.4.7    P. Wide, "The electronic head: a virtual quality instrument," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 766-769, August 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a new approach to virtual instrumentation, qualitative estimation, and decision making of a dynamically changing quality assessment. The authors illustrate this approach in an electronic head concept, in which they combine the amount of information received, and apply feature extraction analysis and a fuzzy clustering technique to assess the quality as acquired from a human expert. By combining data from different artificial sensor systems into a single set of meaningful features, they obtain information that is of greater human benefit than the aggregate of its contributing sensors. The combination of sensor data by fuzzy rules has the aim of performing human-like inferences that may be impossible by the single artificial sensors. The entire sensor system acts as a virtual instrument for dynamic industrial process monitoring. This virtual instrument allows easy sensor observation and learning interaction with a human operator


Power Electronics


48.4.8    Chang-Shiarn Lin, Chern-Lin Chen, "A novel single-stage push-pull electronic ballast with high input power factor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 770-776, August 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel single-stage push-pull electronic ballast with high input power factor is presented in this paper. The proposed electronic ballast combines the front-end power-factor corrector and push-pull converter into a single-stage power converter. Compared to the single-stage class-D electronic ballast, the proposed circuit does not require an isolated driver. The control of the circuit is easier and the cost less. The circuit of the ballast is analyzed and the design guidelines are listed. The experimental results verify the theoretical derivation

48.4.9    Xinbo Ruan, Yangguang Yan, "A novel zero-voltage and zero-current-switching PWM full-bridge converter using two diodes in series with the lagging leg," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 777-785, August 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel phase-shifted zero-voltage and zero-current-switching (ZVZCS) pulsewidth modulation full-bridge converter, which realizes ZVS for the leading leg and ZCS for the lagging leg. A blocking capacitor is added in series with the primary winding of the transformer to make the primary current decay to zero during zero state to ensure ZCS for the lagging leg. In order to prevent the primary current from reversing during zero state, two diodes in series with the lagging leg are added. The principle of operation, steady-state analysis, and design procedures are presented. The experimental results are also included to verify the theoretical analysis

48.4.10    R. Datta, V.T. Ranganathan, "A simple position-sensorless algorithm for rotor-side field-oriented control of wound-rotor induction machine," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 786-793, August 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A simple position-sensorless method for the rotor-side field-oriented control of a wound-rotor induction machine is described in this paper. The algorithm is based on axis transformations. Compared to the previously proposed methods, it is more direct and the dependence on machine parameters is also largely reduced. The algorithm can be started on the fly without the knowledge of the initial rotor position. Operation at synchronous speed, corresponding to zero rotor frequency, is stable, thus making it suitable for variable speed constant frequency operations. Simulation and experimental results show excellent performance of the scheme

48.4.11    Namho Hur, Jinhwan Jung, Kwanghee Nam, "A fast dynamic DC-link power-balancing scheme for a PWM converter-inverter system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 794-803, August 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors propose a new power converter control scheme for a converter-inverter system. The strategy is to fully utilize the inverter dynamics in controlling the converter dynamics. The authors obtain the power dynamics for both converter and inverter systems, and control the converter power so that it matches the required inverter power exactly. Then, in the ideal case, no power flows through the DC-link capacitors and, thus, the DC-link voltage does not fluctuate even though a very small amount of the DC-link capacitance is used. In forcing the converter power to match the inverter power, the authors utilize the master-slave control concept. They control the DC-link voltage level indirectly through the stored capacitor energy in order to exploit the advantage of the linear dynamic behavior of the capacitor energy. This helps them to circumvent a complex control method in regulating the DC-link voltage. Through simulation and experimental results, the superiority of the proposed converter control scheme is demonstrated

48.4.12    Bong-Hwan Kwon, Jin-Ha Choi, Tae-Won Kim, "Improved single-phase line-interactive UPS," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 804-811, August 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An improved single-phase line-interactive uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is proposed for low-power applications with low cost. The proposed UPS is comprised of two push-pull converters based on a low-voltage battery for reduced cost: one in series with the input and the other in parallel with the load. In the presence of input power, the UPS acts as an output voltage regulator and at the same time as an active filter while charging the battery. In case of loss of input power, the UPS supplies a regulated sinusoidal voltage to the load, drawing power from the battery. The series converter compensates only a small percentage of the input voltage carrying the input current and, therefore, a reduced rating is made. The parallel converter always supplies a nominal voltage and makes a seamless transition to backup mode. In the voltage determination of the parallel converter, the nominal voltage is derived using the feedback linearization concept and then a perturbed voltage is determined for the reactive power control or output voltage regulation. Experimental results obtained from a 1-kVA prototype are discussed

48.4.13    S.A. Gonzalez, M.I. Valla, C.H. Muravchik, "Analysis and design of clamped-mode resonant converters with variable load," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 812-819, August 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a design procedure for clamped-mode resonant converters working with variable load is proposed and analyzed. The operation of these converters with general parallel or series loads is reviewed first. The operation of the transistors as zero-voltage switches is identified and characterized as mode A. Mode A is preferred to simplify the implementation of the power switches and to increment the converter efficiency. As a case study, the design of an RF power amplifier is presented. The amplifier is connected to a variable load with reactive characteristics, through a low-pass filter of three elements. The validity of the proposed design approach is verified with an experimental setup


Drive Control


48.4.14    Keliang Zhou, Danwei Wang, "Digital repetitive learning controller for three-phase CVCF PWM inverter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 820-830, August 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a plug-in digital repetitive leaning control scheme is proposed for three-phase constant-voltage constant-frequency (CVCF) pulsewidth modulation inverters to achieve high-quality sinusoidal output voltages. In the proposed control scheme, the repetitive controller (RC) is plugged into the stable one-sampling-ahead-preview-controlled three-phase CVCF inverter system using only two voltage sensors. The RC is designed to eliminate periodic disturbance and/or track periodic reference signal with zero tracking error, The design theory of plug-in repetitive learning controller is described systematically and the stability analysis or overall system is discussed. The merits of the controlled systems include features of minimized total harmonic distortion, robustness to parameter uncertainties, fast response, and fewer sensors. Simulation and experimental results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme

48.4.15    A. El Hajjaji, M. Ouladsine, "Modeling and nonlinear control of magnetic levitation systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 831-838, August 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the authors propose a nonlinear model for magnetic levitation systems which is validated with experimental measurements. Using this model, a nonlinear control law based on differential geometry is firstly synthesized. Then, its real-time implementation is developed. In order to highlight the performance of the proposed control law, experimental results are given

48.4.16    R. Monajemy, R. Krishnan, "Control and dynamics of constant-power-loss-based operation of permanent-magnet synchronous motor drive system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 839-844, August 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The operational envelope of electrical machines is limited by the maximum permissible power loss of the machine at any given speed. The control and dynamics of the permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive operating with a maximum power loss versus speed profile is proposed in this paper. The proposed operational strategy is modeled and analyzed. Its comparison to the conventional strategy of limiting current and power to rated values demonstrates the superiority of the proposed scheme. The implementation of the proposed strategy is developed. It is achieved with an outer power loss feedback control loop. This has the advantage of retrofitting the present PMSM drives with the least amount of software/hardware effort. The PMSM drives in this case then can use the existing controllers to implement any torque control criteria, such as constant torque angle, unity power factor, constant air-gap flux linkages, maximum torque per unit current, or maximum-efficiency operation. Experimental verification of the new operational strategy is provided. The concepts presented in this paper can be applied to all other types of motor drives


Emerging Technology


48.4.17    Shiuh-Jer Huang, Kuo-See Huang, "An adaptive fuzzy sliding-mode controller for servomechanism disturbance rejection," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 845-852, August 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A two-level spring-lumped mass servomechanism system was constructed for disturbance rejection control investigation. This dynamic absorber is similar to a model of the serial-type vehicle suspension system. The lower level is actuated by two DC servo motors, to provide the specified internal and external disturbances to the vibration control system. The upper level has another DC servo motor to control the main body balancing position. In order to tackle the system's nonlinear and time-varying characteristics, an adaptive fuzzy sliding-mode controller is proposed to suppress the main mass position variation due to external disturbance. This intelligent control strategy combines an adaptive rule with fuzzy and sliding-mode control technologies. It has online learning ability for responding to the system's time-varying and nonlinear uncertainty behaviors, and for adjusting the control rules and parameters. Only seven rules are required for this control system, and its control rules can be established and modified continuously by online learning. The experimental results show that this intelligent control approach effectively suppresses the vibration amplitude of the body, with respect to the external disturbance


Robotics and Vision


48.4.18    Yongoug Chung, Chongkug Park, F. Harashima, "A position control differential drive wheeled mobile robot," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 853-863, August 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For more accurate path tracking of a four-wheeled two-degrees-of-freedom mobile robot (WMR), a position control algorithm is proposed with two separated feedback loops, a velocity feedback loop and a position feedback loop. In the most conventional position control system of a WMR, internal error is mainly considered, while external error has, as yet, hardly been treated, although it plays an important role in accurate position control. This external error is caused by unexpected environmental situations. The proposed control algorithm is designed to compensate for both internal error and external error. This algorithm makes it possible to accurately follow the designed trajectory


Letters to the Editor


48.4.19    N. Massmoudi, D. M'bairi, B. Allard, H. Morel, "On the validity of the standard SPICE model of the diode for simulation in power electronics," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 864-867, August 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A systematic study of the standard SPICE model of the diode in the case of simulations of power diodes in power electronic applications shows the limits of accuracy with respect to experiments. Therefore, the interest in such a model in power electronic applications is comparable to the high-low resistance model

48.4.20    D. Telford, M.W. Dunnigan, B.W. Williams, "A novel torque-ripple reduction strategy for direct torque control [of induction motor]," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 867-870, August 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This letter presents a simple duty-cycle control scheme for the direct torque control of an induction motor. The scheme reduces torque ripple, controls the average output torque, and reduces the variation in switching frequency. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is demonstrated through experimental results

48.4.21    L.U. Gokdere, M.A. Simaan, C.W. Brice, "Passivity-based control of saturated induction motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 870-872, August 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A passivity-based controller, which takes into account saturation of the magnetic material in the main flux path of the induction motor, is developed to provide close tracking of time-varying speed and flux trajectories in the high magnetic saturation regions. The proposed passivity based controller is experimentally verified. Also, a comparison between the controllers based on the saturated and nonsaturated magnetics is presented to demonstrate the benefit of the controller based on the saturated magnetics

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 48,  Number 5, Oct 2001           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




                 Special section on Multimedia Technologies

48.5.1    Chwan-Hwa Wu, J.D. Irwin, F.F. Dal, "Guest editorial special section on multimedia technologies," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 873-874, Oct 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

48.5.2    Ming-Shing Hsieh, Din-Chang Tseng, Yong-Huai Huang, "Hiding digital watermarks using multiresolution wavelet transform ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 875-882, Oct 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, an image accreditation technique by embedding digital watermarks in images is proposed. The proposed method for the digital watermarking is based on the wavelet transform. This is unlike most previous work, which used a random number of a sequence of bits as a watermark and where the watermark can only be detected by comparing an experimental threshold value to determine whether a sequence of random signals is the watermark. The proposed approach embeds a watermark with visual recognizable patterns, such as binary, gray, or color image in images by modifying the frequency part of the images. In the proposed approach, an original image is decomposed into wavelet coefficients. Then, multi-energy watermarking scheme based on the qualified significant wavelet tree (QSWT) is used to achieve the robustness of the watermarking. Unlike other watermarking techniques that use a single casting energy, QSWT adopts adaptive casting energy in different resolutions. The performance of the proposed watermarking is robust to a variety of signal distortions, such as JPEG, image cropping, sharpening, median filtering, and incorporating attacks

48.5.3    Hong Ye, G.C. Walsh, L.G. Bushnell, "Real-time mixed-traffic wireless networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 883-890, Oct 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we introduce a new protocol, prioritized carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance, for real-time wireless local area networking. Wireless networks increasingly will be called upon to carry mixed traffic, some portion of which will be devoted to real-time control and monitoring. Our protocol, based upon the IEEE 802.11 wireless standard, mixes real-time traffic with standard multimedia data in a way which assures loop stability. Scheduling the real-time traffic is the primary issue considered. Under our framework, we propose and validate several new algorithms for dynamically scheduling the traffic of wireless networked control systems: constant penalty, estimated error order and lag first-order schemes. All algorithms are compared via simulation and the results show that dynamic scheduling algorithms achieve better system performance on average than static scheduling algorithms like fixed-order polling. The results of a real experiment involving two dryer plants and three IEEE 802.11 nodes are reported with static scheduling employed as it lower bounds the closed-loop behavior

48.5.4    Kit-Sang Tang, King-Tim Ko, S. Chan, E.W.M. Wong, "Optimal file placement in VOD system using genetic algorithm," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 891-897, Oct 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Advances in computing and networking are generating a significant demand for video-on-demand (VOD) applications. In this paper, the condition for minimum blocking probability of a VOD system is derived. The optimal load-sharing requirement in such a system is found so that the minimum blocking probability is achieved. A combination of genetic algorithm and modified bin-packing algorithm is then developed for the multimedia file placement exercise. It is demonstrated that a specified blocking probability can be achieved while the capacity usage is minimized simultaneously

48.5.5    Wan-De Weng, Wen Pin Yang, "The CPLD implementation of Viterbi algorithm in grand alliance ATSC systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 898-903, Oct 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Digital television has become one of the most promising industries. The advanced television system is scheduled to totally replace the current television broadcasting system in the US. In this paper, we present the implementation and discussion of the trellis en/decoder in the grand alliance digital television system proposed by the Advanced Television System Committee (ATSC). In the paper, we use a relatively efficient way to realize the en/decoding circuit. The correctness of our design has also been demonstrated

48.5.6    K. Sengupta, Chi Chung Ko, "Scanning face models with desktop cameras," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 904-912, Oct 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Generating face models of humans from video sequences is an important problem in many multimedia applications ranging from teleconferencing to virtual reality. Most practical approaches try to fit a generic face model in the two-dimensional image, and adjust the model parameters to arrive at the final answer. These approaches require the identification of specific landmarks on the face, and this identification routine may or may not be an automated process. In this paper, we present a method for deriving the three-dimensional (3-D) face model from a monocular image sequence, using a few standard results from the affine camera geometry literature in computer vision, and spline-fitting techniques adopted from the nonparametric regression literature in statistics. No prior knowledge of the camera calibration parameters and the shape of the face is required by the system, and the entire process requires no user intervention. The system has been successfully demonstrated to extract the 3-D face structure of humans in several image sequences

48.5.7    Chwan-Hwa Wu, J.D. Irwin, F.F. Dai, "Enabling multimedia applications for factory automation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 913-919, Oct 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Emerging multimedia communication and processing technologies enable many factory applications. However, these technologies are advancing at a prodigious pace. Therefore, designing, managing, and upgrading these networks within this fast-paced environment represents a formidable challenge. The various enabling technologies and the standards that control their use are the subject of this paper. Special emphasis is given to the use of these technologies to support developments on the factory floor. This strategy involves the use of video, audio, and data communications, as well as the inherent processing involved. The role that local area networks and the Internet play in the development of future factory applications is also discussed

48.5.8    Zhaojin Han, T.S. Denney, "Incremental Fourier interpolation of 2-D fractional Brownian motion ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 920-925, Oct 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new method to interpolate two-dimensional fractional Brownian motion (fBm), fBm interpolation can be used in multimedia applications such as landscape synthesis or zooming into a synthetic scene, where the objective is to generate an fBm field that passes through a sparse set of known points. The fBm interpolation problem differs from standard image interpolation because noise must be added to the interpolated points to obtain an interpolated image with the proper second-order statistics. Our interpolation method is based on the first-order increments of both the original fBm and interpolated fBm. These increments are stationary and yield interpolation equations with a Toeplitz-block-Toeplitz structure which can be approximated by a circulant-block-circulant matrix. By taking advantage of fast Fourier transform, the computational complexity is O(N2log2N) for N×N image interpolation. Simulation shows this method achieves good second-order statistics, even for small-size images


Drive Control


48.5.9    Rong-Jong Wai, "Total sliding-mode controller for PM synchronous servo motor drive using recurrent fuzzy neural network," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 926-944, Oct 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the dynamic responses of a recurrent-fuzzy-neural-network (RFNN) sliding-mode-controlled permanent-magnet (PM) synchronous servo motor are described. First, a newly designed total sliding-mode control system, which is insensitive to uncertainties, including parameter variations and external disturbance in the whole control process, is introduced. The total sliding-mode control comprises the baseline model design and the curbing controller design. In the baseline model design, a computed torque controller is designed to cancel the nonlinearity of the nominal plant. In the curbing controller design, an additional controller is designed using a new sliding surface to ensure the sliding motion through the entire state trajectory. Therefore, in the total sliding-mode control system, the controlled system has a total sliding motion without a reaching phase. Then, to overcome the two main problems with sliding-mode control, i.e., the assumption of known uncertainty bounds and the chattering phenomena in the control effort, an RFNN sliding-mode control system is investigated to control the PM synchronous servo motor. In the RFNN sliding-mode control system, an RFNN bound observer is utilized to adjust the uncertainty bounds in real time. To guarantee the convergence of tracking error, analytical methods based on a discrete-type Lyapunov function are proposed to determine the varied learning rates of the RFNN. Simulated and experimental results due to periodic step and sinusoidal commands show that the dynamic behaviors of the proposed control systems are robust with regard to uncertainties

48.5.10    Ho Seong Lee, "Controller optimization for minimum position error signals of hard disk drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 945-950, Oct 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In order to reduce the position error signal (PES) and track misregistration (TMR) of disk drives, it is generally believed that the bandwidth of a disk drive servo system has to be increased. However, increase of the bandwidth is limited by available sampling frequency and mechanical resonances of a head-disk assembly. Hence, for a given servo-mechanical system, optimization of a servo controller is a crucial and economical way to get the best TMR performance. In this paper, optimization of a servo controller that yields minimum PES is presented. The equivalent position-mode disturbance is estimated by the error transfer function inversion method. The estimated disturbance is injected into the servo system to evaluate PES. The optimization process will select the best controller that minimizes PES under the specified constraints. It has been demonstrated that the minimization has been achieved by shaping the error transfer function rather than increase of the servo bandwidth, PES reduction has been confirmed by simulation and experiments

48.5.11    P. Melin, O. Castillo, "Intelligent control of complex electrochemical systems with a neuro-fuzzy-genetic approach," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 951-955, Oct 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes different hybrid approaches for controlling the battery charging process. The hybrid approaches combine soft computing techniques to achieve the goal of controlling the temperature of the battery during the electrochemical charging process. We have reduced the time required for charging a battery with the use of fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. In the neuro-fuzzy-genetic approach, neural networks are used for modeling the electrochemical process, fuzzy logic is used for controlling the process, and genetic algorithms are used to optimize the fuzzy system

48.5.12    Bor-Jehng Kang, Chang-Ming Liaw, "A robust hysteresis current-controlled PWM inverter for linear PMSM driven magnetic suspended positioning system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 956-967, Oct 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Hysteresis current-controlled pulsewidth modulation (PWM) is very robust but it possesses nonconstant switching frequency, and it is difficult to use for high-performance position servo applications. This paper presents a robust hysteresis current-controlled PWM scheme for a magnetic suspended positioning system driven by an inverter-fed linear permanent-magnet synchronous motor having improved performance in these two areas. In the proposed control scheme, the conventional hysteresis PWM mechanism is augmented by a robust harmonic spectrum-shaping controller. The error signal, which represents the switching frequency deviated from the set one, is detected using a notching filter inverse model. Then, the current command is adjusted by a robust compensation signal. The hysteresis band can be equivalently varied to let the dominant harmonic frequency of inverter output be constant, wherein the frequency can easily be changed by tuning the center frequency of the notch filter. The gating signal of switches is not needed to be sensed for making the proposed control. The constant-frequency control performance yielded by the proposed controller is rather insensitive to the system disturbances and the neutral voltage variation due to isolated Y connection. Through applying the proposed PWM inverter, satisfactory position control requirements can be achieved by properly setting the dominant harmonic frequency according to the electromechanical model of the positioning system

48.5.13    Chi-Huang Lu, Ching-Chih Tsai, "Adaptive decoupling predictive temperature control for an extrusion barrel in a plastic injection molding process," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 968-975, Oct 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an adaptive decoupling temperature control for an extrusion barrel in a plastic injection molding process. After establishing a stochastic polynomial matrix model of the system, a corresponding decoupling system representation was then developed. The decoupling control design was derived based on the minimization of a generalized predictive performance criterion. The set-point tracking, disturbance rejection, and robustness capabilities of the proposed method can be improved by appropriate adjustments to the tuning parameters in the criterion function. A real-time control algorithm, including the recursive least-squares method, is proposed which was implemented using a digital signal processor TMS320C31 from Texas Instruments. Through the experimental results, the proposed method has been shown to be powerful under set-point changes, load disturbances, and significant plant uncertainties. The proposed control law is shown to be less computational and more effective than other well-known multivariable control strategies, and more powerful than single-loop temperature-zone control policies

48.5.14    Qing-Guo Wang, Qiang Bi, Yong Zhang, "Partial internal model control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 976-982, Oct 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Internal model control (IMC) is a well-known and effective control scheme. However, when unstable processes are concerned, the original IMC structure cannot be directly used for control system implementation. In this paper, a new scheme called partial internal model control (PIMC) is proposed, which is capable of controlling both stable and unstable processes. In PIMC, a process model is expressed as the sum of the stable and antistable parts and only the stable part of the process model is used as the internal model. The process stable part is canceled by the internal model and the remaining antistable part is stabilized and controlled with a primary controller, which is usually a PID-type regulator when the antistable part is of a low order. Various properties of a PIMC system such as internal stability and robust stability are analyzed. The design of PIMC is discussed in detail. Various simulation examples are included for illustration and a real-time implementation on a motor system is presented

48.5.15    Chunshien Li, Chun-Yi Lee, "Fuzzy motion control of an auto-warehousing crane system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 983-994, Oct 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Fuzzy motion control of an auto-warehousing crane system is presented in this paper. Using the concept of linguistic variable, a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) can convert the knowledge and experience of an expert into an automatic control strategy. The designed FLC with a rule base and three sets of parameters is used to control the crane system in x, y, and z directions. The unloaded weight and the fully loaded weight of the crane system in discussion are 1.35×104 kg and 1.5×104 kg, respectively. For various loading conditions and varying distances, the FLC still controls the crane system very well with positioning accuracy less than 2×10 -3 m for all directions. The distance-speed reference curve for control of the crane system is designed to meet the engineering specifications of motion such as acceleration, deceleration, maximum speed, and creep speed in each direction, and is generated automatically according to varying distance. The method for designing the distance-speed reference curve can make the crane move at relatively high speed to approach the target position. Simulations of the motion control in the three directions are demonstrated

48.5.16    G. Garcera, M. Pascual, E. Figueres, "Robust average current-mode control of multimodule parallel DC-DC PWM converter systems with improved dynamic response," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 995-1005, Oct 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel average current-mode control (ACC) strategy for the control of multimodule parallel pulsewidth modulation DC-DC converters, which represents a drastic improvement over conventional ACC. This new method consists of the addition of an auxiliary controller into the control loop, besides the current and voltage regulators. The reference-model-based auxiliary controller improves the robustness of the ACC dynamics in buck-derived distributed power systems, preserving loop gain crossover frequency and stability margins over significant changes of the number of connected modules, the load and the line voltage. Moreover, this control scheme shows much better disturbance rejection properties, i.e., closed-loop output impedance and audiosusceptibility, than conventional ACC. From a control theory point of view robust performance is achieved, preserving stability. A multimodule buck prototype has been experimentally tested with different numbers of modules on stream, line, and load conditions, including discontinuous conduction mode. Measurements of the small-signal frequency response of the converter have been carried out, showing the improvement achieved by the proposed control scheme. The empirical large-signal response of the converter under load steps is also shown in order to validate the concept


Power Electronics


48.5.17    Kyo-Beum Lee, Joong-Ho Song, I. Choy, Ji-Yoon Yoo, "Improvement of low-speed operation performance of DTC for three-level inverter-fed induction motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 1006-1014, Oct 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A direct torque control algorithm for three-level inverter-fed induction motors is presented. Basic voltage selection methods similar to a two-level inverter provoke some problems such as stator-flux drooping phenomenon and undesirable torque control deterioration appeared, especially at low-speed operation. To overcome these problems, an algorithm with the basic switching sectors subdivided and intermediate voltage vectors applied is proposed in this paper. This algorithm basically considers applications in which direct torque-controlled induction motors are fed by three-level inverters with maximum switching frequency lowered around 1 kHz. An adaptive observer is also employed to bring better responses at the low-speed operation, by estimating some state variables and motor parameters which take a deep effect on the performance of the low-speed operation. Simulation and experiment results verify effectiveness of the proposed algorithm

48.5.18    Jooho Song, Joong-Ho Song, I. Choy, Ju-Yeop Choi, "Improving crest factor of electronic ballast-fed fluorescent lamp current using pulse frequency modulation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 1015-1024, Oct 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In case where electronic ballast employing a valley-fill passive power-factor correction (PFC) circuit is used for feeding fluorescent tamps, a new method to reduce crest factor of the lamp current is studied in this paper. It is known that a 50% valley-fill passive PFC provided for high input power factor results in undesirable value of crest factor of the fluorescent lamp current, In order to reduce crest factor to a lower value, a pulse frequency modulation technique based on the waveform of the DC-link voltage which is predetermined by the passive PFC circuit is taken into the switching control action of the electronic ballast. An equation-based analysis between the crest factor of lamp current and the effect of varying the inverter switching frequency is comprehensively performed. Several simulation and experiment results illustrate the Effectiveness of the proposed control scheme


