IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 35,  Number 1, Feb 1988           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




35.1.1    I.L. Erickson, "Implementing a carrier-band node using VLSI," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 1-5, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: With the IEEE 802.4 token bus standard rapidly gaining acceptance because of its useful features and inclusion in the GM MAP (General Motors manufacturing automation protocol) specification, semiconductor companies are implementing this standard. A carrier-band implementation can provide a low-cost token bus node with up to 10 Mbs data rates. A carrier-band node that includes a token bus controller (TBC), carrier-band modem (CBM), host processor, and memory can be quickly and inexpensively designed using VLSI computer-aided design (CAD) techniques. One such implementation is presented. The token bus controller (TBC) implements the medium-access control (MAC) function in accordance with the IEEE 802.4 standard. The carrier-band modem (CBM) chip implements the 802.4 carrier-band physical layer. An IEEE recommended standard serial interface is used to pass information between the carrier-band modem and the token bus controller

35.1.2    H.A. Schutz, "The role of MAP in factory integration," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 6-12, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The interplay of technology and market factors surrounding the manufacturing automation protocol (MAP) is examined. A four-tier hierarchical industrial communications model is presented and MAP is positioned within it. Several events and decisions during the evolution of MAP are identified as having had unusually far-reaching effects in terms of the way MAP is being used. It is asserted that MAP will play a key role in factory-wide networking, but nonstandard networks are still widely used where standards fail to address special requirements of performance or function. The effect that the development of real-time versions of MAP-like networks will have on factory communications is described. The central issue in such real-time networks is to provide both the responsiveness required by the application and the services required for wide connectivity among devices. The impetus to embrace MAP is yielding network designs different from ones based solely on technical considerations. Two case studies are presented to discuss the technical, administrative, and economic factors surrounding early MAP usage

35.1.3    A.C. Weaver, C.F. Summers, "The IEEE token bus-A performance bound on GM MAP," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 13-17, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: All versions of the General Motors manufacturing automation protocol (GM MAP) specify that MAP's lower-layer services are to be provided by the IEEE 802.4 token bus. An understanding of 802.4 and its performance aspects is therefore a prerequisite to predicting the performance of MAP. It is shown how total bus capacity is divided among data throughput, token traffic, and propagation delays. The relative contributions of access delay and queuing delay to total message delivery time are discussed. The effects on message delivery times of message size and the number of active stations are also reported. As the token cycle time increases beyond the target rotation time for each of the asynchronous access classes, service to the lower-priority classes is curtailed; a formula that can be used to identity the offered load at which the transition from normal to curtailed service begins is presented

35.1.4    L. Ciminiera, C. Demartini, A. Valenzano, "Industrial IEEE 802.3 networks with short delivery time for urgent messages," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 18-25, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Two solutions are investigated for introducing priority mechanisms in the CSMA/CD (carrier-sense multiple access with collision detection) protocol defined in the IEEE 802.3 standard to provide short delivery times for urgent messages even when the overall traffic on the channel is heavy. Thus the CSMA/CD protocol, attractive because of its low cost, also becomes suitable for a class of industrial control applications. The proposed schemes can easily be implemented by using already-available chips and boards because they are based on the dynamic management of a transmission parameter, the slot time; this feature is already present in the standard IEEE 802.3, where it is set statically when the network is configured. The first configuration considered implements a message priority scheme, where the priority level for the station can be updated at each new message transmission, varying the slot time according to the message characteristics. The second configuration introduces a fixed-station-priority mechanism which allows each node in the network to be assigned to a specific priority class

35.1.5    R.C. Luo, "A microcomputer-based intelligent sensor for multiaxis force/torque measurement," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 26-30, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The author describes the design and implementation of a pair of sophisticated robot fingers that enable the sensing of information from three axes of force and three axes of torque using piezoresistive strain gauges as sensing elements with conversion to frequency as the output. The fingers may be mounted on a servo-controlled robot gripper and interfaced with a robot controller to serve as an active compliance device for small-part assembly tasks. This force/torque sensor with frequency output using an RC oscillation principle has demonstrated great advantages in signal conditioning and processing relative to conventional voltage output techniques. The design of robotic fingers and multiaxis force/torque sensors with signal conditioning/processing, and data acquisition with a microprocessor system are described. A description of the test results is also presented

35.1.6    K. Furuta, K. Kosuge, N. Mukai, "Control of articulated robot arm with sensory feedback: laser beam tracking system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 31-39, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method for the trajectory tracking control of an articulated robot arm using sensory feedback is presented. First, a general control algorithm for such a problem is presented. To implement sensory feedback effectively, the dynamics of a robot arm is described in the task coordinate system. Then the dynamics of the robot arm in the task coordinate system are linearized using nonlinear feedback. Because the linearization cannot be done completely because of variations and identification errors of the physical parameters of a robot arm, a robust controller is designed so that the effect of parameter variations and errors can be lessened. The control law is shown to be simplified by the use of high-gain feedback. The simplification can make the implementation of the control law very easy. The proposed algorithm is applied to the trajectory-tracking control of an articulated robot arm using a laser beam. The experiments show that the proposed algorithm works well for such a sensory feedback system