Emerging Technology


48.5.19    A. Willig, A. Wolisz, "Ring stability of the PROFIBUS token-passing protocol over error-prone links," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 1025-1033, Oct 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The PROFIBUS is a well-known and widely used fieldbus. On the medium access control layer, it employs a token-passing protocol where all active stations form a logical ring on top of a broadcast medium. This protocol is designed to deliver real-time data transmission services in harsh industrial environments. A necessary prerequisite for timeliness and quality of service is the ring membership stability of the logical ring in the presence of transmission errors, since only ring members are allowed to transmit data. In this paper, the ring membership stability under high error rates and using different error models is analyzed. The choice of the error behavior is in turn inspired by properties of possible future transmission technologies, e.g., wireless LANs. It is shown that the protocol has serious stability problems. To attack these problems, two changes to the protocol and its parameters are proposed, which can be implemented in a purely local manner. We show that they significantly improve ring stability


Signal Processing and Control


48.5.20    M. Kamiya, H. Ikeda, S. Shinohara, "Analog data transmission through plastic optical fiber in robot with compensation of errors caused by optical fiber bending loss," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 1034-1037, Oct 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new type of analog data transmission system using a plastic fiber is proposed, where a direct intensity modulation scheme has been employed together with a differential amplifier to compensate for the transmission error caused by the optical fiber bending loss. This system was experimentally applied to transmit analog data of dimensions detected by the displacement sensor attached to the robot arm tip to the robot basement through the plastic optical fiber installed in the robot arm body


Letters to the Editor


48.5.21    J.R. Heredia, F. Perez Hidalgo, J.L. Duran Paz, "Sensorless control of induction motors by artificial neural networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 1038-1040, Oct 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this letter, we propose a voltage-source inverter control working in the open loop of an induction motor measuring the stator current and using an artificial neural network. This technique has the mission to estimate the speed and torque of the rotor without using sensors. With this, a simple and cheap method of control is obtained, with as much precision and robustness as other more complex ones

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 48,  Number 6, Dec 2001           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




                 Drive Control

48.6.1    J.Y. Hung, "Parameter estimation using sensitivity points: tutorial and experiment," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1043-1047, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Presented in this paper are a tutorial and experimental results for an iterative offline parameter identification scheme. The scheme utilizes the concept of sensitivity points to generate the gradient information that is used in the steepest descent estimation method. An experiment is conducted to identify parameters of a motor drive system in which the motor and load are connected by a compliant element. Estimated parameter values are also used in a position control experiment in which measured and designed responses are compared

48.6.2    Xinkai Chen, T. Fukuda, "Robust sliding-mode tip position control for flexible arms," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1048-1056, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we consider the robust tip position control problem for flexible arms by using the sliding-mode method. The higher order modes of the flexible arm are treated as disturbances, and are compensated by introducing a disturbance observer. The remaining disturbance and the model uncertainties are considered as the system uncertainty. The robustness of the sliding-mode control is effectively employed to cope with the system uncertainty, where the upper and lower bounds of the uncertainty are adaptively updated. The stability of the closed-loop system is analyzed by using the fact that a part of the control input is the approximate estimate of the uncertainty. Experimental results show that the robustness and superiority of the proposed method, where only the strain moment at the root and motor angular position of the arm are measured

48.6.3    D. Casadei, G. Serra, A. Tani, "The use of matrix converters in direct torque control of induction machines," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1057-1064, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new control method for matrix converters is proposed which allows, under the constraint of unity input power factor, the generation of the voltage vectors required to implement the direct torque control (DTC) of induction machines. Using this control method, it is possible to combine the advantages of matrix converters with the advantages of the DTC schemes. Some numerical simulations are carried out, showing the effectiveness of the proposed method in steady-state and transient conditions. Some experimental tests were also carried out demonstrating the practical feasibility of this control scheme

48.6.4    B. Terzic, M. Jadric, "Design and implementation of the extended Kalman filter for the speed and rotor position estimation of brushless DC motor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1065-1073, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method for speed and rotor position estimation of a brushless DC motor (BLDCM) is presented in this paper. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) is employed to estimate the motor state variables by only using measurements of the stator fine voltages and currents. When applying the EKF, it was necessary to solve some specific problems related to the voltage and current waveforms of the BLDCM. During the estimation procedure, the voltage- and current-measuring signals are not filtered, which is otherwise usually done when applying similar methods. The voltage average value during the sampling interval is obtained by combining measurements and calculations, owing to the application of the predictive current controller which is based on the mathematical model of motor. Two variants of the estimation algorithm are considered: (1) speed and rotor position are estimated with constant motor parameters and (2) the stator resistance is estimated simultaneously with motor state variables. In order to verify the estimation results, the laboratory setup has been constructed using a motor with ratings of 1.5 kW, 2000 r/min, fed by an insulated gate bipolar transistor inverter. The speed and current controls, as well as the estimation algorithm, have been implemented by a digital signal processor (TMS320C50). The experimental results show that is possible to estimate the speed and rotor position of the BLDCM with sufficient accuracy in both steady-state and dynamic operation. Introducing the estimation of the stator resistance, the speed estimation accuracy is increased, particularly at low speeds. At the end of the paper, the characteristics of the sensorless drive are analyzed. A sensorless speed control system has been achieved with maximum steady-state error between reference and actual motor speed of ±1% at speeds above 5% of the rated value

48.6.5    Zhihong Su, K. Khorasani, "A neural-network-based controller for a single-link flexible manipulator using the inverse dynamics approach," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1074-1086, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an intelligent-based control strategy for tip position tracking control of a single-link flexible manipulator. Motivated by the well-known inverse dynamics control strategy for rigid-link manipulators, two feedforward neural networks (NNs) are proposed to learn the nonlinearities of the flexible arm associated with the inverse dynamics controller. The redefined output approach is used by feeding back this output to guarantee the minimum phase behavior of the resulting closed-loop system. No a priori knowledge about the nonlinearities of the system is needed and the payload mass is also assumed to be unknown. The network weights are adjusted using a modified online error backpropagation algorithm that is based on the propagation of output tracking error, derivative of that error and the tip deflection of the manipulator. The real-time controller is implemented on an experimental test bed. The results achieved by the proposed NN-based controller are compared experimentally with conventional proportional-plus-derivative-type and standard inverse dynamics controls to substantiate and verify the advantages of our proposed scheme and its promising potential in identification and control of nonlinear systems

48.6.6    J. Mireles, F.L. Lewis, "Intelligent material handling: development and implementation of a matrix-based discrete-event controller," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1087-1097, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A supervisory controller for discrete-event (DE) systems is presented that uses a novel matrix formulation. This matrix formulation makes it possible to directly write down the DE controller from standard manufacturing tools such as the bill of materials or the assembly tree. The matrices also make it straightforward to actually implement the DE controller on a manufacturing workcell for sequencing the jobs and assigning the resources. It is shown that the DE controller equations plus the Petri net marking transition equation together provide a complete dynamical description of a DE system. This means that a computer simulation can be performed to check the DE performance of the controller before it is implemented. In this paper, the authors implement the DE controller on an actual three-robot intelligent material handling cell at the Automation and Robotics Research Institute, University of Texas at Arlington, USA. Then, they show that the actual implementation and the simulated system give commensurate results. The versatility of the system developed with this DE controller permits implementing different methodologies for conflict resolution, as well as optimization of the resource assignment and part throughput. Technical information given includes the development of the controller in LabVIEW and its simulation using MATLAB

48.6.7    Guchuan Zhu, A. Kaddouri, L.A. Dessaint, O. Akhrif, "A nonlinear state observer for the sensorless control of a permanent-magnet AC machine," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1098-1108, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a sensorless speed regulation scheme for a permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) based solely on the motor line currents measurements. The proposed scheme combines an exact linearization-based controller with a nonlinear state observer which estimates the rotor position and speed. Moreover, the stability of the closed-loop system, including the observer, is demonstrated through Lyapunov stability theory. The proposed observer has the advantage of being insensitive to rotation direction. It is shown how a singularity at zero velocity appears in the scheme and how it can be avoided by switching smoothly from the observer-based closed-loop control to an open-loop control at low velocity. The system performance is tested with an experimental setup consisting of a PMSM servo drive and a digital-signal-processor-based controller for both unidirectional and bidirectional speed regulation

48.6.8    Meng Joo Er, Ya Lei Sun, "Hybrid fuzzy proportional-integral plus conventional derivative control of linear and nonlinear systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1109-1117, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new approach toward the optimal design of a hybrid proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller applicable for controlling linear as well as nonlinear systems using genetic algorithms (GAs). The proposed hybrid PID controller is derived by replacing the conventional PI controller by a two-input normalized linear fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and executing the conventional D controller in an incremental form. The salient features of the proposed controller are as follows: (1) the linearly defined FLC can generate nonlinear output so that high nonlinearities of complex systems can be handled; (2) only one well-defined linear fuzzy control space is required for both linear and nonlinear systems; (3) optimal tuning of the controller gains is carried out by using a GA; and (4) it is simple and easy to implement. Simulation results on a temperature control system (linear system) and a missile model (nonlinear system) demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller

48.6.9    D. Basic, V.S. Ramsden, P.K. Muttik, "Harmonic filtering of high-power 12-pulse rectifier loads with a selective hybrid filter system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1118-1127, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Current distortion of 12-pulse rectifier loads is significantly lower compared to six-pulse rectifier loads. However, in passive filtering of the lowest and dominant characteristic 11th and 13th harmonics, the use of 5th and 7th filters is often required in order to prevent possible parallel and series resonance between the passive filter and source impedance which can be excited by source background distortion or by load current residual noncharacteristic harmonics at the 5th and 7th harmonic frequencies. In hybrid filter systems, an active filter (AF) can be added in series with the passive filter in order to isolate the source and load. In most proposed hybrid filter systems, AF control is based on the detection of total current distortion and high-frequency inverters. With a selective AF control system and voltage-controlled inverter, the AF can be controlled to isolate the load at the critical frequencies only while at all other frequencies the passive filter function is preserved so that lower switching frequency and AF rating is required. In this paper, the authors present a selective AF filter control system and simple hybrid filter topology suitable for the compensation of high-power 12-pulse rectifier loads. Harmonic current controllers based on the second-order infinite-impulse response digital resonant filters are used, as they can be considered as simple digital algorithms for more complex double cascaded synchronous-reference-frame-based proportional plus integral controllers. They are centered to the targeted harmonic frequencies by using an adaptive fundamental frequency tracking filter. This approach gives good results, even if the reference waveform (in our case, a load voltage) is highly distorted or unbalanced and no separate phaselocked loop is required. Test results for a laboratory model of this system and stability analysis are presented and the importance of delay-time compensation is discussed

48.6.10    Han-Jong Kim, Geun-Ho Lee, Cheol-Ho Jang, Jea-Pil Lee, "Cost-effective design of an inverter output reactor in ASD applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1128-1135, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the cost-effective design of an output reactor which is used to suppress the overvoltage at the motor terminal in an adjustable-speed drive (ASD) application is proposed. The overvoltage suppression mechanism of an output reactor in an ASD application is analyzed and the dominant parameters of the output reactor for the overvoltage suppression are extracted. Using these parameters as the design values and considering the high-frequency characteristics of the iron core in the reactor, a new cost-effective structure of the output reactor is proposed. Experimental results of the conventional reactor and the proposed reactor with a 15-kW induction motor are given to verify the proposed scheme

48.6.11    Chang-Ming Liaw, Yeong-May Lin, Kuei-Hsiang Chao, "A VSS speed controller with model reference response for induction motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1136-1147, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper is mainly concerned with the development of a variable-structure system (VSS) controller with model reference speed response for an induction motor drive. An indirect-field-oriented (IFO) induction motor drive is first implemented, and its dynamic model at a nominal operating condition is estimated from measured data. Then, a two-degrees-of-freedom linear model-following controller (2DOFLMFC) is designed to meet the prescribed tracking and load regulation speed responses at the nominal case. As the variations of system parameters and operating condition occur, the prescribed control specifications may not be satisfied further. To improve this, a VSS controller is developed to generate a compensation control signal to reduce the control performance degradation. The proposed VSS controller is easy to implement, since only the output variable is sensed. The existence condition of sliding-mode control is derived, and the chattering suppression during the static period is also considered. Good model-following tracking and load regulation speed responses are obtained by the designed VSS controller. Effectiveness of the proposed controller and the performance of the resulting drive system are confirmed by some simulation and measured results

48.6.12    E.D. Mitronikas, A.N. Safacas, E.C. Tatakis, "A new stator resistance tuning method for stator-flux-oriented vector-controlled induction motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1148-1157, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Field-oriented-controlled induction motor drives have been widely used over the last several years. Conventional direct stator-flux-oriented control schemes have the disadvantage of poor performance in the low-speed operating area when the stator flux is calculated using the voltage model, due to the stator resistance uncertainties and variations. In this paper, a new closed-loop stator-flux estimation method for a stator-flux-oriented vector-controlled induction motor drive is presented in which the stator resistance value is updated during operation. This method is based on a simple algorithm capable of running in a low-cost microcontroller, which is derived from the dynamic model of the induction machine. The effects of stator resistance detuning, especially in the low-speed operating region, are investigated and simulation results are shown. The motor drive system as well as the control logic and the resistance estimator are simulated and characteristic simulation results are derived. In addition, the proposed control scheme is experimentally implemented and some characteristic experimental results are shown. The simulation as well as the experimental results reveal that the proposed method is able to obtain precise flux and torque control, even for very low operating frequencies


Power Electronics


48.6.13    B.M. Han, S.I. Moon, "Static reactive-power compensator using soft-switching current-source inverter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1158-1165, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a static reactive-power compensator using a soft-switching scheme. The proposed system is composed of a three-phase current-source inverter with an H-type soft-switching module, which consists of two semiconductor switches, two diodes, and an L-C resonant circuit. The operation of the proposed system was analyzed in detail through a theoretical approach and computer simulation with SPICE. A scaled prototype was built and tested for verifying the feasibility of hardware implementation. The proposed system would be suitable for a high-power application with less switching loss

48.6.14    J.E. Baggio, J.R. Pinheiro, "A simple active auxiliary commutation circuit for three-level PWM single-phase inverters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1166-1173, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the analysis and design of a new low-loss auxiliary circuit for three-level pulsewidth-modulation single-phase full-bridge inverters which achieve soft switching at all semiconductor devices. The active auxiliary commutation circuit (AACC) is composed of an LC circuit and two bidirectional switches, where one auxiliary switch commutates under zero-voltage switching condition and the other under zero-current switching condition. The AACC dispenses with the use of auxiliary voltage sources. Low reactive energy is added to the converter, resulting in low RMS current stresses at the main switches and, consequently, higher efficiency is achieved. Auxiliary circuit design procedures and experimental results are presented to prove the operation principle

48.6.15    E.S. da Silva, L. dos Reis Barbosa, J.B. Vieira, L.C. de Freitas, V.J. Farias, "An improved boost PWM soft-single-switched converter with low voltage and current stresses," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1174-1179, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an improved regenerative soft turn-on and turn-off snubber applied to a boost pulsewidth-modulated (PWM) converter. The boost soft-single-switched converter proposed, which has only a single active switch, is able to operate with soft switching in a PWM way without high voltage and current stresses. This is achieved by using an auxiliary inductor, which is magnetically coupled with the main inductor of the converter. In order to illustrate the operating principle of this new converter, a detailed study, including simulations as well as experimental results, is carried out. The validity of this new converter is guaranteed by the obtained results

48.6.16    S.C. Tang, S.Y.R. Hui, H.S. Chung, "A low-profile wide-band three-port isolation amplifier with coreless printed-circuit-board (PCB) transformers," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1180-1187, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Galvanic isolations are essential in many electrical patient-monitoring devices and industrial applications. In this paper, a low-profile wideband three-port isolation amplifier using coreless printed-circuit-board (PCB) transformers for isolation is studied. The PCB thickness used in the isolation amplifier is 0.4 mm. The diameters of the two coreless PCB transformers are 9.75 and 5.856 mm, respectively. Operating conditions of the transformers and a design guideline of the isolation amplifier are detailed in this paper. Experimental results show that the isolation amplifier under investigation can transmit an analog signal from 20 mHz to 1.1 MHz with good linearity. Comparison of the prototype with an industrial isolation amplifier is also included

48.6.17    Yim-Shu Lee, Yue-Quan Hu, Kam-Wah Siu, "Single-switch electronic ballast with near-unity power factor and soft-switching characteristic," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1188-1195, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The design and analysis of a single-switch electronic ballast with near-unity power factor and soft-switching characteristic are presented. The ballast circuit is simple and has a small component count. The experimental results for an 80 W ballast show that it has a power factor higher than 0.99 and a total harmonic distortion of 12%. The operating frequency is between 20-40 kHz. The output power is adjustable and the circuit is reliable

48.6.18    J. Ribas, J.M. Alonso, A.J. Calleja, E.L. Corominas, M. Rico-Secades, J. Cardesin, "Low-cost single-stage electronic ballast based on a self-oscillating resonant inverter integrated with a buck-boost PFC circuit," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1196-1204, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new solution to implement and control a single-stage electronic ballast based on the integration of a buck-boost power-factor-correction stage and a half-bridge resonant inverter is presented. The control signals are obtained from the inverter resonant current by means of a saturable transformer. Core saturation is used to control the required dead time between the control pulses of both switches. Since no special integrated circuits are required to control the ballast, the total number of components is minimized and the final cost of the ballast is reduced compared to a typical two-stage configuration. Analysis and basic design guidelines are presented in the paper, together with experimental results obtained from a laboratory prototype

48.6.19    Kyoung-Wook Seok, Bong-Hwan Kwon, "An improved zero-voltage and zero-current-switching full-bridge PWM converter using a simple resonant circuit," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1205-1209, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An improved zero-voltage and zero-current-witching full-bridge pulsewidth modulation (ZVZCS-FB-PWM) DC-to-DC converter is presented and analyzed. An auxiliary resonant circuit, which consists of a switch and a capacitor, are added to provide zero-current switching (ZCS) conditions to the primary lagging-leg switches. Due to the auxiliary circuit, when the primary current is being extinguished, the voltage applied on the leakage inductance of the transformer is larger than DC-link voltage. This large voltage increases the maximal output current that can be handled in ZCS. Furthermore, the auxiliary switch softly turns on and turns off

48.6.20    D. Alexa, A. Sirbu, "Optimized combined harmonic filtering system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1210-1218, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a thorough analysis of the operation for the combined filtering system consisting of a passive filter with diodes connected in parallel with the capacitors and a low-power inverter. The diodes limit the voltage across the capacitors and the inverter starts to work when disturbances occur in the three-phase network, sending back to the network the excess energy taken by all the capacitors from the network during these disturbances. The proposed combined filtering system has reduced size and cost as well as high efficiency. Laboratory experiments and simulation results proving the effectiveness of the solution are also presented

48.6.21    Kyoung-Wook Seok, Bong-Hwan Kwon, "A novel single-stage half-bridge AC-DC converter with high power factor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1219-1225, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new single-stage AC-DC power converter based on a half-bridge converter suitable for low-power applications is proposed. The proposed converter offers high power factor and direct conversion from the line voltage to an isolated DC output voltage. High power factor is achieved by adding a resonant circuit between the rectifying diodes and half-bridge leg. For soft switching, a half-bridge series-loaded resonant converter is adopted as a DC-DC converter part. A prototype is built and tested to show the validity of the proposed converter


Emerging Technology


48.6.22    M. Al-Mouhamed, "A robust gross-to-fine pattern recognition system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1226-1237, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a model-based vision recognition engine for planar contours that are scale invariant of known models. Features are obtained by using a constant-curvature criterion and used to carry out efficient coarse-to-fine recognition. A robust shape matching is proposed for comparing contour fragments from scenes with partial occluding. In order to carry out an early pruning of a large portion of the models, hypotheses are only generated for a subset of contours with enough discriminative information. Poor scene contours are used later in validating or invalidating a relatively small set of hypotheses. Since hypotheses are selectively verified, blocking is avoided by extending current matching through pairing of hypotheses, predictive matching, and retrieving the next weighted hypotheses. This avoids the processing of a large number of initial hypotheses. The authors' evaluation shows that a high recognition error results from the use of too small a bucket size because the indexes may fall at random, producing nonrepeatable results. They use a multidimensional hashing scheme with space separation between dense parameter areas to create additional hashing tables. The robustness of the recognition is based on engineering a coarse bucket size to the best tolerance with respect to various sources of noise. Partially occluded scenes having three objects can be recognized with a success rate of 84%. The results are reproducible against changes in scale, rotation, and translation. Due to the selection of robust initial hypotheses and the structure of the selective matching system, the processing time essentially depends on scene complexity with a marginal dependence on database size

48.6.23    Chang-Gyun Kim, Dong-Hyun Seo, Jung-Sik You, Jong-Hu Park, B.H. Cho, "Design of a contactless battery charger for cellular phone," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1238-1247, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the design of a contactless charger for the lithium-ion battery of a cellular phone is presented. In this charger, the primary core of the transformer is in the charger unit and the secondary core is in the telephone. The gap (3 mm) between them is the thickness of the two plastic cases. The transformer core design for the maximum coupling coefficient with the size constraint on the secondary side is presented. Analysis of the primary-side series resonant power converter with the loosely coupled transformer is performed, and the design optimization is presented. For the battery-charging control, a simple control circuit is presented and its performance is verified from the experimental results

48.6.24    M. Kunes, T. Sauter, "Fieldbus-internet connectivity: the SNMP approach," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1248-1256, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Important reasons for connecting fieldbus systems to IP-based networks are the provision of remote access for monitoring and maintenance purposes, but also the inclusion of automation systems into an enterprise-wide management scope. Existing solutions are chiefly based on Web technology or require specialized, fieldbus-dependent tools. In this paper, the authors propose a different strategy using the standardized and widely used Simple Network Management Protocol. This approach is largely fieldbus-independent and, at the same time, interoperable with existing LAN technology. They discuss the architecture of a protocol conversion gateway and present a modular approach to cope with the variety of available fieldbus protocols. They further propose a structure for a management information base suitable to represent the fieldbus data objects. By means of prototype implementations for different fieldbus systems (Profibus, P-NET, and EIB), they study the influence of the underlying fieldbus communication principles on the gateway implementation and operation

48.6.25    R. Oboe, "Web-interfaced, force-reflecting teleoperation systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1257-1265, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An ever-growing number of Internet-connected devices is now accessible to a multitude of users. Being a ubiquitous communication means, the Internet could allow any user to reach and command any device connected to the network. This paper reports the successful application of real-time closed-loop control over the Internet in the Java Based Interface for Telerobotics (JBIT) system, in which Internet users can access and command a two-degrees-of-freedom robot in real time, receiving both visual and force feedback. When the closed-loop control of a remote system comes into play, careful evaluation of the performance and limits of the communication system in use is mandatory. The analysis reported shows that the main limits of the Internet are the unknown available throughput, the variable delay, and the loss of some data packets, in particular, when the network is congested. Once the limits of the communication system are known, it is shown that it is possible to use the Internet for the remote closed-loop control of a slave robot, provided that suitable strategies to guarantee operability and safety of the controlled system have been implemented. The strategies implemented in order to overcome the limits posed by the present Internet characteristics are described, along with an improved coordinating force control scheme, which enhances the transparency of the teleoperator


Letters to the Editor


48.6.26    B. Wilamowski, A. Malinowski, J. Regnier, "Internet as a new graphical user interface for the SPICE circuit simulator," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1266-1268, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The Spice Internet Package (SIP) was developed using an Internet browser as a platform-independent graphical user interface. The SIP application has many options that include simulation of SPICE files, graphical postprocessing data, and online editing of SPICE files. It can run remotely through a network on any operating system

48.6.27    Fang Lin Luo, "Six self-lift DC-DC converters, voltage lift technique," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1268-1272, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The voltage lift technique is a popular method widely applied in electronic circuit design. Applying it has created six new DC-DC step-up power converters, namely, self-lift DC-DC power converters, which possess high output voltage with smooth ripple. Therefore, these converters can be used in computer peripheral equipment and industrial applications

48.6.28    C.C. Chan, Z.M. Zhao, S. Meng, Y.F. Liu, E.W.C. Lo, "Strategy and implementation for design and analysis of induction machines supplied by power electronic inverters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1272-1274, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Induction machines supplied by power electronic inverters for variable-speed systems are different from those fed directly from a utility power line. The design strategies of induction machines considering power electronic supply are presented and implemented. The proposed approach permits the integration of the design of machines with inverters, comprehensive performance analysis, and system optimization

48.6.29    Yang Gao, Meng Joo Er, Song Yang, "Adaptive control of robot manipulators using fuzzy neural networks ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1274-1278, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an adaptive fuzzy neural controller suitable for multilink manipulators motion control. The proposed controller has the following salient features: (1) self-organizing fuzzy neural structure; (2) online learning of the robot dynamics; (3) fast convergence of tracking error; and (4) adaptive control. Computer simulation results of a two-link manipulator demonstrate that excellent tracking performance can be achieved under external disturbances

48.6.30    T. Senjyu, T. Kashiwagi, K. Uezato, "Position control of ultrasonic motors using MRAC with dead-zone compensation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1278-1285, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The ultrasonic motor has a heavy nonlinearity, which varies with driving conditions and possesses variable dead zone in the control input associated with applied load torque. This dead zone is a problem as an accurate positioning actuator for industrial applications and it is important to eliminate the dead zone in order to improve the control performance. This letter proposes a new position control scheme for ultrasonic motors, to overcome the load-torque-dependent dead zone employing model reference adaptive control with dead-zone compensation. The dead zone is compensated by an observer, whereas model reference adaptive control performs accurate position control. Mathematical models are formulated and experimental results are given to validate the proposed position control scheme

48.6.31    Yu-Kang Lo, Sheng-Yuan Ou, Huang-Jen Chiu, "Coupling analysis of a three-phase power-factor corrector composed of three single-phase modules," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1285-1288, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The coupling behavior, during the turn-off intervals, of the main switches in a three-phase boost power-factor corrector composed of three single-phase modules is analyzed by the authors in this paper. The rejoining of the split inductor currents of the same phase is also proven theoretically and verified with experiments