35.1.7    M. Kabuka, J. Desoto, J. Miranda, "Robot vision tracking system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 40-51, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A system designed to test a tracking theory for finding the position of an object in a scene, even when it is entering or exiting, is described. The design of a servo system used to move the camera while tracking the object is proposed. The technique involves the fundamental frequency of the Fourier transform of the vertical and horizontal projections of the image. This technique will work with stationary or moving objects as well as with a stationary or moving camera. The objective is to apply this technique to find the line between the camera and the object, such that the robot arm could follow that line until it encountered the object, and then seize it. This technique may also be useful in performing camera calibration

35.1.8    K. Furuta, M. Sampei, "Path control of a three-dimensional linear motional mechanical system using laser," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 52-59, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A sensory feedback controller for a three-dimensional linear-motion mechanical system is proposed. This controller specifies that the end-effector of the mechanical system will follow the path of a laser beam according to the operator's commands. Thus, it is possible to manually position the end-effector by moving the laser beam and specifying whether the end-effector should move forward or backward along its path. This system is ideal for manually operating robots. The sensor is designed to detect both the laser beam's direction and the end-effector's deviation from the beam's path. The experimental results confirm the viability of the proposed system. The controller can also be used for highly accurate servo-control because the position of the end-effector can be directly determined from the laser beam

35.1.9    A.M. Trzynadlowski, "Energy optimization of a certain class of incremental motion DC drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 60-66, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A joint approach to the design and control of energy-optimal incremental motion, load-invariant DC drives is presented. The drive is to rotate a given load through a definite angle in limited time, at minimum energy dissipation in the motor windings. It is required that the motor be of the minimum possible rating. An energy-optimal multimode control strategy for the drive is developed, and its microprocessor-based implementation is proposed. The motor and the so-called key parameters of the drive are determined by graphical solution of a nonlinear constrained optimization problem. A design example is included to illustrate the theoretical considerations

35.1.10    P.P. Acarnley, A. Hughes, "Machine/drive circuit interactions in small variable-reluctance stepping and brushless DC motor systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 67-74, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors investigate the torque, losses, and efficiency of small brushless DC and stepping-motor systems, and explain how performance is influenced by excitation mode, drive circuit, and machine parameters. Quantitative deductions are made for a three-phase reluctance-type machine based on computed steady-state results. For a given machine and drive circuit, maximum torque is obtained with an excitation mode that allows each phase to be turned on for half of the complete excitation cycle. However, if maximum efficiency is the aim, phase excitation must occur for a shorter period, e.g. by exciting only one phase at a time. When making comparisons between drive circuits, the most important measure of drive-circuit capability is the circuit power available at low speeds. Drive circuits producing rapid current decay at phase turn-off benefit torque production in the two-phase-on excitation mode, but are detrimental with the one-phase-on mode. At high speed the pull-out torque depends on the unsaturated inductance parameters of the machine. For maximum torque these parameters must be correctly proportioned, their values being dependent on the excitation mode

35.1.11    Z.K. Wu, E.G. Strangas, "Feed forward field orientation control of an induction motor using a PWM voltage source inverter and standardized single-board computers ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 75-79, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The implementation of a speed-control regulator for an induction motor with single-board computers and as much standardized hardware as possible is described. The improvements over previous attempts include mainly the use of gating pulse patterns previously stored in the memory of a computer board, the use of coprocessing, and of a technique combining both software and hardware to sample motor currents with the required accuracy. The experimental system proved stable and robust against variations of rotor resistance and responded well to step-input changes

35.1.12    D.W.J. Pulle, A. Hughes, "High-speed performance of variable-reluctance stepmotors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 80-84, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An analytical study is carried out with the aid of Blondel diagrams in order to identify the key parameters responsible for the performance limitations in a unipolar step-motor drive. It is shown that the fundamental component of the excitation voltage waveform and the total phase resistance govern the maximum output-power capability of the drive. Predicted and experimental results are presented for a multistack motor which demonstrated not only the validity of the theory but also highlights the effectiveness of using Blondel diagrams for stepping motor analysis

35.1.13    G.C. Verghese, S.R. Sanders, "Observers for flux estimation in induction machines," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 85-94, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Flux estimation in induction machines is examined from the viewpoint of observer theory. It is pointed out that estimators presently used in connection with schemes such as field-oriented control are typically real-time simulations of machine equations, without feedback of any corrective prediction error. It is shown that corrective feedback can be used to speed up convergence of the flux estimates. It can also reduce the sensitivity of the estimates to parameter variations