48.6.32    N.J. Medrano-Marques, B. Martin-del-Brio, "Sensor linearization with neural networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1288-1290, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A procedure for extending the linear range of an arbitrary sensor is proposed. The process is carried out by a neural network which compensates the sensor nonlinear characteristic. A negative temperature coefficient resistor sensor is used as an application example of the procedure, and its implementation in low-resolution microcontrollers is analyzed

48.6.33    A. Shenkman, B. Axelrod, V. Chudnovsky, "Assuring continuous input current using a smoothing reactor in a thyristor frequency converter for induction metal melting and heating applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1290-1292, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The approximate analysis of a thyristor frequency converter for induction heating and melting is described. The method for calculating the smoothing reactor inductance, which will provide the continuous mode of inverter input current operation, is proposed. The laboratory prototype of the above converter has been made and examined. The results of the experiments are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations

48.6.34    E. Bim, "Fuzzy optimization for rotor constant identification of an indirect FOC induction motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1293-1295, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The adaptive field-oriented control of an induction motor drive using fuzzy logic for the identification of the rotor time constant is proposed. The identification is presented as an optimization problem and the objective function is the total square error between the motor and commanded stator currents. Experimental results are presented

48.6.35    "Author Index," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1296-1301, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

48.6.36    "Subject Index," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1301-1320, Dec 2001.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 49,  Number 1, Feb 2002           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




                 Special Section on SRM and Drives

49.1.1    M. Ehsani, "Guest Editorial," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 2-2, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

49.1.2    D.A. Torrey, "Switched reluctance generators and their control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 3-14, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper discusses how the switched reluctance generator (SRG) converts energy as directed by a controller. Beginning with a review of the electromechanics of generation, the paper identifies the implications of the energy conversion process on how the SRG is controlled. The structure of the SRG controller for speed-control and power-control applications is discussed. Practical implementation details for commutation of the SRG are reviewed. Concepts are illustrated with a 6-kW SRG designed to serve as a starter/alternator in automotive applications

49.1.3    T.J.E. Miller, "Optimal design of switched reluctance motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 15-27, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The fundamental theory of the switched reluctance motor is presented with a number of new equations. It is used to show how the practical development of a design calculation should proceed, and this leads to a discussion of physical characteristics required to achieve satisfactory performance and to reduce acoustic noise. The paper makes a few generic observations on the characteristics of successful products that use switched reluctance motors. It is written at a basic engineering level and makes no attempt to apply sophisticated optimization theory

49.1.4    I. Husain, "Minimization of torque ripple in SRM drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 28-39, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The torque pulsations in switched reluctance motors (SRMs) are relatively higher compared to sinusoidal machines due to the doubly salient structure of the motor. The magnetization pattern of the individual phases together with the T-i-&thetas; characteristics of the motor dictate the amount of torque ripple during operation. Both machine design and electronic control approaches have been used to minimize the torque ripple in SRMs. This paper presents an extensive review of the origin of torque ripple and the approaches adopted over the past decade to minimize the torque ripple. A hybrid torque-ripple-minimizing controller that incorporates the attractive features of some of the techniques developed in the past decade is presented along with simulation and experimental results

49.1.5    M. Ehsani, B. Fahimi, "Elimination of position sensors in switched reluctance motor drives: state of the art and future trends," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 40-47, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper covers the range of topics related to sensorless control of switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives from their fundamentals to their limitations and state of the art and future trends. This should help the reader to develop a systematic understanding of the sensorless techniques that have been developed over the past two decades. The inherent vulnerability to mechanical failures, extra cost, and size associated with external position sensors such as optical encoders, resolvers, and custom-designed Hall-effect sensors has motivated many researchers to develop sensorless control techniques for SRM drives. Ideally, it is desirable to have a sensorless scheme, which uses only terminal measurements and does not require additional hardware or memory while maintaining a reliable operation over the entire speed and torque range with high resolution and accuracy. Advances in the development of low-cost digital-signal-processor-based microcontrollers have paved the way for the fulfillment of this objective. It is, furthermore, our view that the existing trends in the development of more powerful processors will ultimately replace the concept of sensorless controls with the concept of eliminating the need for position sensing, a concept that will further revolutionize the motor drive technology

49.1.6    R.B. Inderka, M. Menne, R.W.A.A. De Doncker, "Control of switched reluctance drives for electric vehicle applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 48-53, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Dynamic controllers of switched reluctance drives adjust at least three variables, i.e., current amplitude, turn-on, and turn-off angles. In electric vehicle (EV) applications high efficiency of the drive over a wide speed range, wide torque bandwidth, and low torque ripple under varying DC-bus voltage conditions are important design goals. Hence, controllers of switched reluctance drives for EVs usually have a complex structure. In this paper, the demands on control accuracy of switched reluctance machine traction drives and the traction controller sampling frequency, which are necessary to take advantage of the switched reluctance machine dynamic capabilities, are discussed. To integrate the traction drive, the control commands need to be actualized with a sampling frequency of at least 100 Hz to meet the high-dynamic requirements of modern vehicle control systems, e.g., active cruise control, antislip control, and active damping of mechanical drivetrain oscillations. It is found that the switching angles have to be adjusted within one-tenth of a mechanical degree. This study shows that switched reluctance drives can fulfill all requirements needed for electric propulsion using standard microcontrollers or digital signal processors

49.1.7    J. Reinert, S. Schroder, "Power-factor correction for switched reluctance drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 54-57, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper evaluates the need for power-factor correction (PFC) in switched reluctance drive systems supplied from single-phase mains. The aim is to achieve interference values lower than the prescribed norms at minimal system costs and volume. It is shown that for certain applications, a PFC circuit has to be implemented, but simpler technical solutions are often possible. Finally, a suggestion is presented as to how a low-cost power-factor-corrected system should be built for high-volume production


Drive Control


49.1.8    M. El-Habrouk, M.K. Darwish, "A new control technique for active power filters using a combined genetic algorithm/conventional analysis," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 58-66, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the computational problems associated with the optimization techniques used to evaluate the switching patterns for controlling variable-characteristics active power filters are presented and critically analyzed. Genetic algorithms (GAs) are introduced in this paper to generate a fast and accurate initial starting point in the highly nonlinear optimization space of mathematical optimization techniques. GAs tend to speed up the initialization process by a factor of 13. A combined GA/conventional technique is also proposed and implemented to reduce the associated computational burden associated with the control and, consequently, increasing the speed of response of this class of active filters. Comparisons of these techniques are discussed and presented in conjunction with simulation and practical results for the filter operation

49.1.9    Tsang-Li Tai, Jian-Shiang Chen, "UPS inverter design using discrete-time sliding-mode control scheme ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 67-75, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel discrete-time sliding-mode control algorithm for an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) inverter design. The approach offers a dual-loop design, in which a current predictor utilizes the tracking error of output voltage to estimate the desired inductor current, while a current controller is adopted to regulate the inductor current and, thus, produces a control command to the pulsewidth modulation inverter. An explicit condition for stable controller design is derived. The efficacy of this scheme is validated via a successful implementation on a digital-signal-processor-based UPS inverter. The proposed scheme has shown its robustness on low output voltage distortion, excellent voltage regulation, and it is insensitive to load variation, even under nonlinear loads. Experimental studies were performed to further validate the effectiveness of this scheme

49.1.10    T. Suntio, I. Gadoura, K. Zenger, "Input filter interactions in peak-current-mode-controlled buck converter operating in CICM," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 76-86, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Peak-current-mode (PCM) control is a widely used method to control switched-mode converters. Most often an input filter is necessary to meet electromagnetic interference requirements. The input filter can cause instability and degradation of input and output dynamics if not properly designed. The input filter design from the output dynamics viewpoint has been addressed in numerous papers, resulting in well-agreed results in the case of direct duty-ratio control. The same methods and criteria have also been applied to PCM control, but the results have turned out to be conflicting. This paper shows that the adverse effect of the input filter on the output performance of a peak-current-controlled buck converter in continuous inductor-current mode is insignificant. The input performance is, however, significantly affected, necessitating the use of proper damping. It is also shown that the instability is caused solely by the instability of the input filter under negative incremental resistance. The methods used are unified in nature, but the results obtained in this study cannot be generalized to be valid for types of converters other than a buck converter

49.1.11    M. Rodic, K. Jezernik, "Speed-sensorless sliding-mode torque control of an induction motor ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 87-95, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Novel induction motor control optimizing both torque response and efficiency is proposed in the paper. The main contribution of the paper is a new structure of rotor flux observer aimed at the speed-sensorless operation of an induction machine servo drive at both low and high speed, where rapid speed changes can occur. The control differs from the conventional field-oriented control. Stator and rotor flux in stator fixed coordinates are controlled instead of the stator current components in rotor field coordinates isd and isq. In principle, the proposed method is based on driving the stator flux toward the reference stator flux vector defined by the input command, which are the reference torque and the reference rotor flux. The magnitude and orientation angle of the rotor flux of the induction motor are determined by the output of the closed-loop rotor flux observer based on sliding-mode control and Lyapunov theory. Simulations and experimental tests are provided to evaluate the consistency and performance of the proposed control technique

49.1.12    Hong-Zhou Tan, N. Sepehri, "Parametric fault diagnosis for electrohydraulic cylinder drive units," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 96-106, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel model-based methodology for fault diagnosis (FD) of nonlinear hydraulic drive systems is presented in this paper. Due to its linear dependence upon parameters, a second-truncated Volterra nonlinear model is first used to characterize such systems. The versatile order-recursive estimation scheme is employed to determine the values of parameters in the Volterra model. The scheme also avoids separate determination of the model order; thus, the complexity of the search process is reduced. Next, it is shown that the estimated parameters, representing different states of the system, normal as well as faulty conditions, can be used to detect and isolate system faults in a geometric domain. Very promising results are exhibited via simulations as well as laboratory experiments. It is concluded that the developed parametric FD technique has potential to provide efficient condition monitoring and/or preventive maintenance in hydraulic actuator circuits

49.1.13    F. Grasser, A. D'Arrigo, S. Colombi, A.C. Rufer, "JOE: a mobile, inverted pendulum," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 107-114, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The Industrial Electronics Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland, has built a prototype of a revolutionary two-wheeled vehicle. Due to its configuration with two coaxial wheels, each of which is coupled to a DC motor, the vehicle is able to do stationary U-turns. A control system, made up of two decoupled state-space controllers, pilots the motors so as to keep the system in equilibrium

49.1.14    Chih-Min Lin, Chun-Fei Hsu, "Neural-network-based adaptive control for induction servomotor drive system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 115-123, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A neural-network-based adaptive control (NNAC) design method is proposed to control an induction servomotor. In this NNAC design, a neural network (NN) controller is investigated to mimic a feedback linearization control law; and a compensation controller is designed to compensate for the approximation error between the feedback linearization control law and the NN controller. The interconnection weights of the NN can be online tuned in the sense of the Lyapunov stability theorem; thus, the stability of the control system can be guaranteed. Additionally, in this NNAC system design, an error estimation mechanism is investigated to estimate the bound of approximation error so that the chattering phenomenon of the control effort can be reduced. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed NNAC servomotor control systems can achieve favorable tracking and robust performance with regard to parameter variations and external load disturbances

49.1.15    K.L. Shi, T.F. Chan, Y.K. Wong, S.L. Ho, "Speed estimation of an induction motor drive using an optimized extended Kalman filter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 124-133, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel method to achieve good performance of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for speed estimation of an induction motor drive. A real-coded genetic algorithm (GA) is used to optimize the noise covariance and weight matrices of the EKF, thereby ensuring filter stability and accuracy in speed estimation. Simulation studies on a constant V/Hz controller and a field-oriented controller (FOC) under various operating conditions demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method. The experimental system consists of a prototype digital-signal-processor-based FOC induction motor drive with hardware facilities for acquiring the speed, voltage, and current signals to a PC. Experiments comprising offline GA training and verification phases are presented to validate the performance of the optimized EKF

49.1.16    Faa-Jeng Lin, Rong-Jong Wai, Wen-Der Chou, Shu-Peng Hsu, "Adaptive backstepping control using recurrent neural network for linear induction motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 134-146, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An adaptive backstepping control system using a recurrent neural network (RNN) is proposed to control the mover position of a linear induction motor (LIM) drive to compensate the uncertainties including the friction force in this paper. First, the dynamic model of an indirect field-oriented LIM drive is derived. Then, a backstepping approach is proposed to compensate the uncertainties including the friction force occurred in the motion control system. With the proposed backstepping control system, the mover position of the LIM drive possesses the advantages of good transient control performance and robustness to uncertainties for the tracking of periodic reference trajectories. Moreover, to further increase the robustness of the LIM drive, an RNN uncertainty observer is proposed to estimate the required lumped uncertainty in the backstepping control system. In addition, an online parameter training methodology, which is derived using the gradient-descent method, is proposed to increase the learning capability of the RNN. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is verified by both the simulated and experimental results

49.1.17    R. Leidhold, G. Garcia, M.I. Valla, "Field-oriented controlled induction generator with loss minimization," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 147-156, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a strategy to control an induction generator (IG) working with variable speed and load is presented and discussed. An inverter and a field-oriented controller are used in order to excite the induction machine (IM) efficiently, minimizing copper and iron losses, and to regulate the generated voltage. The proposed IG system is a stand-alone (not grid connected) system. It is used to produce electrical DC energy, to charge a battery bank, and/or to supply DC loads with maximum efficiency. A laboratory setup, based on a conventional 4 kW squirrel-cage IM, has been implemented. Experimental results are presented in order to validate the proposed strategy


Power Electronics


49.1.18    H.A. Toliyat, L. Hao, D.S. Shet, T.A. Nondahl, "Position-sensorless control of surface-mount permanent-magnet AC (PMAC) motors at low speeds," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 157-164, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A position-sensorless field-oriented control scheme for a surface-mount permanent-magnet AC (PMAC) motor is presented. A digital signal processor is used to implement the sensorless scheme. The PMAC stator is wound like that of a conventional three-phase induction motor. The coils of the motor are all brought out and it is possible to connect the motor in different configurations. Taps are also provided which are used for voltage measurements. By measuring the tap voltages, absolute position of the PMAC motor is estimated. The estimated position information is independent of the stator resistance, thus, this scheme is even applicable at low speeds. Results are presented to show the effectiveness of the new sensorless scheme

49.1.19    Hang-Seok Choi, Bo Hyung Cho, "Novel zero-current-switching (ZCS) PWM switch cell minimizing additional conduction loss," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 165-172, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a new zero-current-switching (ZCS) pulsewidth modulation (PWM) switch cell that has no additional conduction loss of the main switch. In this cell, the main switch and the auxiliary switch turn on and turn off under zero-current condition. The diodes commutate softly and the reverse-recovery problems are alleviated. The conduction loss and the current stress of the main switch are minimized, since the resonating current for the soft switching does not flow through the main switch. Based on the proposed ZCS PWM switch cell, a new family of DC-to-DC PWM converters is derived. The new family of ZCS PWM converters is suitable for the high-power applications employing insulated gate bipolar transistors. Among the new family of DC-to-DC PWM converters, a boost converter was taken as an example and has been analyzed. Design guidelines with a design example are described and verified by experimental results from the 2.5 kW prototype boost converter operating at 40 kHz

49.1.20    Bor-Ren Lin, Yi-Lang Hou, "Single-phase integrated power quality compensator based on capacitor-clamped configuration," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 173-185, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A control scheme of an integrated power quality compensator, which employs an active rectifier to work simultaneously as an active power filter (APF) to decrease current harmonics, is proposed. The employed rectifier is based on a capacitor-clamped configuration to produce multilevel pulsewidth modulation waveforms which result in low voltage stress and low conduction loss on the power switches. The proposed active rectifier is controlled to track the supply current to be a sinusoidal wave with low current harmonics. The advantages of the proposed control scheme are high power factor, low current harmonics, no complicated calculations for current harmonics elimination, and no dedicated APF needed for harmonic elimination. The experimental results are used to verify the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme

49.1.21    Keliang Zhou, Danwei Wang, "Relationship between space-vector modulation and three-phase carrier-based PWM: a comprehensive analysis [three-phase inverters]," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 186-196, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper comprehensively analyzes the relationship between space-vector modulation and three-phase carrier-based pulse width modulation (PWM). The relationships involved, such as the relationship between modulation signals (including zero-sequence component and fundamental components) and space vectors, the relationship between the modulation signals and the space-vector sectors, the relationship between the switching pattern of space-vector modulation and the type of carrier, and the relationship between the distribution of zero vectors and different zero-sequence signal are systematically established. All the relationships provide a bidirectional bridge for the transformation between carrier-based PWM modulators and space-vector modulation modulators. It is shown that all the drawn conclusions are independent of the load type. Furthermore, the implementations of both space-vector modulation and carrier-based PWM in a closed-loop feedback converter are discussed

49.1.22    C. Chakraborty, M. Ishida, Y. Hori, "Novel half-bridge resonant converter topology realized by adjusting transformer parameters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 197-205, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper shows a new direction as to how the transformer parameters may be best utilized and presents the performance and control of novel DC/DC and AC/DC converter topologies. All three inductances of a transformer have been utilized to realize a CL3 topology having excellent characteristics and requiring no external inductor. For the half-bridge topology, the capacitor used for the purpose of input voltage splitting also serves as the resonating capacitor. Thus, in the half-bridge version, the topology is realized only with a specially designed transformer and no other external components. A laboratory setup is produced and experiments conducted for DC/DC and AC/DC applications. A new design procedure and control technique for the converters are also presented. These topologies are very promising in small-power applications

49.1.23    Feel-Soon Kang, Sung-Jun Park, Cheul-U Kim, "ZVZCS single-stage PFC AC-to-DC half-bridge converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 206-216, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A zero-voltage- and zero-current-switched single-stage AC-to-DC half-bridge converter with high power factor is presented to reduce the switching losses and to achieve sinusoidal, unity power factor input currents. The single-stage approach, which combines a boost converter used as power-factor correction with a half-bridge converter used as DC-to-DC conversion into one power stage, has a simple structure and low cost. At the same time, the switching losses could be considerably reduced, because the switches of the proposed converter are designed to be turned on at zero voltage and off at zero current. Detailed analysis and experimental results are presented on the proposed converter, which is operated at constant switching frequency and in discontinuous conduction mode

49.1.24    T. Noguchi, S. Togashi, R. Nakamoto, "Short-current pulse-based maximum-power-point tracking method for multiple photovoltaic-and-converter module system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 217-223, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel maximum-power-point tracking (MPPT) method with a simple algorithm for photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems. The method is based on use of a short-current pulse of the PV to determine an optimum operating current where the maximum output power can be obtained and completely differs from conventional hill-climbing-based methods. In the proposed system, the optimum operating current is instantaneously determined simply by taking a product of the short-current pulse amplitude and a parameter k because the optimum operating current is exactly proportional to the short current under various conditions of illuminance and temperature. Also, the system offers an identification capability of k by means of fast power-versus-current curve scanning, which makes the short-current pulse-based MPPT method adaptive to disturbances such as shades partially covering the PV panels and surface contamination. The above adaptive MPPT algorithm has been introduced into a current-controlled boost chopper and a multiple power converter system composed of PV-and-chopper modules. Various operating characteristics have experimentally been examined on this multiple PV-and-chopper module system from a practical viewpoint and excellent MPPT performance has been confirmed through the tests


Robotics and Vision


49.1.25    A. Visioli, G. Legnani, "On the trajectory tracking control of industrial SCARA robot manipulators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 224-232, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the authors discuss, from an experimental point of view, the use of different control strategies for the trajectory tracking control of an industrial selective compliance assembly robot arm robot, which is one of the most employed manipulators in industrial environments, especially for assembly tasks. Specifically, they consider decentralized controllers such as proportional-integral-derivative-based and sliding-mode ones and model-based controllers such as the classical computed-torque one and a neural-network-based controller. A simple procedure for the estimation of the dynamic model of the manipulator is given. Experimental results provide a detailed framework about the cost/benefit ratio regarding the use of the different controllers, showing that the performance obtained with decentralized controllers may suffice in a large number of industrial applications, but in order to achieve low tracking errors also for high-speed trajectories, it might be convenient to adopt a neural-network-based control scheme, whose implementation is not particularly demanding

49.1.26    B. Nemec, L. Zlajpah, "Force control of redundant robots in unstructured environment," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 233-240, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a method for force control of redundant robots in an unstructured environment is proposed. We assume that the obstacles are not known in advance. Hence, the robot arm has to be compliant with the environment while tracking the desired position and force at the end-effector. First, the dynamic properties of the internal motion of redundant manipulators are considered. The motion is decoupled into the end-effector motion and the internal motion. Next, the dynamic model of a redundant manipulator is derived. Special attention is given to the inertial properties of the system in the space where internal motion is taking place; the authors define a null-space effective inertia and its inverse. Finally, a control method is proposed which completely decouples the motion of the manipulator into the task-space motion and the internal motion and enables the selection of dynamic characteristics in both subspaces separately. The proposed method is verified with simulation and with experimental results of a four-degrees-of-freedom planar redundant robot

49.1.27    Y. Umeda, T. Yakoh, "Configuration and readhesion control for a mobile robot with external sensors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 241-247, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Since a wheeled mobile robot is subject to nonholonomic constraints, the position and the configuration of the robot cannot be derived directly from only the rotation angle of its wheels. In other words, the position and the configuration of a mobile robot cannot be calculated correctly if its wheels skid. For the purpose of the position estimation of a mobile robot, some external sensors are used, in general. This paper uses position information from a position-sensitive detector camera that is a high-speed visual sensor to correct the errors that are due to skid and so on. Also, we estimate a skid of wheels by using its visual information. In this paper, the authors propose a control system that enables control of both the configuration of the robot and the skid of wheels simultaneously by including these estimated values in the control loop of a mobile manipulator

49.1.28    T. Murakami, K. Kahlen, R.W.A.A. De Doncker, "Robust motion control based on projection plane in redundant manipulator," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 248-255, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a novel approach of robust motion control of a redundant manipulator by projection planes. In the proposed approach, a robust controller based on a workspace observer is employed in the selectable projection plane. Then, an adequate selection of the projection planes makes it possible to simplify the controller without deteriorating the tip motion response and to obtain the desired motion in the null space of the manipulator. This is one of the remarkable features of the proposed approach. The validity of the proposed controller is confirmed by several numerical simulations


Emerging Technology


49.1.29    Shyh-Jier Huang, Fu-Sheng Pai, "Design and operation of burn-in test system for three-phase uninterruptible power supplies," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 256-263, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new approach for the burn-in test of three-phase uninterruptible power supplies is proposed. This method can perform the energy recovery for reducing the test cost, while the current supplied from the utility can be steered to be more sinusoidal. When a large number of burn-in test systems are activated such that harmonic problems may become more serious, the proposed method is also suggested based on its immunity to possible harmonies infiltration coming from the tested product to the utility power supplies. This method has been tested through simulation study and hardware experiments. Test results help consolidate the feasibility of the approach for the applications considered


Letters to the Editor


49.1.30    R.R. Mudholkar, S.R. Sawant, "Fuzzy logic transformer build estimation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 264-267, Feb 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Mechanical fitting of transformer windings tightly into the core ensures an efficient use of window space. Fuzzy logic transformer build estimation is intended to implement approximate solutions suggested in imprecise terms for the better mechanical fit of windings into the core. For imperfect fit, it readjusts the buildup parameters in iterations to optimize mechanical fit. The results have demonstrated the potentiality of usage of fuzzy logic in the mechanical-fit process of a transformer

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 49,  Number 2, April 2002           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




                Special Section on Matrix Converters

49.2.1    J. Rodriguez, "Guest editorial," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 274-275, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

49.2.2    P.W. Wheeler, J. Rodriguez, J.C. Clare, L. Empringham, A. Weinstein, "Matrix converters: a technology review," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 276-288, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The matrix converter is an array of controlled semiconductor switches that connects directly the three-phase source to the three-phase load. This converter has several attractive features that have been investigated in the last two decades. In the last few years, an increase in research work has been observed, bringing this topology closer to the industrial application. This paper presents the state-of-the-art view in the development of this converter, starting with a brief historical review. An important part of the paper is dedicated to a discussion of the most important modulation and control strategies developed recently. Special attention is given to present modern methods developed to solve the commutation problem. Some new arrays of power bidirectional switches integrated in a single module are also presented. Finally, this paper includes some practical issues related to the practical application of this technology, like overvoltage protection, use of filters and ride-through capability

49.2.3    F. Blaabjerg, D. Casadei, C. Klumpner, M. Matteini, "Comparison of two current modulation strategies for matrix converters under unbalanced input voltage conditions," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 289-296, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the input current performance of matrix converters is analyzed, especially with reference to the operating conditions determined by unbalanced supply voltages. The space-vector modulation (SVM) technique is utilized to calculate the duty cycles of the active voltage vectors that must be applied, in each switching cycle period, in order to satisfy the input and output requirements. A detailed theoretical analysis of the input current harmonic content under unbalanced input voltage conditions is presented for two different current modulation strategies. On the basis of numerical simulations as well as measurements on a laboratory prototype setup, the strategies' performance are compared and the validity of the theoretical investigation confirmed. It is concluded that, when the input voltages are unbalanced to a significant extent, a dynamic input current modulation strategy has to be preferred, since a lower harmonic line current distortion will appear

49.2.4    J. Mahlein, M. Bruckmann, M. Braun, "Passive protection strategy for a drive system with a matrix converter and an induction machine," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 297-303, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the design and testing of a new protection strategy for a matrix power converter feeding an induction motor with a squirrel cage rotor is described. The new protection strategy with excellent overvoltage protection allows the removal of the large and expensive diode clamp

49.2.5    S. Bernet, S. Ponnaluri, R. Teichmann, "Design and loss comparison of matrix converters, and voltage-source converters for modern AC drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 304-314, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper compares a matrix converter (MC) and a DC-voltage link converter with an active front end for a 7.5 kW, 460 V induction motor drive. Part count, semiconductor losses, input filter design, and protection aspects are discussed. It is shown that the matrix converter's semiconductor losses are smaller only at full load operation for the same silicon area in both converters. A 33% reduction of the device current rating of the MC is possible, resulting in comparable thermal device stress. The overall passive component count and rating is only slightly better for the MC

49.2.6    C. Klumpner, F. Blaabjerg, "Experimental evaluation of ride-through capabilities for a matrix converter under short power interruptions," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 315-324, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The matrix converters, which are direct power electronic converters, are able to provide important benefits such as bidirectional power flow, sinusoidal input currents with adjustable displacement angle, and a great potential for size reduction. Still, two major disadvantages exist: a lower than unity voltage transfer ratio and high sensitivity to power grid disturbances. Many solutions to provide continuous operation of adjustable speed drives (ASDs) during power grid disturbances have been proposed, but they are all applied to DC-link ASD. In this paper, a new solution to provide limited ride-through operation is presented with a matrix converter using a scalar controlled induction motor for a duration of hundreds of milliseconds, without any hardware modification. During the ride-through operation, the drive is not able to develop torque or to control the motor flux. By recovering the necessary power to feed the control hardware of the matrix converter, it is able to keep the ASD operating. When normal grid conditions are reestablished, the matrix converter is able to accelerate the motor from nonzero speed and flux by initializing the modulator with the estimated frequency and the initial angle of the reference output voltage vector. The maximum duration of the ride-through operation depends on the initial motor flux, speed level, rotor time constant, load torque, and inertia. This method is verified on a laboratory setup with a matrix converter

49.2.7    C. Klumpner, P. Nielsen, I. Boldea, F. Blaabjerg, "A new matrix converter motor (MCM) for industry applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 325-335, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The trend in electrical drives is to integrate the frequency converter, the electrical motor, and even the gear or the pump into a single unit, in order to reduce the costs, to increase the overall efficiency and the equipment reliability. This paper presents the first integrated regenerative frequency converter motor for industry applications, based on a matrix converter topology. The low volume, the sinusoidal input current, the bidirectional power flow, and the lack of the bulky and limited-lifetime electrolytic capacitors recommend this topology for this application. This paper shows how the matrix converter disadvantages-the lack of bidirectional power devices, the lower voltage transfer ratio, and the overvoltages caused by the input filter during power-up-that have delayed the industrial implementation have been overcome. In order to demonstrate the validity of the solution, a 4-kW matrix converter motor prototype is built using a standard frequency converter motor enclosure for testing the requirements for an industrial drive. The tests demonstrate the good performance of the drive

49.2.8    C. Klumpner, P. Nielsen, I. Boldea, F. Blaabjerg, "New solutions for a low-cost power electronic building block for matrix converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 336-344, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper analyzes some aspects of integrating the matrix converter (MC) bidirectional switches into a power module. The analysis produces two optimal topologies for a power module: one for low-power and another for medium/high-power MCs. A new power module topology for a low-power three-phase-to-three- phase MC is proposed. By using bootstrap circuits to feed the gate-drivers, the proposed configuration requires only three insulated power supplies for a complete MC. This proposal constitutes a solution recommended in the low-power range, where low cost and low volume are the main objectives. Furthermore, a configuration of a power electronic building block for MCs is proposed. This includes the commutation control logic and the overcurrent protection, provides safe operation, and eliminates the specific problem of operating the bidirectional switches

49.2.9    Jie Chang, T. Sun, Anhua Wang, "Highly compact AC-AC converter achieving a high voltage transfer ratio," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 345-352, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper reports a new, highly integrated modular design approach for pulsewidth-modulation AC-AC converters based on a modular phase-bank structure. Novel high-power 3-in-1 integrated bi-directional power modules (IBPM) rated at 1200-V AC and 150 A and the 3-to-1 phase bank circuits have been successfully developed, fabricated and tested. This enables the modularity design of the multiphase converter systems and reduces the critical parasitic inductance. A theoretical analysis of the IBPM's silicon utilization for this new breed of direct power converters has been outlined. A lab prototype at medium power level has been successfully designed, implemented, and tested with good results. A nearly 460-VRMS out voltage at a 1:0.955 voltage transfer ratio, which, perhaps, is the highest performance reported so far in the literature, has been achieved by the novel two-side modulation control system. The converter-fed AC motor system is able to operate over the 0-240 Hz range with inherent regenerative capability and four-quadrant operation. Potential industrial applications are also briefly highlighted in this paper

49.2.10    R. Teichmann, J. Oyama, "ARCP soft-switching technique in matrix converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 353-361, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An alternative concept used to avoid the need for staggered switching in matrix converters is discussed. The features of the auxiliary resonant commutated pole (ARCP) soft switching technique are used to reduce the number of active switches and gate drives in comparison to conventional matrix converter technology, avoid commutation voltage spikes, and reduce switching losses. Three different ARCP matrix converters are reviewed and their operational boundaries are discussed. The ARCPMC technology is critically evaluated with respect to a potential industrial application

49.2.11    P. Mutschler, M. Marcks, "A direct control method for matrix converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 362-369, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Until now, direct control methods have been mainly investigated and used in conjunction with voltage source converters. In this paper, the authors develop a direct current control method for matrix converters. There are two objectives for the direct current control: the desired current has to be impressed into the load, and the current, drawn from the mains, should be in phase with the voltage and should be (nearly) sinusoidal. This implies active damping of the 400 Hz resonance or the line filter. The method is implemented on a DSP and tested on a 10 kVA matrix converter

49.2.12    D. Casadei, G. Serra, A. Tani, L. Zarri, "Matrix converter modulation strategies: a new general approach based on space-vector representation of the switch state," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 370-381, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a novel representation of the switch state of a three-phase to three-phase matrix converter is presented. This approach, based on space-vector notation, simplifies the study of the modulation strategies, leading to a complete general solution of the problem and providing a very useful unitary point of view. The already established strategies can be considered as particular cases of the proposed general solution. Using this approach, it can be verified that the space-vector modulation technique, owing to the intrinsic two degrees of freedom, represents the general solution of the modulation problem of matrix converters. This technique can be considered the best solution for the possibility to achieve the highest voltage transfer ratio and to optimize the switching pattern through a suitable use of the zero configurations

49.2.13    P.W. Wheeler, J.C. Clare, L. Empringharn, M. Bland, M. Apap, "Gate drive level intelligence and current sensing for matrix converter current commutation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 382-389, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper is concerned with the process of current commutation in matrix converters. The mechanisms involved in the commutation process are described and practical waveforms are presented. A novel commutation strategy is described that uses gate drive level intelligence in the form of a field-programmable gate array. Current direction is determined using device voltages and, therefore, the measurement problems associated with all other commutation methods are overcome. Practical results from an 18-kW matrix converter induction motor drive are presented

49.2.14    E.P. Wiechmann, R.P. Burgos, J. Rodriguez, "Continuously motor-synchronized ride-through capability for matrix-converter adjustable-speed drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 390-400, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The ride-through capability of adjustable-speed drives has become an important issue due to its direct impact on production and revenue losses. Moreover, different industrial surveys have shown that voltage sags are the main cause of converter tripping. Disturbances such as swells, distortion, and impulses were found far less common and did not cause any tripping nor production losses. Matrix-converter (MC) drives are also prone to voltage sags, furthermore the lack of the DC-link capacitor renders them somehow more vulnerable. This paper presents a ride-through strategy for MC adjustable-speed drives. The strategy is based on the reduced speed/load approach for conventional drives and is capable of enforcing constant volts/hertz operation regardless of the supply voltage conditions by first regulating the modulation index of the matrix converter, which counteracts the supply voltage drop, and second by reducing the speed reference if required. This reduction seeks to maintain the maximum torque capability of the drive and not to reduce the motor load as in conventional drives. Hence, the proposed strategy is suitable for both variable and constant torque loads. Moreover, the converter never loses synchronization with the motor, so it is capable of immediate acceleration to its former speed after the disturbance disappears. The proposed strategy was experimentally verified under typical industry disturbances using a TMS320C32 DSP based system. Particularly, three-phase and single-phase sags varying from 10% to 60% were tested. Results obtained showed the effectiveness of the proposed strategy for MC adjustable-speed drives

49.2.15    O. Simon, J. Mahlein, M.N. Muenzer, M. Bruckmarm, "Modern solutions for industrial matrix-converter applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 401-406, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Thus far, matrix converter topology has not reached industrial use. Reasons for this have been complex control schemes, inefficient solutions for overvoltage protection, questionable robustness of the bi-directional switch commutation at disturbed supply voltages, and missing power semiconductor modules. Recent research results concerning these problems have led to innovative solutions and, from a technical point of view, industrial use seems to be reasonable now

49.2.16    J. Mahlein, J. Igney, J. Weigold, M. Braun, O. Simon, "Matrix converter commutation strategies with and without explicit input voltage sign measurement," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 407-414, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper gives an overview to voltage-controlled matrix converter commutation. Conventional converter systems with explicit sign measurement circuits that were necessary for the commutation in the past are discussed. New operation methods eliminating these extra measuring circuits are presented. The paper explains the new methods. Advantages and disadvantages of different approaches are discussed. The robustness of the new methods against disturbance is proved and measurements on a 5.5-kW matrix converter system are shown


Drive Control


49.2.17    B.W. Bomar, "Implementation of microprogrammed control in FPGAs," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 415-422, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The microprogrammed approach to implementing control state machines has been widely used since the early 1960s and has the advantages of structured programming and fixed timing characteristics. This paper presents a microprogrammed control unit that has been tailored to implementation in field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The microsequencer has a novel architecture which takes advantage of the enhancements existing in coarse-grained FPGAs to implement efficiently four basic functions: registers, multiplexers, adders, and counters. The sequencer supports both nested subroutines and nested loops, and can operate in both pipelined and nonpipelined modes. The pipelined mode of operation uses delayed branching in which one additional microinstruction always executes following any instruction that changes program flow. It is found that in a typical medium-sized (50 K gates) FPGA, the sequencer can be clocked at over 60 MHz nonpipelined and over 100 MHz pipelined while using less than 5% of the available FPGA logic resources. This leaves the bulk of the FPGA resources available for implementing other digital circuitry that is to be controlled by the microsequencer. While not attractive for a small number of states, the microprogrammed approach has some significant advantages for complex controllers with a large number of states

49.2.18    M. Moallem, "Electron-beam position monitoring and feedback control in Duke Free-Electron Laser Facility," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 423-432, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper addresses data acquisition and feedback control of electron-beam positions in the Duke University Free-Electron Laser Facility. The control system consists of a distributed system of VME-based hardware and processors connected through a network to host workstations. The host workstations provide graphical data presentation to the user and are also used for high-level supervisory control. The electron-beam profile is controlled by electromagnetic forces generated by passing currents through the coils of correction magnets distributed around the ring. A desired control objective is to move the stored electron beam to specific locations in the vacuum chamber and to stabilize the orbit in the presence of disturbances. The technical details of implementing the data acquisition and control scheme and their integration with the existing control system modules are presented along with experimental results

49.2.19    P. Baranyi, Yeung Yam, A.R. Varkonyi-Koczy, R.J. Patton, P. Michelberger, M. Sugiyama, "SVD-based complexity reduction to TS fuzzy models," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 433-443, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: One of the typical important criteria to be considered in real-time control applications is the computational complexity of the controllers, observers, and models applied. In this paper, a singular value decomposition (SVD)-based complexity reduction technique is proposed for Takagi Sugeno (TS) fuzzy models. The main motivation is that the TS fuzzy model has exponentially growing computational complexity with the improvement of its approximation property through, as usually practiced, increasing the density of antecedent terms. The reduction technique proposed here is capable of defining the contribution of each local linear model included in the TS fuzzy model, which serves to remove the weakly contributing ones as according to a given threshold. Reducing the number of models leads directly to the computational complexity reduction. This work also includes a number of numerical and application examples

49.2.20    S. Suwankawin, S. Sangwongwanich, "A speed-sensorless IM drive with decoupling control and stability analysis of speed estimation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 444-455, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new sensorless drive based on a decoupling control and an adaptive full-order observer is developed. A modified decoupling control is introduced and integrated with the adaptive observer to reduce the complexity of the whole system. The speed estimation based on adaptive control theory is analyzed and the necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the speed estimation are analytically derived. It is indicated that the system can be unstable in the low-speed region with regenerative loads. However, assigning an appropriate feedback gain to the adaptive observer can restore the stability and reduce the unstable region. Sensitivity of the sensorless drive against parameter and measurement errors is also qualitatively discussed. Simulation and experimental results are then given to verify the validity of the theoretical results


Power Electronics


49.2.21    Jin-Kuk Chung, Gyu-Hyeong Cho, "A new soft recovery PWM quasi-resonant converter with a folding snubber network," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 456-461, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new soft recovery (SR) quasi-resonant converter (QRC) having a multiple-order folding snubber network (MFSN) is introduced. It is obtained by combining a normal QRC with a folding snubber network of which the surrounding components are composed of passive devices only (diodes and capacitors). The reverse recovery loss of the main rectifier diode is eliminated by this method utilizing multiple resonance with a multiple-order folding snubber network. By realizing soft switching conditions, the proposed converter has pulsewidth modulation capability with high efficiency and is suitable for high-voltage and high-power DC to DC converter applications

49.2.22    F. Betin, D. Pinchon, G.-A. Capolino, "A time-varying sliding surface for robust position control of a DC motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 462-473, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new variable-structure position control law for a DC motor is proposed. The algorithm, based on a time-varying switching line, guarantees the existence of a sliding mode from the beginning of the shaft motion. Indeed, the surface is initially designed to pass through the initial representative point and subsequently moved toward a predetermined desired surface via shifting. By this means, the reaching phase is eliminated and the motor behavior is insensitive to unknown mechanical configuration changes. The algorithm has been tested in simulation and the experiment has been performed using a low-cost 16-bit microcontroller. Then, an advanced test bed is used in order to evaluate the tracking properties and the robustness capacities of the variable-structure control law with variations of the mechanical configuration

49.2.23    N. Mutoh, M. Ogata, K. Gulez, F. Harashima, "New methods to suppress EMI noises in motor drive systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 474-485, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: New methods are studied that can suppress EMI noises, especially the common-mode current produced in motor drive systems. One is a packaging technique that forms power converters using a four-layer printed power circuit board. The other is a method based on the generation mechanism of the common-mode current which was developed from experimental analyses. It is proved by experiments that the former can effectively control the common-mode current, including radiated emissions, and the latter can suppress it without any compensators between the inverter and the motor

49.2.24    R.L. Kirlin, M.M. Bech, A.M. Trzynadlowski, "Analysis of power and power spectral density in PWM inverters with randomized switching frequency," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 486-499, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel method for accurate calculation of power spectra of the pulsewidth modulation (PWM) voltage-source inverter with randomized switching frequency is presented. The case of a limited pool of switching frequencies, convenient and adequate for technical purposes, is considered, and a mathematical background for this type of random PWM (RPWM) is provided. It is shown that the limited-pool RPWM gives rise to not only a continuous spectrum, but, also, under certain circumstances, pure power spectral components (harmonics), typical for the deterministic PWM. Criteria for the existence of harmonics are given, and formulae for both the power and the power spectral density are derived and verified experimentally


Signal Processing and Control


49.2.25    R. Canals, A. Roussel, J.-L. Famechon, S. Treuillet, "A biprocessor-oriented vision-based target tracking system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 500-506, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The design and realization of a vision-based target tracking system is proposed. The objective is to derive the orientation of a pan-tilt camera fitting a drone in order to track a target and to maintain its position in the middle of the image. Image data and drone attitude are the only information available for the camera control to be achieved correctly. This embedded system requires low-cost hardware for surveillance or attack drone applications: a digital signal processor for the image processing, and a microcontroller for the camera control. To ensure real-time video operation, an algorithmic solution integrating a successive-step and multi-block search method is implemented, thus allowing complex target displacements. The microcontroller uses this information to manage the camera orientation. Experiments have been conducted in real, conditions and acceptable target tracking results have been obtained on the prototype hardware

49.2.26    M. Kamiya, H. Ikeda, S. Shinohara, "Wavelength-division-multiplexed analog transmission through plastic optical fiber for use in factory communications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 507-510, April 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A simple inexpensive analog transmission system is realized using a dual-channel-color LED assembly, a plastic optical fiber, a dual-channel-color sensor assembly, and a crosstalk elimination circuit. The transmission system, covering DC to 10 kHz, has a distortion factor of less than 2% and a crosstalk of less than -40 dB, and is suitable for use in factory communications

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 49,  Number 3, June 2002           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




                 Drive Control

49.3.1    M.C. Saaj, B. Bandyopadhyay, H. Unbehauen, "A new algorithm for discrete-time sliding-mode control using fast output sampling feedback," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 518-523, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new approach for sliding-mode control (SMC) of discrete-time systems using the reaching law approach together with the fast output sampling (FOS) feedback technique. This method does not need the system states for feedback as it makes use of only the output samples for designing the controller. Thus, this methodology is more practical and easy to implement. A numerical example demonstrates the design technique. Simulation results show that the proposed FOS SMC technique produces the same results as obtained by state feedback SMC technique

49.3.2    Kyeong-Hwa Kim, Myung-Joong Youn, "A nonlinear speed control for a PM synchronous motor using a simple disturbance estimation technique," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 524-535, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A nonlinear speed control for a permanent-magnet (PM) synchronous motor using a simple disturbance estimation technique is presented. By using a feedback linearization scheme, the nonlinear motor model can be linearized in the Brunovski canonical form, and the speed controller can be easily designed based on the linearized model. This technique, however, gives an undesirable output performance under the mismatch of the system parameters and load conditions. An adaptive linearization technique and a sliding-mode control technique have been reported. Although good performance can be obtained, the controller designs are quite complex. To overcome this drawback, the controller parameters are estimated by using a disturbance observer theory where the disturbance torque and flux linkage are estimated. Since only the two reduced-order observers are used for the parameter estimation, the observer designs are considerably simple and the computational load of the controller for parameter estimation is negligibly small. The nonlinear disturbances caused by the incomplete linearization can be effectively compensated by using this control scheme. Thus, a desired dynamic performance and a zero steady-state error can be obtained. The proposed control scheme is implemented on a PM synchronous motor using a digital signal processor (TMS320C31) and the effectiveness is verified through the comparative simulations and experiments

49.3.3    A.J. Chipperfield, B. Bica, P.J. Fleming, "Fuzzy scheduling control of a gas turbine aero-engine: a multiobjective approach," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 536-548, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper investigates the use of a nonconventional approach to control a gas turbine aero-engine. The rationale behind this study is the need to develop advanced tools and techniques that can assist in improving the performance of the system and simultaneously enhance the flexibility of the control strategy. Modern techniques are required for many complex systems where increasingly strict performance and regulatory requirements must be achieved. This is particularly true of aerospace systems where consideration of safety, reliability, maintainability, and environmental impact are all necessary as part of the control requirements. This paper investigates a combination of two such potential techniques: fuzzy logic and evolutionary algorithms. Emerging from new requirements for gas turbine aero-engine control, a flexible gain scheduler is developed and analyzed. A hierarchical multiobjective genetic algorithm is employed to search and optimize the potential solutions for a wide envelope controller covering idle, cruise, and full-power conditions. The overall strategy is demonstrated to be a straightforward and feasible method of refining the control system performance and increasing its flexibility

49.3.4    Sangcheol Lee, Kwanghee Nam, "An overvoltage suppression scheme for AC motor drives using a half DC-link voltage level at each PWM transition," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 549-557, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Passive filters are conventionally used to suppress overvoltage in the motor terminal, either by reducing the voltage rise rate at the inverter output, or by decreasing the motor terminal impedance. We propose an overvoltage suppression scheme that renders the use of passive filters unnecessary. This approach differs from general filter methods, in that it is independent,of dυ/dt and does not try to reduce dυ/dt. Our scheme utilizes the middle voltage level VDC /2 at each pulsewidth modulation voltage transition, where VDC represents the DC-link voltage. The duration of the middle voltage level is controlled in such a way that reflected voltages are cancelled out at the motor terminal. Optimal cancellation is achieved when the duration of VDC/2 is equal to twice the transport delay of the cable. Further, if reflection coefficients at the motor terminal and the inverter output are equal to ±1, no overvoltage takes place. The proposed scheme requires the use of six auxiliary insulated gate bipolar transistor switches. Simulation as well as experimental results are presented here

49.3.5    Kuo-Kai Shyu, Chiu-Keng Lai, Yao-Wen Tsai, Ding-I Yang, "A newly robust controller design for the position control of permanent-magnet synchronous motor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 558-565, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A robust controller which is designed by employing variable-structure control and linear-quadratic method is presented for a permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) position control system. It is to achieve accurate control performance in the presence of plant parameter variation and load disturbance. In addition, it possesses the design flexibility of the conventional state feedback control. It is applied to the position control of a PMSM. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed approach gives a better position response and is robust to parameter variations and load disturbance

49.3.6    Qing-Guo Wang, Yong Zhang, Xiao-Gang Huang, "Virtual feedforward control for asymptotic rejection of periodic disturbance," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 566-573, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a novel, simple yet effective control scheme, called virtual feedforward control (VFC), is proposed for asymptotic disturbance rejection. The VFC control is an add-on function on top of normal feedback control, and it is activated when a periodic disturbance is found to be present in the system, based on output measurements and detection of output periodic behavior. It is shown that the proposed control can reject the periodic disturbances asymptotically under the perfect plant modeling. Furthermore, the closed-loop stability is not affected by the proposed control and, thus, there is no design tradeoff between disturbance rejection and stability. The robustness of the proposed control to model mismatch is analyzed. The effectiveness of the proposed method is sustained by simulation and comparison

49.3.7    A.M. Khambadkone, J. Holtz, "Compensated synchronous PI current controller in overmodulation range and six-step operation of space-vector-modulation-based vector-controlled drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 574-580, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Overmodulation enhances the power utilization of the installed capacity of a voltage-source inverter. A space-vector strategy is used for constant-switching-frequency inverters. In order to achieve the overmodulation, a modified reference signal with nonuniform angular velocity is generated using a preprocessor. Such a reference wave produces low-frequency harmonics in currents. The presence of current harmonics restricts the bandwidth of the synchronous proportional plus integral current controller in the overmodulation range. A compensating current control is presented to allow for high-bandwidth current control in synchronous coordinates during overmodulation and six-step. The proposed scheme allows for an easy upgrade of a conventional vector control scheme to include overmodulation and, thus, reduce the design-to-market time


Power Electronics


49.3.8    G. Garcera, A. Abellan, E. Figueres, "Sensitivity study of the control loops of DC-DC converters by means of robust parametric control theory," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 581-586, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Robust parametric control theory is a powerful tool for the research of linear control systems robustness against simultaneous changes in the parameters that define the plant and controller transfer functions. The purpose of this paper is to show how those techniques can be applied to the sensitivity study of DC-DC power converters control loops with respect to simultaneous variations of all the parameters defining the power stage: line voltage, load, and passive elements of the power stage

49.3.9    Chang-Ming Liaw, Wen-Chin Yu, Thin-Huo Chen, "Random vibration test control of inverter-fed electrodynamic shaker ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 587-594, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The random vibration control of an inverter-fed electrodynamic shaker is presented in this paper. First, the dynamic model of the shaker is found and a current-controlled pulsewidth modulation inverter is designed and implemented. The feedback controller is augmented with a command feedforward controller and a disturbance feedforward controller to let the armature exciting current have low harmonic content and possess excellent waveform tracking performance. Then, an acceleration controller and its random vibration command are arranged. In the proposed acceleration control scheme, a command feedforward controller and a robust disturbance feedforward controller are also employed to let the shaker have close random acceleration command waveform tracking control performance, and the performance be insensitive to the system parameter variations. It follows that the acceleration control with desired frequency response in a vibration test could be achieved through properly setting the command signal. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is verified by simulation and measured results

49.3.10    Tsu-Hua Ai, Jiann-Fuh Chen, Tsorng-Juu Liang, "A random switching method for HPWM full-bridge inverter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 595-597, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: To overcome the problem of unequal switching loss in power switches, in conventional hybrid pulse width modulation (HPWM) full-bridge inverters, a random switching method for HPWM full-bridge inverters is proposed. The proposed method equalizes switching losses of the four switches, while also providing good output performance

49.3.11    A. Fernandez, J. Sebastian, P.J. Villegas, M.M. Hernando, L. Alvarez Barcia, "Low-power flyback converter with synchronous rectification for a system with AC power distribution," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 598-606, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: IEC 1000-3-2 regulations impose a reduced harmonic content on any converter with an input power higher than 75 W. However, if the power architecture of the system is based on small on-board converters, and the total power is higher than 75 W, IEC regulations must be fulfilled although each individual converter need not comply with the regulations. In this paper, one of the different possible solutions is presented. Each on-board converter has an active input current shaper (AICS) in order to reduce the input current harmonic content of each converter and, hence, to comply with IEC 1000-3-2 regulations. Moreover, two different types of AICSs were compared: the conventional one and a new type of AICS based on a full-wave rectifier

49.3.12    T.M. Wolbank, R. Wohrnschimmel, H. Hauser, "Transient simulation of lamination material properties in electrical machines," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 607-612, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: All zero-speed-sensorless control schemes of electrical drives use a high-frequency excitation of the machine to determine local differences of the leakage inductances and to estimate the flux or the rotor position. One of these methods detects the local differences by evaluating the change of the stator current space phasor due to stator voltage test phasors. To get a deeper insight into the transient electric behavior of the machine, it is necessary to take into account also dynamic processes in the lamination material. To achieve this, a model has been developed to simulate the magnetization process in an induction motor fed by a voltage-source inverter. The proposed model calculates the current change due to voltage pulses taking into account the hysteresis as well as eddy currents. In order to limit the computation time, the model has to be kept simple. Measurements on an inverter-fed induction machine as well as on a stator lamination are presented. to verify the applicability of the model

49.3.13    C.K. Lee, S.Y. Ron Hui, Henry Shu-Hung Chung, "A 31-level cascade inverter for power applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 613-617, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Power inverter modules fed with separate DC voltage sources of voltage ratio 1:2:4:8 are connected to form a cascade multilevel inverter. This new proposal combines the advantages of the static phase-shifter and chain-cell converter concept. Using the same number of power devices as a standard nine-level inverter, the proposed converter operates as a high-power digital-to-analog converter with 31-level resolution. Electrolytic capacitors used in the proposed inverter for providing the DC voltage sources will never be connected in opposite polarity in all cases, thus ensuring high reliability. The proposal has the potential for uninterruptible power supply and flexible AC transmission applications

49.3.14    K.K. Tse, Henry Shu-Hung Chung, S.Y. Ron Hui, H.C. So, "A comparative study of carrier-frequency modulation techniques for conducted EMI suppression in PWM converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 618-627, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A rigorous mathematical analysis and a comparative study of carrier-frequency modulation (CFM) techniques for the conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) suppression in pulsewidth-modulated converters is presented. CFM techniques dither the switching period with a small amplitude variation around the nominal value, so that the harmonic power is redistributed over the spectrum of concern. Two types of dithering signals, including the periodic and random signals, are investigated in this paper. The operational characteristics as well as the input and output power spectra of the converters with the two modulating signals are compared. In particular, their characteristics in the low- and high-frequency harmonic power redistribution will be depicted. It is shown that random CFM (RCFM) gives a more effective way to disperse the harmonics around the switching frequency than the periodic CFM (PCFM) with the same frequency deviation. However, RCFM introduces higher low-frequency harmonics than the PCFM at the converter output. Furthermore, effects of the resolution filter bandwidth in the electromagnetic compatibility analyzer on conducted EMI measurement is discussed. The validity of the analyses is confirmed experimentally by using a dc/dc buck converter operating in continuous conduction mode

49.3.15    J.M. Quero, J.M. Carrasco, L.G. Franquelo, "Implementation of a neural controller for the series resonant converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 628-639, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A neural controller implementing an energy feedback control law is proposed as an alternative to classic control of resonant converters. The properties of the energy feedback control, and particularly the optimal trajectory control law, are analyzed. As a result, the state space is considered to be divided into two subspaces, that correspond to different states of the switches in the converter. An analog neural network learns to classify these two classes by means of a learning algorithm. A simple electronic implementation of this controller is proposed and applied to a series resonant converter (SRC). Results based on prototype measurements show a good improvement in the SRC response versus classical control methods based on the linearization of the state variable equations around a working point and confirm the validity of the neural approach

49.3.16    Jiabin Wang, Weiya Wang, G.W. Jewell, D. Howe, "A low-power, linear, permanent-magnet generator/energy storage system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 640-648, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the design, analysis and characterization of a linear permanent magnet generator and capacitive energy storage system for generating electrical power from a single stroke of a salient-pole armature. It is suitable for applications that require relatively low levels of electrical power, such as remote electronic locks. An electromagnetic analysis of the generator is described, and a design optimization methodology for the system is presented. Finally, the performance of a prototype is validated against measurements

49.3.17    Jeong-il Kang, Chung-Wook Roh, Gun-Woo Moon, Myung-Joong Youn, "Phase-shifted parallel-input/series-output dual converter for high-power step-up applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 649-652, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new phase-shifted parallel-input/series-output dual converter is proposed. It features a low-output voltage ripple, a low rms current in the output capacitor, and a greatly reduced constant switch turn-off stress, whereby the efficiency is significantly improved. This converter is considered to be well suited to high-power step-up applications

49.3.18    Seok Ho Jeon, Kwang Kyo Oh, Jin Young Choi, "Flux observer with online tuning of stator and rotor resistances for induction motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 653-664, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes an adaptive flux observer for induction motors, where stator and rotor resistances are estimated in online environments. The variation of motor parameters during operation degrades the performance of the controller and the flux observer. Among the parameters of induction motors, rotor resistance is a crucial one for flux estimation, and stator resistance also becomes critical in the low-speed region. Under the persistent excitation condition, the proposed method estimates the actual values of stator and rotor resistances simultaneously, which guarantees the exact estimation of the rotor flux. The persistent excitation condition is not satisfied when the electric torque of an induction motor is absent due to the lack of rotor currents. Even in this case, the proposed method achieves the correct estimation of the rotor flux. Simulations and actual experiments show that the rotor flux is estimated in all operating conditions and that both resistances converge to their actual values when the electrical motor torque exists


Emerging Technology


49.3.19    L.O.A.P. Henriques, P.J. Costa Branco, L.G.B. Rolim, W.I. Suemitsu, "Proposition of an offline learning current modulation for torque-ripple reduction in switched reluctance motors: design and experimental evaluation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 665-676, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new offline current modulation using a neuro-fuzzy compensation scheme for torque-ripple reduction in switched reluctance motors is presented. The main advantage of the proposed technique is that the torque signal is unnecessary. The compensating signal is learned prior to normal operation in a self-commissioning run, capturing the necessary current shape to reduce the torque ripple. Simulation results verify first the effects of speed and then load changes on the compensator performance. Implementation of the proposed technique in a laboratory prototype shows the feasibility and accuracy of the respective offline scheme

49.3.20    W.X. Shen, C.C. Chan, E.W.C. Lo, K.T. Chau, "Adaptive neuro-fuzzy modeling of battery residual capacity for electric vehicles," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 677-684, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes and implements a new method for the estimation of the battery residual capacity (BRC) for electric vehicles (EVs). The key of the proposed method is to model the EV battery by using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system. Different operating profiles of the EV battery are investigated including the constant current discharge and the random current discharge as well as the standard EV driving cycles in Europe, the US, and Japan. The estimated BRCs are directly compared with the actual BRCs, verifying the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed modeling method. Moreover, this method can be easily implemented by a low-cost microcontroller and can readily be extended to the estimation of the BRC for other types of EV batteries

49.3.21    P.T. Chan, A.B. Rad, K.M. Tsang, "Optimization of fused fuzzy systems via genetic algorithms," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 685-692, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the problem of optimization of fused fuzzy systems via genetic algorithms is addressed. The proposed architecture separates a large fuzzy rule optimization problem into a series of more manageable and smaller problems through rule-table transformation. The algorithm is applied to the cart-pole system to demonstrate its characteristics

49.3.22    Suk Lee, Kyung Chang Lee, Man Hyung Lee, F. Harashima, "Integration of mobile vehicles for automated material handling using Profibus and IEEE 802.11 networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 693-701, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper focuses on a method to integrate mobile devices such as a mobile robot, automated guided vehicle, and unmanned container transporter to form an automated material handling system. In this paper, the stationary devices are connected via a Profibus network while the mobile devices are communicating via an IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN. In order to integrate these two networks, a protocol converter is developed on a PC platform that runs two interacting processes with shared internal buffers. The protocol converter performs a role of translator between two different protocols by converting the format of a data frame. In addition to this basic conversion function, the protocol converter has a virtual polling algorithm to reduce the uncertainty involved in accessing the wireless network. Finally, the integrated network. of Profibus and IEEE 802.11 is experimentally evaluated for its data latency and throughput, which shows the feasibility of the Profibus-IEEE 802.11 network for industrial applications involving mobile devices


Signal Processing and Control


49.3.23    O. Vainio, S.J. Ovaska, "Harmonics-resistant adaptive algorithm for line-frequency signal processing," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 702-706, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Adaptive filters are often used in signal processing tasks related to line-frequency signals in power distribution systems. In this paper, we discuss a computationally efficient adaptive algorithm for transversal discrete-time filters. The algorithm, which is based on the so-called general parameter method, uses only two dynamically adjusted parameters, each to be added to a block of coefficients of a fixed basis finite-impulse response filter. The parameter updating formula involves running addition of the data samples, causing suppression of certain frequencies. Therefore, the algorithm can be designed to adapt mainly according to the primary input frequency while being tolerant against specific harmonic components. This is advantageous, for instance, when processing 50/60-Hz line-frequency signals. The properties and stability of the algorithm are analyzed

49.3.24    Y. Fujimoto, T. Yakoh, K. Ohnishi, "Dynamic model of decentralized systems with informational connection," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 707-715, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a design method of decentralized systems with informational connection. The informational connection in this paper denotes an event link which establishes a signal links among physical controlled plants via a communication network. A dynamic transition of an informational connection among decentralized systems is considered and the mathematical structures are discussed using a concept of eigenvalues and eigen-connections over the Galois field GF(2). The global system has variable-structure characteristics due to the transition of informational connection. Examples of decentralized variable-structure systems are shown. In industry, there are many engineering systems that have a dynamic transition of an informational connection. The mathematical model would be useful for analysis and synthesis of various informationally connected systems


Letters to the Editor


49.3.25    K. Sundareswaran, M. Chandra, "Evolutionary approach for line current harmonic reduction in AC/DC converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 716-719, June 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This letter explains the application of genetic algorithms (GAs) for line current harmonic reduction in a buck-type converter. Harmonic reduction/elimination is redrafted as an optimization problem and steps of the GA are applied. Compared to conventional optimization techniques, the steps of the GA are very simple and global optimum is guaranteed in most cases. Theoretical and experimental results are provided to validate the method

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 49,  Number 4, August 2002           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




                 Special section on Multilevel Inverters

49.4.1    J. Rodriguez, "Guest editorial," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 722- 723, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

49.4.2    J. Rodriguez, Jih-Sheng Lai, Fang Zheng Peng, "Multilevel inverters: a survey of topologies, controls, and applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 724- 738, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multilevel inverter technology has emerged recently as a very important alternative in the area of high-power medium-voltage energy control. This paper presents the most important topologies like diode-clamped inverter (neutral-point clamped), capacitor-clamped (flying capacitor), and cascaded multicell with separate DC sources. Emerging topologies like asymmetric hybrid cells and soft-switched multilevel inverters are also discussed. This paper also presents the most relevant control and modulation methods developed for this family of converters: multilevel sinusoidal pulsewidth modulation, multilevel selective harmonic elimination, and space-vector modulation. Special attention is dedicated to the latest and more relevant applications of these converters such as laminators, conveyor belts, and unified power-flow controllers. The need of an active front end at the input side for those inverters supplying regenerative loads is also discussed, and the circuit topology options are also presented. Finally, the peripherally developing areas such as high-voltage high-power devices and optical sensors and other opportunities for future development are addressed.

49.4.3    A. von Jouanne, S. Dai, H. Zhang, "A multilevel inverter approach providing DC-link balancing, ride-through enhancement, and common-mode voltage elimination," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 739- 745, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a simple control method for balancing the DC-link voltage of three-level neutral-point-clamped inverters, while providing enhanced ride-through and common-mode voltage (CMV) elimination. The method uses DC-DC power converter technology on the DC link for balancing and ride-through enhancement, and a modified pulsewidth-modulation switching algorithm for CMV elimination. Simulation and experimental results are supplied to confirm the validity of the proposed method, which includes full digital signal processor control.

49.4.4    K.A. Corzine, J. Yuen, J.R. Baker, "Analysis of a four-level DC/DC buck converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 746- 751, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a four-level DC/DC buck power converter is introduced. The primary application for this converter is to regulate the center capacitor voltage in a four-level inverter system. The steady-state and average-value models for the proposed converter are developed and compared in simulation. The converter was constructed in the laboratory and verified on a four-level motor drive system. It was shown that the four-level DC/DC converter provides capacitor voltage balancing and allows higher output voltage utilization from the inverter.

49.4.5    M. Juneesoni, P. Tenca, "Diode-clamped multilevel converters: a practicable way to balance DC-link voltages," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 752- 765, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The converter topologies identified as diode-clamped multilevel (DCM) or, equivalently, as multipoint clamped (MPC), are rarely used in industrial applications, owing to some serious drawbacks involving mainly the stacked bank of capacitors that constitutes their multilevel DC link. The balance of the capacitor voltages is not possible in all operating conditions when the MPC converter possesses a passive front end. On the other hand, in AC/DC/AC power conversion, the back-to-back connection of a multilevel rectifier with a multilevel inverter allows the balance of the DC-link capacitor voltages and, at the same time, it offers the power-factor-correction capability at the mains AC input. An effective balancing strategy suitable for MPC conversion systems with any number of DC-link capacitors is presented here. The strategy has been carefully studied to optimize the converter efficiency. The simulation results related to a high-power conversion system (up to 10 MW) characterized by four intermediate DC-link capacitors are shown.

49.4.6    K.A. Corzine, J.R. Baker, "Reduced-parts-count multilevel rectifiers," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 766- 774, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multilevel power converters have gained much attention in recent years due to their high power quality, low switching losses, and high-voltage capability. These advantages make the multilevel converter a candidate topology for the next generation of naval ship prolusion systems. The primary disadvantage of these systems is the large number of semiconductors involved. This paper presents a reduced-parts-count rectifier which is well suited for naval rectifier applications where bidirectional power flow is not required. The proposed converter is analyzed and experimentally verified on an 18-kW four-level rectifier/inverter system.

49.4.7    T. Ishida, K. Matsuse, T. Miyamoto, K. Sasagawa, L. Huang, "Fundamental characteristics of five-level double converters with adjustable dc voltages for induction motor drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 775- 782, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, two kinds of control strategies for a three-phase five-level double converter are described on the assumption that the converter is applied to an induction motor drive system. The purposes of the proposed control strategies are to correct voltage imbalance of the DC-bus capacitors, to keep the input power factor at near unity, and to achieve an adjustable-speed drive. Characteristics of the converter operated by each of the two control strategies are examined and the validity is verified by experiments using a 3.7-kW induction motor.

49.4.8    Y. Kawabata, M. Nasu, T. Nomoto, E.C. Ejiogu, T. Kawabata, "High-efficiency and low acoustic noise drive system using open-winding AC motor and two space-vector-modulated inverters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 783- 789, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The combining of the outputs of two inverters using interphase reactors is a widely used method for supplying large AC drives rated at more than several thousands kilowatts. Certain drawbacks are associated with this method, such as high acoustic noise and high losses due to the interphase reactors. To overcome these problems, the authors propose a new high-efficiency drive system using an open-winding motor and two space-vector-modulated inverters. This configuration consists of a three-level inverter with switching at once every cycle and a two-level inverter of about 1-kHz switching frequency, connected, respectively, to the opposite terminals of the open-winding AC motor. With the proposed configuration, good current waveforms, high efficiency, and low acoustic noise can be obtained.

49.4.9    Xinbo Ruan, Dayu Xu, Linquan Zhou, Bin Li, Qianhong Chen, "Zero-voltage-switching PWM three-level converter with two clamping diodes," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 790- 799, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A zero-voltage-switching pulsewidth-modulation three-level (ZVS PWM TL) converter realizes ZVS for the switches with the use of the leakage inductance (or external resonant inductance) and the output capacitors of the switches, however, the rectifier diodes suffer from reverse recovery which results in oscillation and voltage spike. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel ZVS PWM TL converter, which introduces two clamping diodes to the basic TL converter to eliminate the oscillation and clamp the rectified voltage to the reflected input voltage; in the meanwhile, all the switches keep to realize ZVS. Furthermore, the proposed ZVS PWM TL converter can be simplified by removing the two freewheeling diodes. The operation principle of the novel converter and the simplified converter are analyzed and are verified by a prototype converter. The experimental results are also included in this paper.

49.4.10    Xiaoming Yuan, I. Barbi, "Zero-voltage switching for the neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 800- 808, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a transformer-assisted pulsewidth-modulation zero-voltage-switching neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter. With the assistance of a transformer-assisted small-rating lossless auxiliary circuit, the main switches work with zero-voltage switching without suffering from any voltage/current spikes, under simple explicit control. The technique allows for higher operating frequency and better device utilization of the NPC inverter. Operation, analysis, design, as well as testing results from a 7-kW prototype are presented in detail.

49.4.11    M.F. Escalante, J.-C. Vannier, A. Arzande, "Flying capacitor multilevel inverters and DTC motor drive applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 809- 815, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the requirements imposed by a direct torque control (DTC) strategy on multilevel inverters are analyzed. A control strategy is proposed in order to fulfill those requirements when a flying-capacitor multilevel inverter is used. Simulation and practical results will confirm the performance of the proposed strategy when using the multilevel inverter to control an induction motor by the DTC principle. Also, the advantages of using a multilevel inverter with a DTC strategy are shown by simulation results.

49.4.12    H. Ertl, J.W. Kolar, F.C. Zach, "Analysis of a multilevel multicell switch-mode power amplifier employing the "flying-battery" concept," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 816- 823, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel switch-mode power amplifier based on a multicell multilevel circuit topology. The total output voltage of the system is formed by series connection of several switching cells having a low DC-link voltage. Therefore, the cells can be realized using modern low-voltage high-current power MOSFET devices and the DC link can easily be buffered by rechargeable batteries or "super" capacitors to achieve very high amplifier peak output power levels ("flying-battery" concept). The cells are operated in a phase-shifted interleaved pulsewidth-modulation mode, which, in connection with the low partial voltage of each cell, reduces the filtering effort at the output of the total amplifier to a large extent and, consequently, improves the dynamic system behavior. The paper describes the operating principle of the system, analyzes the fundamental relationships being relevant for the circuit design, and gives guidelines for the dimensioning of the control circuit. Furthermore, simulation results as well as results of measurements taken from a laboratory setup are presented.

49.4.13    A.J. Visser, J.H.R. Enslin, H. de T Mouton, "Transformerless series sag compensation with a cascaded multilevel inverter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 824- 831, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The use of a cascaded multilevel inverter for transformerless sag/dip compensation is investigated. This topology is investigated as a cost-effective means for series sag compensation by eliminating the large injection transformer and output filter components that are used in conventional series injection devices. This prototype inverter is designed for sag compensation of a 250-kVA load. In this design, cost effectiveness plays a major role in the selection of the energy storage and the switching components. Control schemes are discussed for series sag compensation with this multilevel inverter. New control methods for sag compensation and injection are also introduced. A prototype is developed and the control schemes of this sag compensator are successfully verified in the practical results and show successful compensation for sags for different types of loads. The performance of this compensator makes it promising for future power rating upgrade and industrialization.

49.4.14    R. Teodorescu, F. Blaabjerg, J.K. Pedersen, E. Cengelci, P.N. Enjeti, "Multilevel inverter by cascading industrial VSI," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 832- 838, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the modularity concept applied to medium-voltage adjustable speed drives is addressed. First, the single-phase cascaded voltage-source inverter that uses series connection of insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) H-bridge modules with isolated DC buses is presented. Next, a novel three-phase cascaded voltage-source inverter that uses three IGBT triphase inverter modules along with an output transformer to obtain a 3-p.u. multilevel output voltage is introduced. The system yields in high-quality multistep voltage with up to four levels and low dv/dt, balanced operation of the inverter modules, each supplying a third of the motor rated kVA. The concept of using cascaded inverters is further extended to a new modular motor-modular inverter system where the motor winding connections are reconnected into several three-phase groups, either six-lead or 12-lead connection according to the voltage level, each powered by a standard triphase IGBT inverter module. Thus, a high fault tolerance is being achieved and the output transformer requirement is eliminated. A staggered space-vector modulation technique applicable to three-phase cascaded voltage-source inverter topologies is also demonstrated. Both computer simulations and experimental tests demonstrate the feasibility of the systems.

49.4.15    J. Rodriguez, L. Moran, J. Pontt, J.L. Hernandez, L. Silva, C. Silva, P. Lezana, "High-voltage multilevel converter with regeneration capability," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 839- 846, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a multilevel converter with regeneration capability. The converter uses several power cells connected in series, each working with reduced voltage and with an active front end at the line side. This paper presents the following: (1) the control method of each cell; (2) the use of phase-shifting techniques to reduce the current and voltage distortion; and (3) criteria to select the connection of the cells. The converter generates almost sinusoidal currents at the load and at the input and works with very high power factor.

49.4.16    B.P. McGrath, D.G. Holmes, "An analytical technique for the determination of spectral components of multilevel carrier-based PWM methods," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 847- 857, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an analytical approach for determining the spectral components of multilevel pulsewidth modulation (PWM) strategies, which avoids the problems of spectral leakage, roundoff, and subtle programming errors associated with the more usual approach of using discrete Fourier transforms of simulated switched waveforms. The approach uses a double Fourier integral formulation to analyze the inverter switched output, establishing the inner and outer integral limits of this formulation under conditions of natural sampling, regular sampling, and overmodulation. Closed-form and numerical integration solutions are presented for phase disposition PWM of a diode-clamped inverter to illustrate the technique, together with a comparison of theoretical and experimental spectral results for the naturally and asymmetric regularly sampled cases to confirm the validity of the approach.

49.4.17    B.P. McGrath, D.G. Holmes, "Multicarrier PWM strategies for multilevel inverters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 858- 867, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Analytical solutions of pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) strategies for multilevel inverters are used to identify that alternative phase opposition disposition PWM for diode-clamped inverters produces the same harmonic performance as phase-shifted carrier PWM for cascaded inverters, and hybrid PWM for hybrid inverters, when the carrier frequencies are set to achieve the same number of inverter switch transitions over each fundamental cycle. Using this understanding, a PWM method is then developed for cascaded and hybrid inverters to achieve the same harmonic gains as phase disposition PWM achieves for diode-clamped inverters. Theoretical and experimental results are presented in the paper.

49.4.18    M. Hashad, J. Iwaszkiewicz, "A novel orthogonal-vectors-based topology of multilevel inverters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 868- 874, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel proposal of developing converter output voltage waveforms and novel converter topologies. The main idea is based on the assumption that the total converter output space vector is composed of two orthogonal space vectors. Two basic proposals are discussed. The first one is related to a converter built of two standard inverters: a main inverter (MI) and an auxiliary one. The converter output voltage space vector is composed of two orthogonal vectors generated by the respective inverters. The total power of the auxiliary inverter does not exceed 20% of the MI power. Thanks to the presented control method, the harmonic content of the output voltage is significantly reduced. The second proposal is related to a novel converter topology denoted as OVT-IHC. The converter is built of one two-level inverter and three isolated H-bridge circuit units. The structure and its performance are also discussed in the paper. The converter in question is able to generate 133 different output space vectors and permits achievement of a stepped adjustment of the RMS output voltage. Both topologies presented in the paper indicate some characteristics and advantages of multilevel inverters. The converters acting on the basis of the orthogonal vectors idea possess promising properties and are suitable to applications in medium-power converters. The paper presents main features and contribution to the theory.

49.4.19    S. Sirisukprasert, Jih-Sheng Lai, Tian-Hua Liu, "Optimum harmonic reduction with a wide range of modulation indexes for multilevel converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 875- 881, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel modulation technique to be applied to multilevel voltage-source converters suitable for high-voltage power supplies and flexible AC transmission system devices. The proposed technique can generate output stepped waveforms with a wide range of modulation indexes and minimized total voltage harmonic distortion. The main power devices switch only once per cycle, as is suitable for high-power applications. In addition to meeting the minimum turn-on and turn-off time requirements for high-power semiconductor switches, the proposed technique excludes from the synthesized waveform any pulses that are either too narrow or too wide. By using a systematic method, only the polarities and the number of levels need to be determined for different modulation levels. To verify the theory and the simulation results, a cascaded converter-based hardware prototype, including an 8-b microcontroller as well as modularized power stage and gate driver circuits, is implemented. Experimental results indicate that the proposed technique is effective for the reduction of harmonics in multilevel converters, and both the theoretical and simulation results are well validated.

49.4.20    J. Rodriguez, L. Moran, P. Correa, C. Silva, "A vector control technique for medium-voltage multilevel inverters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 882- 888, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a switching strategy for multilevel cascade inverters, based on the space-vector theory. The proposed switching strategy generates a voltage vector with very low harmonic distortion and reduced switching frequency. This new control method is an attractive alternative to the classic multilevel pulsewidth modulation techniques considering the following aspects: (1) voltage and current total harmonic distortion; (2) range of linear operation; and (3) number of commutations.


Drive Control


49.4.21    J. Rodriguez Arribas, C.M. Vega Gonzalez, "Optimal vector control of pumping and ventilation induction motor drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 889- 895, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An original speed control for centrifugal pump and fan drives with squirrel-cage induction motors that seeks the maximum energy saving is proposed. The strategy is based on minimizing the motor and converter losses at the steady state and minimizing the transient time that the motor employs in passing from one steady stage to another. The shortest transient time is achieved by applying the Pontriagin's maximum principle taking into account the parabolic load torque-speed dependence of these types of drives. Short-time transients, which take the motor from one point of maximum efficiency to another, contribute to reduce losses and to extend the application of the energy-saving concept to the drives with frequent changes of load torque and speed.

49.4.22    T. Su, M. Ishida, T. Hori, "Suppression control method for torque vibration of three-phase HB-type stepping motor utilizing feedforward control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 896- 904, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a method to reduce the vibration of the three-phase HB-type stepping motor with cogging torque by the feedforward compensation control. The compensation signal to suppress the vibration of the motor frame is obtained by the repetitive controller installing an online Fourier transformer and utilizing an acceleration sensor attached to the motor frame or an acoustic sensor such as a microphone placed close to the frame. The sensor is used only for the acquisition of the feedforward compensation data. The feedforward compensation signal at an arbitrary operating point is derived from the amplitude and phase data of the frequency components and the operating point data. Compensation data obtained by the repetitive controller is applied to the operating point changed by reference frequency and load condition in steady state. The compensation signal for the new operating point will be generated from compensation data utilizing polynomial equation approximation and linear interpolation method. The effectiveness of this proposed method is confirmed by the experimental results.

49.4.23    R.C. Luo, Long-Yeu Chung, "Stabilization for linear uncertain system with time latency," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 905- 910, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Recently, various remote control systems through the public Internet have been broadly applied in factory automation, information appliance (IA), surgery, space exploration, the military, and also in our daily life. However, the time delay is unavoidable when the remote control systems through the Internet are distant from each other in the remote locations. Time delay usually causes control systems to become unstable or fail, even if the system is stable under no time delay. In this paper, stabilization for a class of linear uncertain systems with time latency is considered. The proposed control is based on the optimal control for its delay-free linear system with quadratic performance index. A Lyapunov functional theorem is used in the proof of our main result. A delay-dependent criterion is provided to guarantee asymptotic stabilizability for time-latency systems.

49.4.24    Hou-Tsan Lee, Li-Chen Fu, Hsin-Sain Huang, "Sensorless speed tracking of induction motor with unknown torque based on maximum power transfer," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 911- 924, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the authors first derive the maximum power transfer theorem for an induction motor. Then, a nonlinear indirect adaptive sensorless speed tracking controller for the motor with the maximum power transfer is proposed. In this controller, only the stator currents are assumed to be measurable. The rotor flux and speed observers are designed to relax the need of flux and speed measurement. In addition, the rotor resistance estimator is also designed to cope with the problem of the fluctuation of rotor resistance with temperature. Stability analysis based on Lyapunov theory is also performed to guarantee that the controller design here is stable. Finally, the computer simulations and experiments are conducted to demonstrate the satisfactory tracking performance of the authors' design subject to maximum power transfer.


Power Electronics


49.4.25    Byungcho Choi, Jaeyeol Kim, B.H. Cho, Seungwon Choi, C.M. Wildrick, "Designing control loop for DC-to-DC converters loaded with unknown AC dynamics," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 925- 932, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a method for designing the control loop for DC-to-DC power converters when uncertainties exist in the AC characteristics of the converter's load. In the proposed method, a converter is initially considered as a stand-alone module feeding a current sink load and the control loop of the converter is then designed in a way that maximizes the robustness of the converter's closed-loop performance against the unknown AC dynamics of a potential load. As a result, the proposed control design method can provide the predictable closed-loop performance for a converter when it is loaded with an actual load whose AC characteristics are unknown in advance.


Emerging Technology


49.4.26    R.C. Luo, Long-Yeu Chung, Chang-Hua Lien, "A novel symmetric cryptography based on the hybrid Haar wavelets encoder and chaotic masking scheme," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 933- 944, August 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this scheme, the authors use the seven chaotic parameters (a,/spl beta/,a,b,x/sub 0/,y/sub 0/,z/sub 0/) and the dimension of Haar wavelet encoder matrix H/sub n/, the combining form of H/sub n/ with subwavelet basis {h/sub 0/,h/sub 1/,...,h/sub n-1/}, the prespecified time span t/sub s/, as well as the coefficients a/sub i/,i=1,...,n, and the prime number k of the collision-free one-way function to serve as the "encryption keys." The security property of the proposed cryptosystem results from two main parts: first, the high sensitivity of synchronization versus parameter or initial condition with small variation. It is sensitive enough to make the state trajectories separate from each other at an exponential rate. The second part depends on the Haar wavelets encoder H/sub n/ with its various combining form from the subwavelets basis {h/sub 0/,h/sub 1/,...,h/sub n-1/}; it is composed the same way as the lottery. Furthermore, due to the collision-free one-way function, the chaotic behavior control parameters are always different. Therefore, the system can be secured as long as the first chaotic parameters are kept secret. Moreover, the transmitting error-detection function of the proposed cryptosystem is also addressed.

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 49,  Number 5, Oct 2002           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




                 Special section on Multilevel Inverters

49.5.1    J. Rodriguez, "Guest Editorial," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 946- 947, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

49.5.2    P.W. Hammond, "Enhancing the reliability of modular medium-voltage drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 948- 954, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method to increase the reliability of modular medium-voltage induction motor drives is discussed, by providing means to bypass a failed module. The impact on reliability is shown. A control, which maximizes the output voltage available after bypass, is described, and experimental results are given.

49.5.3    T.A. Meynard, H. Foch, P. Thomas, J. Courault, R. Jakob, M. Nahrstaedt, "Multicell converters: basic concepts and industry applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 955- 964, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multicell power converters were introduced ten years ago. This paper summarizes the main results obtained through the research done on these converters over this period: topology and derivation of multicell choppers and voltage-source inverters; harmonics cancellation; open-loop modulation techniques; self-balancing understanding; and optimization. During this same period, industrial products using this technique have been developed and the corresponding know-how has contributed to the field in various ways, such as modular design, low inductance busbars, specific drivers, etc.

49.5.4    A. BenAbdelghani, C.A. Martins, X. Roboam, T.A. Meynard, "Use of extra degrees of freedom in multilevel drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 965- 977, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multilevel converters with series connection of semiconductors allow power electronics to reach medium voltages (1-10 kV) with relatively standard components. The increase of the number of semiconductors provides extra degrees of freedom, which can be used to improve different characteristics. This paper is focused on variable-speed drives and it is shown that with the proposed multilevel direct torque control strategy (DiCoIF) the tradeoff between the performances of the drive (harmonic distortions, torque dynamics, voltage step gradients, etc.) and the switching frequency of the semiconductors is improved. Then, a slightly modified strategy reducing common-mode voltage and bearing currents is presented.

49.5.5    T.A. Meynard, H. Foch, F. Forest, C. Turpin, F. Richardeau, L. Delmas, G. Gateau, E. Lefeuvre, "Multicell converters: derived topologies," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 978- 987, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multicell converters were introduced ten years ago and, over this period, their properties have been thoroughly analyzed. Since then, this concept has lead to some other innovative topologies which are briefly presented in this paper. Different ways to introduce soft switching in multicell converters are investigated. The concept of distributing power over several switches, giving more degrees of freedom and using less passive components, is extended further with the stacked multicell topology. Finally, direct AC-AC converters using the multicell approach are described.

49.5.6    C. Turpin, P. Baudesson, F. Richardeau, F. Forest, T.A. Meynard, "Fault management of multicell converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 988- 997, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Component counts and oversimplified reliability rules may lead to the conclusion that multilevel converters are less safe than two-level converters, just because they use more components. A better approach might be to consider that they use a different arrangement of components and also that the consequence of faults may be very different. This paper is focused on the study of the consequences of faults in hard-switching and soft-switching multicell converters. Solutions to minimize the consequences of major faults are described.

49.5.7    G. Gateau, M. Fadel, P. Maussion, R. Bensaid, T.A. Meynard, "Multicell converters: active control and observation of flying-capacitor voltages," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 998- 1008, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The multicell converters introduced more than ten years ago make it possible to distribute the voltage constraints among series-connected switches and to improve the output waveforms (increased number of levels and apparent frequency). The balance of the constraints requires an appropriate distribution of the flying voltages. This paper presents some solutions for the active control of the voltages across the flying capacitors in the presence of rapid variation of the input voltage. The latter part of this paper is dedicated to the observation of these voltages using an original modeling of the converter.

49.5.8    K.A. Corzine, J.R. Baker, "Multilevel voltage-source duty-cycle modulation: analysis and implementation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1009- 1016, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multilevel converters have become increasingly popular due to high power quality, high-voltage capability, low switching losses, and low electromagnetic compatibility concerns. Considering these advantages, the multilevel converter is a suitable candidate for implementation of future naval ship propulsion systems. This paper focuses on modulation techniques for the multilevel converter. In particular, a novel voltage-source method of multilevel modulation is introduced and compared to existing methods. The proposed method is discrete in nature and can therefore be readily implemented on a digital signal processor. The method is also readily extendable to any number of voltage levels. Results of experimental implementation are demonstrated using a four-level rectifier/inverter system, which incorporates diode-clamped multilevel converters and an 11-level cascaded multilevel H-bridge inverter.

49.5.9    H. du Toit Mouton, "Natural balancing of three-level neutral-point-clamped PWM inverters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1017- 1025, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper explores the natural balancing mechanisms of the three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) multilevel inverter. An equivalent circuit of the three-level NPC inverter is derived that facilitates an understanding of the balancing mechanisms. This is followed by a detailed analysis of the balancing mechanisms. The theory is applied to a three-level NPC inverter under vector control. It is shown that this inverter possesses natural balancing mechanisms in which the load impedance and spectra of the switching functions play an important role. Finally, it is illustrated how the natural balancing can be enhanced by using a passive balancing circuit which provides a low impedance at the sampling frequency.

49.5.10    J. Pou, D. Boroyevich, R. Pindado, "New feedforward space-vector PWM method to obtain balanced AC output voltages in a three-level neutral-point-clamped converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1026- 1034, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In three-level neutral-point-clamped voltage-source inverters, proper modulation allows the average voltages of the DC-link capacitors to be kept at one-half the level of the DC-link voltage. However, in some operating conditions, a low-frequency ripple appears in the neutral-point potential and its frequency is three times that of the output voltages. As a result, the output voltages also have low-frequency distortion, which includes even and odd multiples of the fundamental. In this paper, a new space-vector pulsewidth-modulation strategy is presented to avoid that low-frequency output voltage distortion. This modulation method tries to balance the voltages of the capacitors by using only three vectors per modulation cycle. The duty ratios are directly calculated from the space-vector diagram, even when balance is not achieved. For all cases, the result is a balanced set of three AC output voltages. Some simulated and experimental results are given to validate the method.

49.5.11    G. Venkataramanan, A. Bendre, "Reciprocity-transposition-based sinusoidal pulsewidth modulation for diode-clamped multilevel converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1035- 1047, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Modulation strategies for multilevel inverters have typically focused on synthesizing a desired set of three phase sinusoidal voltage waveforms using a fixed number of DC voltage levels. This results in the average current injection and hence the net power drawn from the multiple DC bus terminals to be unmatched and time varying. Subsequently, the DC-bus voltages are unregulated, requiring corrective control action to incorporated. In this paper, the principle of reciprocity transposition in introduced as a means for modeling the DC-bus current injection simultaneously as the modulation strategy is formulated. Furthermore, a new sinusoidal pulsewidth-modulation strategy that features constant and controllable current injection at the DC-bus terminals while maintaining output voltage waveform quality is introduced. The proposed strategy is general enough to be applied to converters with an even number of levels and an odd number of levels. Analytical results comparing the performance of the proposed modulator with a conventional multiple carrier modulator are presented for example multilevel converters with four and five levels. Computer simulation results verifying the analytical results are presented for a four-level converter.

49.5.12    H. Ertl, J.W. Kolar, F.C. Zach, "A novel multicell DC-AC converter for applications in renewable energy systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1048- 1057, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel DC-AC converter for applications in the area of distributed energy generation systems, e.g., solar power systems, fuel-cell power systems in combination with supercapacitor or battery energy storage. The proposed converter is realized using an isolated multicell topology where the total AC output of the system is formed by series connection of several full-bridge converter stages. The DC links of the full bridges are supplied by individual DC-DC isolation stages which are arranged in parallel concerning the dc input of the. total system. Therefore, all switching cells of the proposed converter can be equipped with modern low-voltage high-current power MOSFETs, which results in an improved efficiency as compared to conventional isolated DC-AC converters. Furthermore, the cells are operated in an interleaved pulsewidth-modulation mode which, in connection with the low voltage level of each cell, significantly reduces the filtering effort on the AC output of the overall system. The paper describes the operating principle, analyzes the fundamental relationships which are relevant for component selection, and presents a specific circuit design. Finally, measurements taken from a 2-kW laboratory model are presented.

49.5.13    L.A. Tolbert, Fang Zheng Peng, T. Cunnyngham, J.N. Chiasson, "Charge balance control schemes for cascade multilevel converter in hybrid electric vehicles," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1058- 1064, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents transformerless multilevel converters as an application for high-power hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) motor drives. Multilevel converters: (1) can generate near-sinusoidal voltages with only fundamental frequency switching; (2) have almost no electromagnetic interference or common-mode voltage; and (3) make an HEV more accessible/safer and open wiring possible for most of an HEV's power system. The cascade inverter is a natural fit for large automotive hybrid electric drives because it uses several levels of DC voltage sources, which would be available from batteries, ultracapacitors, or fuel cells. Simulation and experimental results show how to operate this converter in order to maintain equal charge/discharge rates from the DC sources (batteries, capacitors, or fuel cells) in an HEV.


Drive Control


49.5.14    M. Febssen, A. Steimel, "Direct self control with minimum torque ripple and high dynamics for a double three-level GTO inverter drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1065- 1071, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A highly dynamic control scheme with very low torque ripple-direct self control (DSC) with torque hysteresis control-for very high-power medium-voltage induction motor drives fed by a double three-level inverter (D3LI) is presented. In this arrangement, two three-level inverters that are connected in parallel at their DC sides are feeding the open motor windings. The DSC, well known from two- and three-level inverters, is adapted to the D3LI and optimized for a minimum torque ripple. An 18-corner trajectory is chosen for the stator flux of the induction machine since it is approaching the ideal circle much better than the hexagon known from DSC for two-level inverters, without any detriment to the torque ripple. The machine and inverter control are explained and the proposed torque quality and dynamics are verified by measurements on a 180-kW laboratory drive.

49.5.15    D. Soto, T.C. Green, "A comparison of high-power converter topologies for the implementation of FACTS controllers," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1072- 1080, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper compares four power converter topologies for the implementation of flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) controllers: three multilevel topologies (multipoint clamped (MPC), chain, and nested cell) and the well-established multipulse topology. In keeping with the need to implement very-high-power inverters, switching frequency is restricted to line frequency. The study addresses device count, DC filter ratings, restrictions on voltage control, active power transfer through the DC link, and balancing of DC-link voltages. Emphasis is placed on capacitor sizing because of its impact on the cost and size of the FACTS controller. A method for the dimensioning the DC capacitor filter is presented. It is found that the chain converter is attractive for the implementation of a static compensator or a static synchronous series compensator. The MPC converter is attractive for the implementation of a unified power flow controller or an interline power flow controller, but a special arrangement is required to overcome the limitations on voltage control.

49.5.16    J. Bocker, J. Febning, H. Jebenstreit, "High dynamic control of a three-level voltage-source-converter drive for a main strip mill," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1081- 1092, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A high dynamic control system for the Alspa VDM 7000 medium-voltage drive was implemented, which provides fast torque response times of a few milliseconds despite the typically low switching frequency of gate-turn-off thyristors which is necessary to achieve high efficiency. The drive system consists of a three-level voltage-source converter with active front end and a synchronous motor. The drive has most recently been applied to a main strip mill. It provides a maximum of 8.3-MW mechanical power with a rated motor voltage of 3 kV. Besides motor torque as the main control objective, the control system has to comply with a number of additional objectives and constraints like DC-link voltage regulation and balancing, current and torque harmonics, motor flux, and excitation.

49.5.17    J. Rodriguez, J. Pontt, G. Alzarnora, N. Becker, O. Einenkel, A. Weinstein, "Novel 20-MW downhill conveyor system using three-level converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1093- 1100, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a very new drive system used to transport ore from the mine down to the concentrator plant in the copper mine "Los Pelambres". Eight 2500-kW motors are driven by three-level inverters with gate-turn-off thyristors (GTOs). A three-level active front end is used at the input side of each inverter. A GTO chopper is used to provide controlled electrical braking in case of line loss. The paper presents the requirements and alternatives for the drive system and the control strategies for the converters and the belt. A novel application of the selective harmonic elimination method is used to reduce the input current harmonics. Special attention is dedicated to the interaction with the electrical network. The most relevant features of the system are: (1) fuseless operation; (2) adjustable power factor; (3) reduced input current harmonics; (4) smooth transition between motoring and regenerating modes; and (5) 15 MW of regenerated power with more than six months of successful operation.

49.5.18    S.L.T. Marin, J.M.Q. Reboul, L.G. Franquelo, "Digital stochastic realization of complex analog controllers," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1101- 1109, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Stochastic logic is based on digital processing of a random pulse stream, where the information is codified as the probability of a high level in a finite sequence. This binary pulse sequence can be digitally processed exploiting the similarity between Boolean algebra and statistical algebra. Given a random pulse sequence, any Boolean operation among individual pulses will correspond to an algebraic expression among the variables represented by their respective average pulse rates. Subsequently, this pulse stream can be digitally processed to perform analog operations. In this paper, we propose a stochastic approach to the digital implementation of complex controllers using programmable devices as an alternative to traditional digital signal processors. As an example, a practical realization of nonlinear dissipative controllers for a series resonant converter is presented.

49.5.19    Bong-Hwan Kwon, Gang-Youl Jeong, Sung-Hoon Han, Duk-Ho Lee, "Novel line conditioner with voltage up/down capability," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1110- 1119, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a novel pulsewidth-modulated line conditioner with fast output voltage control is proposed. The line conditioner is made up of an AC chopper with reversible voltage control and a transformer for series voltage compensation. In the AC chopper, a proper switching operation is achieved without the commutation problem. To absorb energy stored in line stray inductance, a regenerative DC snubber can be utilized which has only one capacitor without discharging resistors or complicated regenerative circuit for snubber energy. Therefore, the proposed AC chopper gives high efficiency and reliability. The output voltage of the line conditioner is controlled using a fast sensing technique of the output voltage. It is also shown via some experimental results that the presented line conditioner gives good dynamic and steady-state performance for high quality of the output voltage.


Power Electronics


49.5.20    Eun-Soo Kim, Yoon-Ho Kim, "A ZVZCS PWM FB DC/DC converter using a modified energy-recovery snubber," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1120- 1127, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The conventional high-frequency phase-shifted zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) full-bridge DC/DC converter has a disadvantage, in that a circulating current flows through transformer and switching devices during the freewheeling interval. Due to this circulating current, RMS current stress, conduction losses of the transformer and switching devices are increased. To alleviate this problem, this paper proposes an improved zero-voltage zero-current switching (ZVZCS) phase-shifted full-bridge (FB) DC/DC converter with a modified energy-recovery snubber (ERS) attached at the secondary side of transformer. Also, the small signal model of the proposed ZVZCS FB DC/DC converter is derived by incorporating the effects introduced by a transformer leakage inductance and an ERS to achieve ZVZCS. Both analysis and experiment are performed to verify the proposed topology by implementing a 7-kW (120 VDC, 58 A) 30-kHz insulated-gate-bipolar-transistor-based experimental circuit.

49.5.21    Yu-Kang Lo, Sheng-Yuan Ou, Huang-Jen Chiu, "On evaluating the current distortion of the single-phase switch-mode rectifiers with current slope maps," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1128- 1137, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a simple way to evaluate the distortion level of the input current for single-phase switch-mode rectifiers (SMRs). Based on the possible conducting paths of various topologies of SMRs, slopes of the input and command currents are defined to form a slope map. By comparing the defined current slopes, the causes of current distortion are examined. Distorted waveforms of the input currents under hysteresis control are reviewed and classified into three types. Design criteria for the circuit parameters are also studied to reduce the current distortion level. Simulations and experiments are performed and the results show strong conformity to the theoretical analysis.

49.5.22    J. Leyva-Ramos, J.A. Morales-Saldana, M. Martinez-Cruz, "Robust stability analysis for current-programmed regulators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1138- 1145, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Uncertainty models for the three basic switch-mode converters: buck, boost, and buck-boost are given in this paper. The resulting models are represented by linear fractional transformations with structured dynamic uncertainties. Uncertainties are assumed for the load resistance R=R/sub O/(1+/spl delta//sub R/), inductance L=L/sub O/(1+/spl delta//sub L/), and capacitance C=C/sub O/(1+/spl delta//sub C/). The interest in these models is clearly motivated by the need to have models for switch-mode DC-DC converters that are compatible with robust control analysis, which require a model structure consisting of a nominal model and a norm-bounded modeling uncertainty. Therefore, robust stability analysis can be realized using standard /spl mu/-tools. At the end of the paper, an illustrative example is given which shows the simplicity of the procedure.

49.5.23    R.L. Newsom, W.C. Dillard, R.M. Nelms, "Digital power-factor correction for a capacitor-charging power supply," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1146- 1153, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The design and construction of a low-power low-cost power supply capable of charging an energy storage capacitor from a 120-V AC source and capable of power-factor correction (PFC) is presented. The load that is generally connected to a capacitor-charging power supply (CCPS) is a pulsed power load (i.e., laser, cardiac defibrillator, or flash lamp). A flyback converter was incorporated into the CCPS because it is capable of charging a capacitor while maintaining a high power factor. The control system of the CCPS uses peak current control to achieve PFC and is implemented using standard "off-the-shelf" digital logic components. A 300-V prototype has been constructed and tested. The experimental results show that a high power factor is obtained by the CCPS utilizing a flyback converter and the digital logic control system.


Emerging Technology


49.5.24    M.G. Simoes, P. Vieira, "A high-torque low-speed multiphase brushless machine-a perspective application for electric vehicles," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1154- 1164, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the design, analysis, simulation, and modeling of a high-torque low-speed multiphase permanent-magnet brushless; machine. The machine fits an in-wheel motor arrangement to be used for electric vehicle applications. This paper presents issues regarding the high-level modeling comprised of a transient model in conjunction with their corresponding experimental evaluation. Analysis was made to combine the modeling efforts with the expected behavior concerned with mutual inductance and armature reaction effects, so as to have realistic simulation results verified by the experimental setup. Comprehensive experimental results corroborate the work.

49.5.25    L. Almeida, E. Tovar, J.A.G. Fonseca, F. Vasques, "Schedulability analysis of real-time traffic in WorldFIP networks: an integrated approach," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1165- 1174, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The WorldFIP protocol is one of the profiles that constitute the European fieldbus standard EN-50170. It is particularly well suited to be used in distributed computer-controlled systems where a set of process variables must be shared among network devices. To cope with the real-time requirements of such systems, the protocol provides communication services based on the exchange of periodic and aperiodic identified variables. The periodic exchanges have the highest priority and are executed at run time according to a cyclic schedule. Therefore, the respective schedulability can be determined at pre-run-time when building the schedule table. Concerning the aperiodic exchanges, the situation is different since their priority is lower and they are bandied according to a first-come-first-served policy. In this paper, a response-time-based schedulability analysis for the real-time traffic is presented. Such analysis considers both types of traffic in an integrated way, according to their priorities. Furthermore, a fixed-priorities-based policy is also used to schedule the periodic traffic. The proposed analysis represents an improvement relative to previous work and it can be evaluated online as part of a traffic online admission control. This feature is of particular importance when a planning scheduler is used, instead of the typical offline static scheduler, to allow online changes to the set of periodic process variables.


Letters to the Editor


49.5.26    Yu-Kang Lo, Tzu-Herng Song, Huang-Jen Chiu, "Analysis and elimination of voltage imbalance between the split capacitors in half-bridge boost rectifiers," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1175- 1177, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The voltage imbalance between the split capacitors in a halfbridge boost rectifier is reviewed in this letter. It can be proven that the optimal compensation strategy is to add only a DC component in the source current. The adverse effects of the imbalance elimination control loop to the input power factor are studied. The analytical results are verified through experiments.

49.5.27    A. Derdiyok, M.K. Guven, H. Rehman, N. Inanc, Longya Xu, "Design and implementation of a new sliding-mode observer for speed-sensorless control of induction machine," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1177- 1182, Oct 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this letter, a new sliding-mode-sensorless control algorithm is proposed for the field-oriented induction machine drive. In the proposed algorithm, the terms containing flux, speed, and rotor time constant, which are common in both current and flux equations, in the current model of the induction machine are estimated by a sliding function. The flux and speed estimation accuracy is guaranteed when the error between the actual current and observed current converges to zero. Hence, the fourth-order system is reduced to two second-order systems, and the speed estimation becomes very simple and robust to the parameter uncertainties. The new approach is verified by simulation and experimental results.

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 49,  Number 6, Dec 2002           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




                Special Sections on Factory Communication System

49.6.1    R. Zurawski, "Guest editorial," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1186- 1188, Dec 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

49.6.2    L. Almeida, P. Pedreiras, J.A.G. Fonseca, "The FTT-CAN protocol: why and how," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1189- 1201, Dec 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The requirement for flexible operation is becoming increasingly important in modern industrial systems. This requirement has to be supported at all system levels, including the field level in process industry, as well as the cell and machine control levels in manufacturing industry, where fieldbus-based communication systems are commonly found. Furthermore, typical applications at these levels require both time- and event-triggered communication services, in most cases under stringent timing constraints, to convey state data in the former case and alarms and management data in the latter. However, neither the requirement for flexible operation under guaranteed timeliness nor for joint support of time and event-triggered traffic are efficiently fulfilled by most of existing fieldbus systems. This paper presents a new protocol, flexible time-triggered communication on controller area network, which fulfills both requirements: it supports time-triggered communication in a flexible way as well as being an efficient combination of both time- and event-triggered traffic with temporal isolation. These types of traffic are handled by two complementary subsystems, the synchronous and the asynchronous messaging systems, respectively. The paper includes a justification for the new protocol as well as its description and worst case temporal analysis for both subsystems. This analysis shows the capability of the protocol to convey real-time traffic of either type.

49.6.3    G. Cena, A. Valenzano, "Achieving round-robin access in controller area networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1202- 1213, Dec 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Because of their low implementation costs, optimum responsiveness, and widespread availability, controller area networks (CANS) are being used more and more today to support communications in real-time systems. However, under heavy traffic conditions the CAN access protocol may exhibit a quite unfair behavior, in particular, when the control applications require the same quality of service to be ensured to a number of different objects. In this paper, a new technique is proposed which is based on CAN and introduces few changes to the original protocol. Such a solution is able to ensure a very fair behavior-which resembles the one obtained in token-based networks-while maintaining, at the same time, the reduced access delays typical of CAN when operating in low traffic conditions. Furthermore, it preserves an optimum degree of compatibility with the existing devices and applications based on CAN.

49.6.4    M. Conti, L. Donatiello, M. Furini, "Design and analysis of RT-Ring: a protocol for supporting real-time communications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1214- 1226, Dec 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Distributed applications with quality of service (QoS) requirements are more and more used in several areas (e.g., automated factory networks, embedded systems, conferencing systems). These applications produce a type of traffic with hard timing requirements, i.e., transmissions must be completed within specified deadlines. To handle these transmissions, the communication system must use real-time protocols to provide a communication service that is able to satisfy the QoS requirements of the distributed applications. In this paper, the authors propose a new real-time protocol, called RT-Ring, able to support transmissions of both real-time and generic traffic over a ring network. RT-Ring provides both network guarantees and high network resource utilization, while ensuring the compatibility with the emerging differentiated service architectures. Network guarantees are fully proved and high network utilization is highlighted by a comparative study with the FDDI protocol. This comparison shows that RT-Ring network capacities are greater than the corresponding FDDI capacities. In fact, by assuming the FDDI frames with a length equal to the RT-Ring slot size and by using the same traffic load the authors show that the capacities of FDDI are equal to the lower bound capacities of RT-Ring.

49.6.5    G. Cena, A. Valenzano, "A multistage hierarchical distributed arbitration technique for priority-based real-time communication systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1227- 1239, Dec 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: ISO 11898 is a communication protocol based on the carrier sense multiple access with collision detection and arbitration on message priority (CSMA/CD+AMP) technique, which at present is largely used as a real-time network for industrial environments. Unfortunately, because of the peculiarities of the arbitration technique it adopts, it suffers from severe limitations on the maximum extension of the network, which cannot be overcome simply by means of improvements in the transceiver's technology as they depend on the limited propagation speed of the signals on the communication support. In this paper, a new kind of network is presented that features a behavior very similar to ISO 11898, but which achieves noticeably larger areas to be covered without having to reduce the bit rate. It relies on a tree topology and adopts a brand new multistage hierarchical distributed arbitration technique, which takes the increased propagation delays into account properly.

49.6.6    H.A. Hansson, T. Nolte, C. Norstrom, S. Punnekkat, "Integrating reliability and timing analysis of CAN-based systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1240- 1250, Dec 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents and illustrates a reliability analysis method developed with a focus on controller-area-network-based automotive systems. The method considers the effect of faults on schedulability analysis and its impact on the reliability estimation of the system, and attempts to integrate both to aid system developers. The authors illustrate the method by modeling a simple distributed antilock braking system, and showing that even in cases where the worst case analysis deems the system unschedulable, it may be proven to satisfy its timing requirements with a sufficiently high probability. From a reliability and cost perspective, this paper underlines the tradeoffs between timing guarantees, the level of hardware and software faults, and per-unit cost.

49.6.7    P. Castelpietra, Ye-Qiong Song, F. Simonot-Lion, M. Attia, "Analysis and simulation methods for performance evaluation of a multiple networked embedded architecture," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1251- 1264, Dec 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with the modeling and the validation of multiple networked embedded computer systems supporting in-vehicle applications. In this context, the authors developed a modular modeling and simulation technique. This approach allowed the development of reusable component models with clearly defined interfaces. The building of a whole application model is then obtained by the integration of these components, so that model construction and result analysis are made easy. In fact, thanks to the formal definition of components, interfaces, and composition rules, this step is automatically achieved. In the context of the CAROSSE project, we implemented this methodology in the Carosse-Perf tool. Herein, the authors detail the methodology together with its modeling principles and the resulting definition of basic components and interfaces. Finally, they apply it to a case study drawn from a PSA Peugeot-Citroen application.

49.6.8    A. Willig, M. Kubisch, C. Hoene, A. Wolisz, "Measurements of a wireless link in an industrial environment using an IEEE 802.11-compliant physical layer," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1265- 1282, Dec 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The design and simulation of coding schemes, medium access control (MAC), and link-layer protocols for future industrial wireless local area networks can be supported by some understanding of the statistical properties of the bit error patterns delivered by a wireless link (which is an ensemble of transmitter, channel, receiver, modems). The authors present results of bit error measurements taken with an IEEE 802.11-compliant radio modem in an industrial environment. In addition to reporting the most important results, they draw some conclusions for the design of MAC and link-layer protocols. Furthermore, they show that the popular Gilbert/Elliot model and a modified version of it are a useful tool for simulating bit errors on a wireless link, despite their simplicity and failure to match certain measured statistics.

49.6.9    S. Senini, P.J. Wolfs, "Analysis and design of a multiple-loop control system for a hybrid active filter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1283- 1292, Dec 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper investigates the control of a hybrid active filter consisting of a single tuned resonant branch and an active element. This filter is capable of suppressing multiple harmonics using a multiple-loop control system. Linear continuous-time models are first developed in the dq reference frame. This results in a two-input/two-output system with cross coupling. The continuous model is discretized and the design of a multiple-loop discrete-time controller is examined. Wideband current feedback loops are shown to affect the coupling between the d- and q-axis controllers and provide a resistance-like damping effect. Variations in stability with processing delay times are examined. Finally, this work is extended to include narrowband harmonic specific controls. The results of the control study are confirmed by simulation and experimental results.


Power Electronics


49.6.10    J. Hamar, I. Nagy, "Control features of dual-channel DC-DC converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1293- 1305, Dec 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the steady-state behavior of a two-channel resonant converter family in symmetrical operation. Six configurations will be investigated, including step-down, step-up/down, and step-up ones in continuous conduction mode (CCM) and in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). Exploring the conditions of transition from CCM to DCM or back, it becomes evident that the CCM operation is definitely restricted, that is, sometimes the converter cannot he operated in CCM at all. The most important relations among the input, output, and control variables are derived and verified by simulation and experimental results.


Emerging Technology


49.6.11    N.M. Botros, Jian Yang, P. Feinsilver, R. Schott, "Hardware realization of Krawtchouk transform using VHDL modeling and FPGAs," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1306- 1312, Dec 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the authors present a hardware realization of a simplified Krawtchouk transform. The transform is realized on a Xilinx field-programmable gate arrays chip. The hardware is stand-alone and operates on a real-time basis. Very high speed integrated circuit hardware descriptive language structural, behavioral, and data flow modeling are implemented to describe, simulate, and realize the transform. The hardware consists mainly of an 8 /spl times/ 8-2's-complement multiplier, a 16-b accumulator, a 16 /spl times/ 16-b RAM, a 64 /spl times/ 8-b ROM, and a microprogram-based control unit. A brief analysis of the transform and a contrast between its hardware and that of Fourier transform are presented. The hardware is tested by inputting an eight-point data vector to the input pins of the chip. The results of the transform are read from the output pins of the chip. The results are compared with those obtained from a software program executing the same transform for the same input data vector as the hardware. It is found that results from the hardware match those of the software.


Robotics and Vision


49.6.12    Kao-Shing Hwang, Ming-Yi Ju, "A propagating interface model strategy for global trajectory planning among moving obstacles," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1313- 1322, Dec 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A global trajectory planning method which employs a collision-trend index and a propagating interface model to perform mobile robot navigation is presented in this paper. To simplify the mathematical representation and geometrical approximation, all the objects in the workspace are modeled as ellipses. Using a series of geometrical transformations between the ellipses, which represent the mobile robot and obstacles, the computational complexity of collision detection in trajectory planning can be reduced tremendously. To keep the front propagating in the normal direction with positive propagating speed, the collision-trend index plays an important role in determining the propagating speed for a front over workspace. The index is obtained by mapping the geometrical relationship between the ellipses into the profile of a Gaussian distribution. Several simulations to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method are given. The results reveal that the proposed method is always able to generate an optimal collision-free trajectory for a mobile robot navigating in an environment with dynamic and static obstacles.


Letters to the Editor


49.6.13    Rong-Jong Wai, "Development of new training algorithms for neuro-wavelet systems on the robust control of induction servo motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1323- 1341, Dec 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A robust wavelet neural network control (RWNNC) system is proposed to control the rotor position of an induction servo motor drive in this paper. In the proposed RWNNC system, a wavelet neural network controller is the main tracking controller that is used to mimic a computed torque control law, and a robust controller is designed to recover the residual approximation for ensuring the stable control performance. Moreover, to relax the requirement for a known bound on lumped uncertainty, which comprises a minimum approximation error, optimal network parameters and higher order terms in a Taylor series expansion of the wavelet functions, an RWNNC system with adaptive bound estimation was investigated for the control of an induction servo motor drive. In this control system, a simple adaptive algorithm was utilized to estimate the bound on lumped uncertainty. In addition, numerical simulation and experimental results due to periodic commands show that the dynamic behaviors of the proposed control systems are robust with regard to parameter variations and external load disturbance.

49.6.14    C.C. Chan, Zheng Ming Zhao, C. Qian, S. Meng, "Comparisons of PWM and one-cycle control for power amplifier with multilevel converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1342- 1344, Dec 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Based on the concepts of cascade multilevel converters and one-cycle technique, comparisons are conducted to characterize the distortion of the pulsewidth modulation (PWM) and one-cycle control methods that were applied to converters. Simulation results for the different control schemes are obtained in PSIM software initially to see the effect of one-cycle control different from that of PWM control. Through the comparisons, the advantages and disadvantages are identified for each method. The one-cycle scheme is better than PWM control in reducing undesirable harmonics and tracing dynamic waveforms. Simulation and experimental results are also provided to verify the conclusions.

49.6.15    C. Mademlis, N. Margaris, "Loss minimization in vector-controlled interior permanent-magnet synchronous motor drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1344- 1347, Dec 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An efficiency optimization method for vector-controlled interior permanent-magnet synchronous motor drives is presented. Based on theoretical analysis, a loss minimization condition that determines the optimal d-axis component of the armature current is derived. Selected experimental results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

49.6.16    "Author Index," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1348- 1353, Dec 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

49.6.17    "Subject Index," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1353- 1371, Dec 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 50,  Number 1, Feb 2003           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




                Special Sections on Soft Computing techniques for Intelligent Vehicle Systems

50.1.1    S. Kwong, Yaochu Jin, "Guest editorial," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 2- 3, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

50.1.2    M. Wada, Kang Sup Yoon, H. Hashimoto, "Development of advanced parking assistance system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 4- 17, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper is the first to apply a multilevel driver assistance system in the development of a system to aid in the parking process. The development of this system is described within the iCAN (intelligent car navigation systems) project framework. A parking assistance system, parking administration system, and employed sensor system are described. The general architecture of a driver assistance system based on path planning and human-machine interface (HMI) modules is proposed. The paper follows describing the parking assistance system development using this architecture. The parking possibility region-based path-planning method proposed for implementing the proposed architecture is described, as is the design of the system's HMI. A prototype of the parking assistance system based on the proposed architecture was constructed. The adopted hardware, software, and implementation solutions in this prototype construction are described. Finally, the results of lane and row parking experiments conducted using the prototype system are shown.

50.1.3    A. Broggi, M. Cellario, P. Lombardi, M. Porta, "An evolutionary approach to visual sensing for vehicle navigation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 18- 29, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an evolutionary approach able to process a digital image and detect tracks left by preceding vehicles on ice and snow in Antarctica. Biologically inspired by a colony of ants able to interact and cooperate to determine the shortest path to the food, this approach is based on autonomous agents moving along the image pixels and iteratively improving an initial coarse solution. The unfriendly Antarctic environment makes this image analysis problem extremely challenging, since light reflections, abruptly varying brightness conditions, and different terrain slopes must be considered as well. The ant-based approach is compared to a more traditional Hough-based solution and the results are discussed.

50.1.4    Jae Weon Choi, Tae Hyun Fang, S. Kwong, Young Ho Kim, "Remote-controlled platoon merging via coder-estimator sequence algorithm for a communication network," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 30- 36, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a platoon-merging control system is considered as a remotely located system with a state represented by a stochastic process. In this system, it is common to encounter situations where a single decision maker controls a large number of subsystems, and observation and control signals are sent over a communication channel with finite capacity and significant transmission delays. Unlike a classical estimation problem where the observation is a continuous process corrupted by additive noise, there is a constraint that the observation must be coded and transmitted over a digital communication channel with finite capacity. A recursive coder-estimator sequence is a state estimation scheme based on observations transmitted with finite communication capacity constraint. In this paper, we introduce a stochastic model for the lead vehicle in a platoon of vehicles in a lane considering the angle between the road surface and a horizontal plane as a stochastic process. In order to merge two platoons, the lead vehicle of the following platoon is controlled by a remote control station. Using the coder-estimator sequence, the remote control station designs the feedback controller. The simulation results show that the inter-vehicle distance and the deviation from the desired inter-vehicle distance are well regulated.

50.1.5    Hyeongcheol Lee, M. Tomizuka, "Adaptive vehicle traction force control for intelligent vehicle highway systems (IVHSs)," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 37- 47, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper is concerned with robust longitudinal control of vehicles in intelligent vehicle highway systems by adaptive vehicle traction force control. Two different traction force controllers, adaptive fuzzy logic control and adaptive sliding-mode control, are proposed and applied to the fastest stable acceleration/deceleration and robust vehicle platooning problems. The motivation for investigating adaptive techniques arises from the unknown time-varying nature of the tire/road surface interaction that governs vehicle traction. Synchronous application of the engine or brake torques is also proposed for more stable vehicle maneuvers. The lack of controllability during braking (only one net input torque for the two control objectives, i.e., front and rear wheel slips) is partly overcome by applying auxiliary engine torque. Simulations of the two control methods are conducted using a complex nonlinear vehicle model which fully describes the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. Both controllers result in good performance under time-varying operating conditions.

50.1.6    W. Rattasiri, S.K. Halgamuge, "Computationally advantageous and stable hierarchical fuzzy systems for active suspension," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 48- 61, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new type of hierarchical fuzzy system (HFS), namely, hierarchical classifying-type fuzzy system (HCTFS), is developed and proposed in the paper. While the HCTFS enjoys the full benefits of a traditional HFS, one of which is to suppress the effects of the unwanted phenomenon, "the curse of dimensionality," it also offers one great advantage that all rule strengths are preserved when passing through subsystem layers. To demonstrate the potential of the HCTFS, computational complexity analysis will be conducted on the complete rule-base models of a conventional fuzzy system and the HCTFS. Furthermore, a methodology of stability analysis is proposed incorporating the use of the the HCTFS, providing the reader with another option of hierarchical fuzzy controller design upon stability concerns. To verify and conclude our proposal, a mathematical example and simulations are provided. In our simulated example, the the HCTFS controller incorporating the proposed stability analysis technique are applied to the active suspension system. The results obtained from the active suspension system are then discussed and compared with the results of the ideal and passive suspension systems.

50.1.7    T. Bucher, C. Curio, J. Edelbrunner, C. Igel, D. Kastrup, I. Leefken, G. Lorenz, A. Steinhage, W. von Seelen, "Image processing and behavior planning for intelligent vehicles," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 62- 75, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Since the potential of soft computing for driver assistance systems has been recognized, much effort has been spent in the development of appropriate techniques for robust lane detection, object classification, tracking, and representation of task relevant objects. For such systems in order to be able to perform their tasks the environment must be sensed by one or more sensors. Usually a complex processing, fusion, and interpretation of the sensor data is required and imposes a modular architecture for the overall system. In this paper, we present specific approaches considering the main components of such systems. We concentrate on image processing as the main source of relevant object information, representation and fusion of data that might arise from different sensors, and behavior planning and generation as a basis for autonomous driving. Within our system components most paradigms of soft computing are employed; in this article we focus on Kalman filtering for sensor fusion, neural field dynamics for behavior generation, and evolutionary algorithms for optimization of parts of the system.

50.1.8    G.G. Rigatos, "Fuzzy stochastic automata for intelligent vehicle control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 76- 79, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Fuzzy stochastic automata (FSA) are proposed for the control of autonomous vehicles. FSA merge the concept of sliding-mode control with fuzzy logic and have interesting robustness properties. Sufficient conditions for the convergence of the FSA control are provided.


Drive Control


50.1.9    J. Rodriguez, L. Moran, J. Pontt, P. Correa, C. Silva, "A high-performance vector control of an 11-level inverter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 80- 85, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a switching strategy for multilevel cascade inverters, based on the space-vector theory. The proposed high-performance strategy generates a voltage vector across the load with minimum error with respect to the sinusoidal reference. In addition, it generates very low harmonic distortion operating with reduced switching frequency, without the use of traditional sinusoidal pulsewidth modulation techniques or more sophisticated vector modulation methods.

50.1.10    Y. Fujimoto, T. Sekiguchi, "Fault-tolerant configuration of distributed discrete controllers," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 86- 93, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a fault-tolerant configuration for a multiple discrete control system. The distributed control nodes, such as programmable logic controllers, communicate over networks. The design methodology of an additional redundant controller using Galois field and an error-detecting code is proposed. The proposed method is implemented and tested on distributed controllers connected on a network. It is shown that the system is functional even if one of the controllers fails. From a reliability analysis, it is also shown that the proposed design method drastically improves the mean time to failure of the discrete control system.

50.1.11    J.Y. Hung, "Feedback control with Posicast," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 94- 99, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An alternative way to use Posicast to damp oscillations in lightly damped control systems is proposed in this paper. Specifically, it is suggested that the Posicast technique be used within a feedback system, instead of the classical feedforward configuration. There are many types of Posicast, but discussion and analysis are focused here on the classical "half-cycle" Posicast form. Theoretical analysis and a design example are used to compare classical Posicast and the proposed feedback control method. An experimental result from a power converter application is also presented.

50.1.12    Chongming Qiao, K.M. Smedley, "Unified constant-frequency integration control of three-phase standard bridge boost rectifiers with power-factor correction," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 100- 107, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a three-phase six-switch standard boost rectifier with unity-power-factor correction is investigated. A general equation is derived that relates the input phase voltages, output DC voltage, and duty ratios of the switches in continuous conduction mode. Based on one of the solutions and using one-cycle control, a unified constant-frequency integration controller for PFC is proposed. For the standard bridge boost rectifier, a unity power factor and low total harmonic distortion can be realized in all three phases with a simple circuit that is composed of one integrator with reset along with several flips-flops, comparators, and some logic and linear components. It does not require multipliers and three-phase voltage sensors, which are required in many other control approaches. In addition, it employs constant-switching-frequency modulation that is desirable for industrial applications. The proposed control approach is simple and reliable. All findings are supported by experiments.

50.1.13    Qi Hao, Ruifeng Chen, Guoxiao Guo, Shixin Chen, Teck Seng Low, "A gradient-based track-following controller optimization for hard disk drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 108- 115, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a gradient-based parameter optimization method to find the optimal compensator that minimizes the standard deviation (/spl sigma//sub PES/) of the position error signal (PES) in a hard disk drive servo system. By using the plant response data and the PES gradient information based on the nominal plant model, optimal digital controllers that minimized the 3/spl sigma//sub PES/ of a plant with uncertainty were selected within a pre-found robust stable region. As a result, an optimal track-following controller that minimized the standard deviation of the measured PES (/spl sigma//sub PESm/) was able to be obtained without the prior knowledge of the disturbance and noise model. Furthermore, we proved that if the measurement noise is white, an optimal controller that minimizes the 3/spl sigma//sub PESm/ also minimizes the 3/spl sigma//sub PES/. Both simulation and implementation results suggest that such a gradient-based search process is faster than nongradient optimization methods such as random neighborhood search and genetic algorithms.

50.1.14    Yeong-Chau Kuo, Tsorng-Juu Liang, Jiann-Fuh Chen, "A high-efficiency single-phase three-wire photovoltaic energy conversion system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 116- 122, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A single-phase three-wire photovoltaic energy conversion system with single-stage structure using a novel maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is presented. An equivalent model of the proposed system is derived to analyze the characteristics of the system and to design the controller. Owing to the linear relation of the PV array parameters versus insolation, the model is easy to analyze. The proposed system employs a three-leg inverter to control the MPPT process, the line current, and neutral line current. A current-controlled MPPT algorithm controls the MPPT. A neutral line-mode controller maintains a utility neutral line current of zero. A line-mode controller controls the line current so as to provide power to the utility with a unity power factor. The proposed system acts as a solar generator on sunny days and functions as an active power filter on rainy days. Computer simulation and experimental results demonstrate the accuracy and the superior performance of the proposed technique.

50.1.15    S.Z. Jiang, K.T. Chau, C.C. Chan, "Spectral analysis of a new six-phase pole-changing induction motor drive for electric vehicles," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 123- 131, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new six-phase pole-changing induction motor drive is proposed to extend the constant-power operating range for electric vehicle application. The double Fourier series is newly employed to analyze the spectra of the motor phase voltage and current. Consequently, the harmonic expression of the inverter DC-link current can be derived. In order to reduce the DC-link harmonics, a new sinusoidal pulsewidth-modulation strategy is developed for the proposed six-phase inverter. Experimental results, particularly the spectra of the phase current and the DC-link current, are given to verify the theoretical analysis.

50.1.16    Youhao Xi, P.K. Jain, "A forward converter topology employing a resonant auxiliary circuit to achieve soft switching and power transformer resetting," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 132- 140, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a forward converter topology that employs a small resonant auxiliary circuit. The advantages of the proposed topology include soft switching in both the main and auxiliary switches, recovery of the leakage inductance energy, simplified power transformer achieving self-reset without using the conventional reset winding, simple gate drive and control circuit, etc. Steady-state analysis is performed herein, and a design procedure is presented for general applications. A 35-75-Vdc to 5 Vdc 100-W prototype converter switched at a frequency of 200 kHz is built to verify the design, and 90% overall efficiency has been obtained experimentally at full load.


Power Electronics


50.1.17    O. Dranga, B. Buti, I. Nagy, "Stability analysis of a feedback-controlled resonant DC-DC converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 141- 152, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper reports on the stability analysis of one member of a dual-channel resonant DC-DC converter family. The study is confined to the buck configuration in symmetrical operation. The output voltage of the converter is controlled by a closed loop applying constant-frequency pulsewidth modulation. The dynamic analysis reveals that a bifurcation cascade develops as a result of increasing the loop gain. The trajectory of the variable-structure piecewise-linear nonlinear system pierces through the Poincare plane at the fixed point in state space when the loop gain is small. For stability criterion the positions of the characteristic multipliers of the Jacobian matrix belonging to the Poincare map function defined around the fixed point located in the Poincare plane is applied. In addition to the stability analysis, a bifurcation diagram is developed showing the four possible states of the feedback loop: the periodic, the quasi-periodic, the subharmonic, and the chaotic states. Simulation and test results verify the theory.

50.1.18    L. Harnefors, M. Febsson, R. Ottersten, K. Pietilainen, "Unified sensorless vector control of synchronous and induction motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 153- 160, Jan 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a unified theory for sensorless flux estimation and vector control of induction motors and nonsalient permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) is developed. It is shown that an estimator and vector controller for one of the motor types can also be applied to the other, with only minor modifications necessary. Two candidate estimators are considered: a variant of the well-known "voltage model" (VM) and a phase-locked-loop-type speed and position estimator. These are applied to both motor types, and evaluated experimentally. For the nonsalient PMSM, an important result is that synchronization can be guaranteed from any initial rotor position.

50.1.19    D. Rivas, L. Moran, J.W. Dixon, J.R. Espinoza, "Improving passive filter compensation performance with active techniques," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 161- 170, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the performance analysis of a hybrid filter composed of passive and active filters connected in series. The analysis is done by evaluating the influence of passive filter parameters variations and the effects that different active power filter's gain have in the compensation performance of the hybrid scheme. The compensation performance is quantified by evaluating the attenuation factor in a power distribution system energizing high-power nonlinear loads compensated with passive filters and then improved with the connection of a series active power filter. Finally, compensation characteristics of the hybrid topology are tested on a 10-kVA experimental setup.

50.1.20    K.K. Tse, R.W.-M. Ng, H.S.-H. Chung, S.Y.R. Hui, "An evaluation of the spectral characteristics of switching converters with chaotic carrier-frequency modulation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 171- 182, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an evaluation of the spectral characteristics of switching converters with a chaotic carrier-frequency modulation scheme (CCFMS). By incorporating a Chua's circuit (CC) into the pulsewidth modulator for driving the switches, three modulation schemes, including the standard pulsewidth modulation scheme, periodic carrier-frequency modulation scheme, and CCFMS, can be realized with the CC in equilibrium, limit cycle, and chaos, respectively. The property of frequency spreading in CCFMS is studied by using a statistical analysis method. The developed model is applied to formulate the power spectral densities of the input current and the output voltage of the three basic DC/DC converters under CCFMS. Theoretical predictions are verified with experimental measurements.

50.1.21    R. Prieto, J.A. Cobos, O. Garcia, P. Alou, J. Uceda, "Study of 3-D magnetic components by means of "double 2-D" methodology," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 183- 192, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The magnetic field in many magnetic components, namely toroids and EE cores, has a three-dimensional (3-D) distribution. Energy and losses calculation in these particular structures makes necessary the use of 3-D techniques that accounts for all 3-D effects. The calculation of the energy and losses is needed in order to obtain any transformer model. This paper presents a procedure that allows the calculation of energy and losses in 3-D structures using two-dimensional (2-D) approaches. This procedure accounts for 3-D effects, solving each magnetic component by means of two different analyses but using 2-D finite-element analysis (FEA) solvers instead of 3-D. The main advantages of this procedure are that all geometrical and frequency effects are taken into account using 2-D FEA solvers. 3-D FEA solvers are not applicable to analyze most practical cases because of the complexity in the geometry. Therefore, the use of this method is not only advantageous from the point of view of time reduction, but also it is a solution for many cases where 3-D solvers are not a feasible solution. Some experimental results illustrate the application of the methodology, which is especially useful to study the influence of the winding strategy in toroidal structures and to design integrated magnetics in order to adjust the coupling coefficient between each pair of windings before the component construction.


Emerging Technology


50.1.22    O. Kuljaca, N. Swamy, F.L. Lewis, C.M. Kwan, "Design and implementation of industrial neural network controller using backstepping," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 193- 201, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a novel neural network (NN) backstepping controller is modified for application to an industrial motor drive system. A control system structure and NN tuning algorithms are presented that are shown to guarantee stability and performance of the closed-loop system. The NN backstepping controller is implemented on an actual motor drive system using a two-PC control system developed at The University of Texas at Arlington. The implementation results show that the NN backstepping controller is highly effective in controlling the industrial motor drive system. It is also shown that the NN controller gives better results on actual systems than a standard backstepping controller developed assuming full knowledge of the dynamics. Moreover, the NN controller does not require the linear-in-the-parameters assumption or the computation of regression matrices required by standard backstepping.

50.1.23    Yaow-Ming Chen, "Passive filter design using genetic algorithms," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 202- 207, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to propose a new approach for designing a passive LC filter of the full-bridge rectifier by using genetic algorithms (GAs). The performance of the cost-effective passive LC filter for a constant load depends on the appropriate inductor and capacitor selection. Several design methods are reviewed and a novel design methodology using GAs is proposed in this paper. By using the proposed GA program, designer can quickly find appropriate parameter values to meet the desired circuit performance. Experimental results show that an appropriate combination of the inductor and capacitor selected by the proposed GA program can meet the desired power quality requirement. Different cases of design examples are shown in this paper to verify the performance of the proposed design methodology.

50.1.24    Chin-Der Wey, Tai-Lang Jong, Ching-Tsai Pan, "Design and analysis of an SLPT-based CCFL driver," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 208- 217, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a single-layer piezoelectric-transformer (SLPT)-based driver is realized for driving a cold-cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL). First, a half-bridge resonant inverter is adopted for driving the SLPT and the CCFL to achieve zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) effect. In addition, a PQ-plane-design-oriented approach is presented for determining the power circuit parameters. Second, a feedback controller is proposed to match the power circuit control requirement. The feedback controller provides the proper switching frequency for the drive to be operated at the most efficient frequency. In addition, functions of dimming control and no-load protection are also available from the controller. Third, a small-signal model is derived and the closed-loop stability analysis is made to guarantee the stable tracking of the command signal of the controller. Finally, a hardware prototype is also constructed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed driver.

50.1.25    Rong-Jong Wai, "Development of intelligent position control system using optimal design technique," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 218- 231, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper addresses the application of an intelligent optimal control system (IOCS) to control an indirect field-oriented induction servo motor drive for tracking periodic commands via a wavelet neural network. With the field orientation mechanism, the dynamic behavior of an induction motor is rather similar to a linear system. However, the uncertainties, such as mechanical parametric variation, external load disturbance and unmodeled dynamics in practical applications, influence the designed control performance seriously. Therefore, an IOCS is proposed to confront these uncertainties existing in the control of the induction servo motor drive. The control laws for the IOCS are derived in the sense of the optimal control technique and Lyapunov stability theorem, so that system-tracking stability can be guaranteed in the closed-loop system. With the proposed IOCS, the controlled induction servo motor drive possesses the advantages of good tracking control performance and robustness to uncertainties under wide operating ranges. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is verified by both simulated and experimental results. Moreover, the advantages of the proposed control system are indicated in comparison with the sliding-mode control system.

50.1.26    P. Baranyi, Yeung Yam, A.R. Varkonyi-Koczy, R.J. Patton, "SVD-based reduction to MISO TS models," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 232- 242, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to expound the singular-value-decomposition (SVD)-based reduction technique proposed to single-input-single-output Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy models to multivariable cases. The use of higher order singular value decomposition is proposed in this paper for the complexity reduction of multiple-input-single-output TS fuzzy model approximation. A detailed illustrative example of a nonlinear dynamic model is also discussed.

50.1.27    Yen Ju Wang, R.M. O'Connell, "Experimental evaluation of a novel switch control scheme for an active power line conditioner," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 243- 246, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Measurements on an experimental active power line conditioner with a novel switch control scheme for the neural network controller, called "fixed-frequency with variable slope" control, are described. The results agree with simulations and show that the new system is a simple yet effective approach to line current harmonic compensation.


Letters to the Editor


50.1.28    Chung-Ming Young, Chao-Cheng Wu, Chih-Hua Lu, "Constant-switching-frequency control of three-phase/switch/level boost-type rectifiers without current sensors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 246- 248, Feb 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new control scheme for a three-phase/switch/level boost-type rectifier is proposed. The digital-signal-processor-based controller decouples the rectifier into a cascade-connected dual-boost topology within each 60/spl deg/ interval of the line cycle. By taking advantage of the simple structure and that no current sensors are required, it provides an effective solution to applications where high power/low -cost are concerned.

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 50,  Number 2, April 2003           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




                 Drive Control

50.2.1    D. Telford, M.W. Dunnigan, B.W. Williams, "Online identification of induction machine electrical parameters for vector control loop tuning," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 253- 261, April 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In a vector-controlled induction machine drive, accurate knowledge of the machine electrical parameters is required to ensure correct alignment of the stator current vector relative to the rotor flux vector, to decouple the fluxand torque-producing currents and to tune the current control loops. This paper presents a new method for online identification of the induction machine parameters required to tune a rotor-flux-oriented (RFO) vector control scheme. Accuracy of the slip frequency estimation required for RFO vector control is achieved by utilizing the parameter independent "flux pulse" rotor time constant estimation scheme, which utilizes short-duration pulses injected into the flux-producing current. The parameters required to tune the synchronous frame current control loops with a decoupling circuit are estimated using a recursive estimation scheme derived from the synchronous frame voltage equations. As the "flux pulse" scheme requires signal injection into the flux-producing current a new rotor time constant estimation scheme is presented, based on the sensitivity analysis of the recursive parameter estimation scheme. Simulation and experimental results are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of the online parameter identification and control loop tuning technique.

50.2.2    J. Faiz, S.H. Mohseni-Zonoozi, "A novel technique for estimation and control of stator flux of a salient-pole PMSM in DTC method based on MTPF," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 262- 271, April 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A permanent-magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) can be controlled using the direct torque control (DTC) technique in three different ways, i.e., by controlling flux, reactive torque and rotor d-axis current. Frequently, the DTC technique controls the speed of the motor by controlling stator flux with the aim of obtaining an optimal torque. A varying flux, proportional to the torque, may be used instead of a fixed flux, resulting in a maximum torque per ampere or maximum torque per flux (MTPF). In this paper, a reference-flux-generating method is followed to achieve the MTPF. An approximate equation is then derived using numerical techniques in order to obtain the reference flux from the torque. This equation is then applied to the DTC control system in order to obtain the reference flux. The control scheme has been verified by simulation and tests on a salient-pole permanent-magnet synchronous motor.

50.2.3    Wai-Chuen Gan, Li Qiu, "Design and analysis of a plug-in robust compensator: an application to indirect-field-oriented-control induction machine drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 272- 282, April 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: It is well known that the system performance for an indirect-field-oriented-control induction motor drive degrades under the variation of rotor resistance and in the presence of external load torque. In this paper, a plug-in robust compensator for speed and position control enhancement of an indirect-field-oriented-control induction machine drive is developed. In the case where a controller for the induction machine already exists or is in operation with satisfactory nominal tracking performance, this plug-in compensator, designed using the H/sub /spl infin// loop-shaping techniques, can be plugged into the existing controller without affecting the already satisfactory nominal tracking performance of the existing closed-loop system but with the capability to improve the system performance under plant parameter variations and in the presence of external disturbances. Simulation and experimental results are given to validate the proposed plug-in robust compensator.

50.2.4    J. Luukko, M. Niemela, J. Pyrhonen, "Estimation of the flux linkage in a direct-torque-controlled drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 283- 287, April 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An improved integration method is presented for the estimation of the stator flux linkage for speed- and position-sensorless direct-torque-controlled AC machine drives. The method is based on monitoring the scalar product of the estimated stator flux linkage and the measured stator current. The AC part of the scalar product is extracted using filtering and the correction for the estimated stator flux linkage is formed from that part. Adequate performance is obtained by using simple low-pass filtering. By using adaptive filtering in the extraction, the performance of the drive is excellent. Both simulation and laboratory test results are presented, which show that the presented method works well both in steady state and in transients.

50.2.5    Zhiqian Chen, M. Tomita, S. Doki, S. Okuma, "An extended electromotive force model for sensorless control of interior permanent-magnet synchronous motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 288- 295, April 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: During the last decade, many sensorless control methods have been proposed for surface permanent-magnet synchronous motors (SPMSMs) based on the estimation of electromotive force (EMF) in which the motor's position information is contained. However, these methods cannot be applied to interior PMSMs (IPMSMs) directly, because the position information is contained in not only the EMF, but also the inductance of stators. In this paper, a new mathematical model for IPMSMs is proposed and an extended EMF is defined, which includes both position information from the EMF and the stator inductance. By using the newly proposed model, sensorless controls proposed for SPMSMs can easily be applied to IPMSMs. As an example, a disturbance observer is studied and the experimental results show that the proposed method on the proposed model is very effective.

50.2.6    G.G. Yen, Liang-Wei Ho, "Online multiple-model-based fault diagnosis and accommodation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 296- 312, April 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: While most research attention has been focused on fault detection and diagnosis, much less research effort has been devoted to failure accommodation. Due to the inherent complexity of nonlinear systems, most model-based analytical redundancy fault diagnosis and accommodation (FDA) studies deal with the linear systems, which are subjected to simple additive or multiplicative faults. This assumption has limited the effectiveness and usefulness in practical applications. In this paper, the online fault accommodation (FA) control problems under multiple catastrophic or incipient failures are investigated. The main interest is focused on dealing with the unanticipated component failures in the most general formulation. Through discrete-time Lyapunov stability theory, the sufficient conditions to guarantee the system online stability and to meet performance criteria under failures are derived. A systematic procedure for proper FA under the unanticipated failures is developed. The approach is to combine the control technique derived from discrete-time Lyapunov theory with the modern intelligent technique that is capable of self-optimization and online adaptation for real-time failure estimation. In addition, a complete architecture of FDA is proposed by incorporating the intelligent fault tolerant control strategy with a cost-effective fault detection scheme and a multiple-model based failure diagnosis process to efficiently handle the false alarms and the accommodation of both the anticipated and unanticipated failures in online situations. The simulation results, including a three-tank benchmark problem, substantiate the feasibility study of the proposed FDA framework and provide a promising potential to spin-off applications in industrial and aerospace engineering.

50.2.7    M. Salo, H. Tuusa, "A novel open-loop control method for a current-source active power filter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 313- 321, April 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new control system for a current-source active power filter. The harmonic current compensation is realized using only a feedforward control of the load currents. The LC filter resonance of the converter is damped in an open-loop manner using the dynamic equations of the supply filter. The benefits of the proposed control system are that it is simple and straightforward, the number of measurements and sensors can be minimized, and also that the LC filter size can be optimized according to proper harmonic distortion level of the supply currents without care about the stability issues of the closed-loop system. This usually leads to reduction of the filter size. Also, the changes in fundamental current components of the active filter can be effectively realized when the active power filter can also be used as a fast reactive power compensator. The control system also includes the calculation delay compensation of the digital control system. The control system is realized using a single-chip Motorola MPC555 microcontroller. The tests with the prototype show effective current harmonic compensating performance of the nonlinear loads.


Power Electronics


50.2.8    O. Garcia, M.D. Martinez-Avial, J.A. Cobos, J. Uceda, J. Gonzalez, J.A. Navas, "Harmonic reducer converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 322- 327, April 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new strategy to accomplish low-frequency Regulation EN 61000-3-2 at system level is proposed in this paper. By means of a simple converter, connected in parallel with the loads, the harmonic currents generated by them are greatly reduced, it being unnecessary to include additional power-factor-correction converters. This approach is based on the well-known parallel active power filters, but the difference is that it is placed on the DC side. Its position, at the rectified line voltage, produces some important advantages such as a simple power stage, a simple analog control, and flexibility in the design of the system. Moreover, this converter features high efficiency and small size. The experimental results show the benefits of this solution.

50.2.9    Sangsun Kim, P.N. Enjeti, "A modular single-phase power-factor-correction scheme with a harmonic filtering function," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 328- 335, April 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Power supply systems in telecommunication applications employ several parallel-connected AC-to-DC and DC-to-DC power converters. Such a system offers modularity, redundancy, and is easily scalable to higher power levels. Such parallel-connected systems normally consist of several single-phase power-factor-correction (PFC) stages connected to the same input utility. In this paper, a modular single-phase PFC scheme with an integrated harmonic filtering function is presented. The proposed approach demonstrates that, with suitable modifications to the PFC control, harmonic filtering capability can be added. In other words, the PFC stage can compensate for harmonics generated by other rectifier loads connected to the same AC input terminals. The paper presents an example employing three AC-DC rectifier stages with only one AC-DC rectifier stage with PFC capability. It is shown that one PFC stage with the proposed control can compensate for harmonics generated by the other two uncompensated rectifier stages. Results from a laboratory prototype system demonstrate that the overall system meets the EN 61000-3-2 harmonic limits.

50.2.10    Chien-Ming Wang, Guan-Chyun Hsieh, "Nonlinear-control strategy for the half-bridge series-resonant inverter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 336- 348, April 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper concerns the analysis and design of the half-bridge series-resonant inverter with nonlinear-control strategy. A zero-current-switching (ZCS) half-bridge series-resonant inverter with nonlinear control is built. The presented circuit topology is simply configured by two power switches and one output filter. Only one conduction loss of the power switch is present in the power flow path during the inversion period. A turn-on ZCS for the power switch is achieved by an auxiliary resonant cell built before the output choke. The nonlinear-control strategy is designed against the input DC perturbation and achieves good dynamic regulation for the sinusoidal pulsewidth-modulation control. A state-space averaging approach is employed to analyze the system. A design example of a 500-W inverter is examined to assess the inverter performance and it provides high power efficiency above 91% under the rated power.

50.2.11    Hee-Jhung Park, Myung-Joong Youn, "A new time-domain discontinuous space-vector PWM technique in overmodulation region," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 349- 355, April 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new discontinuous modulation method based on space-vector control is proposed and analyzed. The proposed technique employs a pulse-dropping method and is designed in the time domain. It features a very wide modulation range while maintaining the required waveform qualities and switching numbers in the overmodulation region. Since the modulation method and modulation index equation are simple, the proposed technique can be easily implemented by software and is applicable to the overmodulation region in ac motor drives. The performance indexes are discussed and experiments have been performed.

50.2.12    M. Ochiai, H. Matsuo, "An AC/DC converter with high power factor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 356- 361, April 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The television receiver often employs a capacitor-input-type rectifier. In this case, it is regulated as a class D piece of equipment. This paper presents a novel ringing-choke-converter-type switching regulator, which functions as an active filter. The proposed circuit features a simple circuit configuration and cost effectiveness. It achieves a high power factor of about 0.95 and reduces current harmonics (third, fifth, and seventh) in the AC input current to less than 40% of the limit value for class D. The voltage across the input smoothing capacitor does not show large variations and the components in the conventional ringing-choke converter can be used unmodified. Ripple content of the DC output voltage shows a slight increase and is the subject for future research.

50.2.13    P.J.C. Branco, J.A. Dente, R.V. Mendes, "Using immunology principles for fault detection," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 362- 373, April 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The immune system is a cognitive system of complexity comparable to the brain and its computational algorithms suggest new solutions to engineering problems or new ways of looking at these problems. Using immunological principles, a two- (or three-) module algorithm is developed which is capable of launching a specific response to an anomalous situation for diagnostic purposes. Experimental results concerning fault detection in an induction motor are presented as an example illustrating how the immune-based system operates, discussing its capabilities, drawbacks, and future developments.


Emerging Technology


50.2.14    Oui-Serg Kim, Sang-Ho Lee, Dong-Chul Han, "Positioning performance and straightness error compensation of the magnetic levitation stage supported by the linear magnetic bearing," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 374- 378, April 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper reports high-precision motion control at the target position and the offline compensation of the straightness error occurring during the motion of the magnetically levitated stage supported by the linear magnetic bearing. The linear magnetic bearing is composed of electromagnets and sensors in the same module to enable easy maintenance and to reduce the machining error, and the conventional linear quadratic Gaussian control is adopted for the motion control of the stage. The test results show that the stage can compensate the straightness error precisely, so that it is expected that this stage can be applied to high-precision linear motion applications.

50.2.15    Ki-Hyeon Park, Dong Eon Kim, Seong-Hoon Jeong, Bongkoo Kang, "Laminated magnetic flux sensor for thick-steel-plate control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 379- 384, April 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a rugged magnetic flux sensor, which can measure the thickness of steel plates and can operate reliably in the poor environment of a warehouse for thick steel plates. The sensor, consisting of a laminated sensing plate and a sensing coil, has a size of 6/spl times/6 cm/sup 2/, and it is embedded inside the core of a lifting magnet. Depending on the thickness of steel plates attached on the lifting magnet, the magnetic permeability of the core and the sensing plate changes. The thickness of steel plates is indirectly measured by measuring the changes in the magnetic flux density of the sensor. The measurement sensitivity of the magnetic flux sensor with laminated sensing plate is much better than that of a sensor with a solid sensing plate. With a proper procedure for securing measurement reliability, it is demonstrated that the sensor can measure up to 13 sheets of 6-mm steel plate.

50.2.16    Kao-Shing Hwang, Ming-Yi Ju, Yu-Jen Chen, "Speed alteration strategy for multijoint robots in co-working environment," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 385- 393, April 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A collision-free trajectory planning method based on speed alternation strategy for multijoint manipulators in overlapped working envelopes is proposed. Since the shape of a robot's link is usually rectangular or cylindrical approximately, the proposed method models a robot's link mathematically by quadric primitives, such as ellipsoids and spheres. The occurrence of collisions between links can be predicted easily by means of relative coordinate transformations and geometric deformations between those ellipsoids. Furthermore, the collision-trend index which is defined by projecting the ellipsoids geometrically onto the Gaussian distribution plays a significant role in searching the optimal resolution in the proposed collision-avoidance method. Experiments with two Motoman robots from the YASUKAWAI Company are conducted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed methods.


Robotics and Vision


50.2.17    M. Ghone, M. Schubert, J.R. Wagner, "Development of a mechatronics laboratory-eliminating barriers to manufacturing instrumentation and control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 394- 397, April 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The integration of electronics, sensors, actuators, and microprocessor technology into manufacturing processes and consumer products is requiring engineers to possess greater mechatronics knowledge. Students must be encouraged to embrace a mechatronics perspective through combined classroom and "hands-on" laboratory activities to develop critical systems skills for multidisciplinary teams. In this paper, laboratory experiments and their accompanying learning objectives are introduced and discussed which highlight key industrial technologies and establish a foundation for skill achievement.


Letters to the Editor


50.2.18    Moon-Sik Lee, Yong-Hoon Kim, "An efficient multitarget tracking algorithm for car applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 397- 399, April 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new and efficient tracking algorithm for vehicle collision warning and collision avoidance systems using car radar is proposed. The target-to-measurement data association is accomplished using the decision logic algorithm based on order statistics. The simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate its performance.

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 50,  Number 3, June 2003           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




                 Special Sections on Industrial Informatics

50.3.1    A.C. Weaver, "Guest editorial," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 402- 403, June 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

50.3.2    A.C. Weaver, M.W. Condry, "Distributing Internet services to the network's edge," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 404- 411, June 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the context of industrial information technology, the Internet and World Wide Web increasingly are seen as a solution to the problem of providing "anywhere, anytime" services. In the classical view of an Internet-enabled IT infrastructure, services are requested and consumed by a user (e.g., a human requesting plant production data from his or her desktop) and data are provided by an origin server (e.g., a Web server located in a plant that can authenticate users, implement encryption, serve data, and source multimedia streams). This rather simplistic view works well if the number of users is small, the complexity of services required is modest, and the real-time response requirements are lax. However, it fails to scale when one accounts for the complexities of modern networking: many simultaneous users, potentially operating in multiple languages; many complex data types, including incompatible display formats; many differing schemes for implementing privacy and security through many combinations of authentication and encryption. In this paper we propose an alternative-a client/edge server/origin server architecture that can distribute some complex data processing and device interface tasks to a network edge device, the NetEdge. We show how this device can support services thought to be useful to the industrial environment, such as language translation, image transcoding, access device adaptation, virus scanning, content assembly, local content insertion, and caching. The proposal is a win-win situation for all participants: industrial content providers need maintain only one copy of their content, yet consumers are provided with richer services and device-independent interfaces. Although the services provided define the utility of the product, the heart of the NetEdge is its rule engine. Rules specify which service requests, crossing specified processing points, invoke which service callouts. We explore how a proxylet interface connects the rule engine, through Java and C APIs, to the callout engine. We close with performance measurements of the NetEdge throughput and latency characteristics.

50.3.3    A. Speck, "Reusable industrial control systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 412- 418, June 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Industrial control hardware may be reused for several purposes. The same industrial PC type may control the drives of a portal system, act as a programmable logic controller, or control any other device. Moreover the same piece of hardware may control different device types at the same time in concurrency. In this paper, we discuss four successive software engineering approaches to exploit the possibilities provided by the control hardware: an object-oriented architecture, an architectural pattern, a control framework, and an architectural model for component-based frameworks. Each of these approaches provides means of different levels to structure a system and to reuse concepts, patterns, or real code. All presented approaches are used to build control systems controlling different types of robot arms and other devices. Additionally, in the component-based system a new component has been introduced to enable a network connection of the control system.

50.3.4    G. Cena, A. Valenzano, "A protocol for automatic node discovery in CANopen networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 419- 430, June 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The correct operation of the CANopen protocol relies on the assumption that each node in the network be identified uniquely. To this extent, the CANopen specifications provide a means to remotely configure the addresses of the slave devices attached to the CAN bus. This technique, however, requires that each device has to be connected separately to a configuration tool. CANopen, in fact, does not have a mechanism to identify, in an efficient and reliable way, the nodes that do not have an associated address when they have already been connected to the network. In this paper, we present a new automatic node discovery protocol, which is able to eliminate such drawbacks. Our technique can be used to identify the nonconfigured nodes directly in the final system and is conceived as an extension of the basic layer setting services of CANopen, so as to provide a very good degree of compatibility with the existing devices.

50.3.5    Jin-Shyan Lee, Pau-Lo Hsu, "Remote supervisory control of the human-in-the-loop system by using Petri nets and Java," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 431- 439, June 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For Internet-based remote control systems, certain human operations may violate desired safety requirements and result in catastrophic failure. For such human-in-the-loop systems, this paper proposes a systematic approach to developing supervisory agents which guarantee that remote manual operations meet safety specifications. By applying the mutual exclusion concept, the Petri net approach is used to model, design, and verify a supervisory system which prevents human errors. Then, Java technology is adopted to implement the supervisor as an intelligent agent for online supervision of the remote control system. To demonstrate the feasibility and practicability of the developed supervisory approach, we apply it to a rapid thermal processor controlled over the Internet.

50.3.6    V.M. Sempere, J. Silvestre, "Multimedia applications in industrial networks: integration of image processing in Profibus," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 440- 448, June 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper analyzes the transmission of images through Profibus for applications concerned with the processing of images integrated in control systems, by means of a detailed study of two real cases with different bandwidth requirements. We analyze the special features of an artificial vision system making use of Profibus as a transport system, the scheduling of the traffic in order to guarantee the delivery of the images and the control traffic before their deadlines, the protocol used, and the compression techniques usable in this kind of system, which enable us to reduce the necessary bandwidth for the applications without degrading the operation of the image processing application. We prove that this integration is currently viable in applications with medium-sized bandwidth requirements, above 17 Mb/s, and coexisting with control traffic, while current control techniques prevent its use in systems with greater bandwidth requirements, in particular in the application with 53 Mb/s requirements.

50.3.7    L.H.W. Yeung, W.K.S. Tang, "A hybrid genetic approach for garment cutting in the clothing industry," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 449- 455, June 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A hybrid genetic approach is proposed for the cutting operation in the clothing industry. Garment cutting is a typical strip-packing problem, which is considered to be NP-complete. With a combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and a novel heuristic algorithm, "lowest-fit-left-aligned," the cutting problem is transformed into a simple permutation problem which can be effectively solved by the GA and the searching domain is greatly reduced. From the simulation results, it is demonstrated that the optimal results can be obtained in a reasonably short period of time.


Drive Control


50.3.8    Faa-Jeng Lin, Tzann-Shin Lee, Chih-Hong Lin, "Robust H/sub /spl infin// controller design with recurrent neural network for linear synchronous motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 456- 470, June 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a robust controller design with H/sub /spl infin// performance using a recurrent neural network (RNN) is proposed for the position tracking control of a permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor. The proposed robust H/sub /spl infin// controller, which comprises a RNN and a compensating control, is developed to reduce the influence of parameter variations and external disturbance on system performance. The RNN is adopted to estimate the dynamics of the lumped plant uncertainty, and the compensating controller is used to eliminate the effect of the higher order terms in Taylor series expansion of the minimum approximation error. The tracking performance is ensured in face of parameter variations, external disturbance and RNN estimation error once a prespecified H/sub /spl infin// performance requirement is achieved. The synthesis of the RNN training rules and compensating control are based on the solution of a nonlinear H/sub /spl infin// control problem corresponding to the desired H/sub /spl infin// performance requirement, which is solved via a choice of quadratic storage function. The proposed control method is able to track both the periodic step and sinusoidal commands with improved performance in face of large parameter perturbations and external disturbance.

50.3.9    C. Guarino Lo Bianco, R. Zanasi, "Smooth profile generation for a tile printing machine," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 471- 477, June 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a digital filter is proposed for the generation of smooth set points for motion control systems. The proposed nonlinear filter produces profiles with bounded velocity and acceleration starting from rough reference signals (steps and ramps). An actual implementation of the filter for a tile printing machine is presented and experimental results are reported.

50.3.10    X.M. Ren, A.B. Rad, P.T. Chan, Wai Lun Lo, "Identification and control of continuous-time nonlinear systems via dynamic neural networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 478- 486, June 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we present an algorithm for the online identification and adaptive control of a class of continuous-time nonlinear systems via dynamic neural networks. The plant considered is an unknown multi-input/multi-output continuous-time higher order nonlinear system. The control scheme includes two parts: a dynamic neural network is employed to perform system identification and a controller based on the proposed dynamic neural network is developed to track a reference trajectory. Stability analysis for the identification and the tracking errors is performed by means of Lyapunov stability criterion. Finally, we illustrate the effectiveness of these methods by computer simulations of the Duffing chaotic system and one-link rigid robot manipulator. The simulation results demonstrate that the model-based dynamic neural network control scheme is appropriate for control of unknown continuous-time nonlinear systems with output disturbance noise.

50.3.11    L. Romeral, A. Arias, E. Aldabas, M.G. Jayne, "Novel direct torque control (DTC) scheme with fuzzy adaptive torque-ripple reduction," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 487- 492, June 2003.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Investigations were carried out on a novel direct torque control system, which not only reduces th