35.1.14    K. Saito, K. Kamiyama, T. Ohmae, T. Matsuda, "A microprocessor-controlled speed regulator with instantaneous speed estimation for motor drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 95-99, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method for estimating instantaneous speed, suited for a microprocessor-based speed regulator for motor drives, and the characteristics of the speed control system are described. Features of the proposed method include the estimation of instantaneous speed at a real-time point using values of average speed detected by counting for a certain time the output pulses of an encoder as well as the estimated value as the speed feedback signal for the speed regulator. Since this method allows compensation to be made for the lag time of the feedback signal caused by detection of the mean value, it contributes to improved stability of the speed regulator. In particular, this provides a significant suppression of the vibrations that are generated in motor-driven machinery

35.1.15    H. Hanselmann, A. Engelke, "LQG-control of a highly resonant disk drive head positioning actuator," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 100-104, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A fast fine-positioning controller has been designed for a rotary-actuator-type magnetic-storage disk drive. The controller was designed using the LQG (linear quadratic Gaussian) methodology and has been implemented on a digital signal processor. It is shown that LQG design is a viable approach, and that various problems associated with the structural resonances of the actuator can be solved

35.1.16    Y.-S. Li, T.Y. Young, J.A. Magerl, "Subpixel edge detection and estimation with a microprocessor-controlled line scan camera," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 105-112, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A microprocessor-controlled line scan camera system for measuring edges and lengths of steel strips is described, and the problem of subpixel edge detection and estimation in a line image is considered. The edge image is assumed to change gradually in its intensity, and the true edge location may be between pixels. Detection and estimation of edges are based on measurement of gray values of the line images at a limited number of pixels. A two-stage approach is presented. At the first stage, a computationally simple discrete-template-matching method is used to place the estimated edge point to the nearest pixel value. Three second-stage methods designed for subpixel estimation are examined. The modified Chebyshev polynomial and the three-point interpolation method do not require much knowledge on the shape of the edge intensity. If the functional form of the edge is known, a least-square estimation method may be used for better accuracy. In the case of nonstationary Poisson noise, a recursive maximum-likelihood method for the first-stage edge detection, followed by subpixel estimation, is proposed

35.1.17    W.K.N. Anakwa, M.N.S. Swamy, "Boiler plant control using a minimum order dynamic pole placement compensator," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 113-118, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A quadratic performance index with a prescribed degree of stability is used to select the desired closed loop poles of a boiler plant in a 150 MW power station. Using only the available output variables for feedback. Fortran computer programs are written to design a dynamic compensator of minimum order p to achieve placement of the desired closed loop poles. The plant and the dynamic output feedback controller are simulated on a CDC Cyber 170-835 digital computer. The performance of the boiler plant controlled by the dynamic compensator is compared to performances under observer-based and state feedback controllers

35.1.18    T. Fong-Chwee, H.R. Sirisena, "Self-tuning PID controllers for dead time processes," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 119-125, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A number of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) based self-tuning controllers exist for the control of difficult processes. A common weakness of these self-tuning PID controllers is their inability to cope with dead-time processes. Here, self-tuning controllers based on a pole-assignment approach, which can overcome fractional dead time, constant and known dead time, plus time-varying dead time, are presented. It is shown using the simulation and experimental results that the controllers work well in handling dead-time processes

35.1.19    J. Tan, N. Kyriakopoulos, "Implementation of a tracking Kalman filter on a digital signal processor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 126-134, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A Kalman filter for tracking moving objects has been implemented on a TMS32010 digital signal processor. Tracking accuracy and quantization effects of the implementation have been measured by comparing the filter to one implemented on a general-purpose computer with a 32 bit word length. The filter design has been optimized to minimize the program memory requirements and execution speed. Although the filter has been implemented on a specific signal processing chip, the design is general enough to be applicable to any other digital signal processor. The filter can be used for tracking objects for industrial or other applications where range and bearing measurements are available. For motion on a plane, the filter can be used to track objects where the maximum system bandwidth is 1680 Hz; for three-dimensional motion the system bandwidth is 1120 Hz. Using the approach presented, higher system bandwidth can be accommodated through higher-speed digital signal processors

35.1.20    G.A. Girgis, K. Horn, G. Kruse, "Measurement of mechanical vibrations using eddy current transducers and simple digital demodulating techniques," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 135-140, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A coil with a soft magnetic ferrite core and excited by an AC current is placed near a metallic vibrating object. The impedance of the coil is influenced by the vibrations, so the voltage across the impedance is composed of a carrier voltage signal modulated by the mechanical vibrations. The produced signal is processed through a 10 bit analog-to-digital converter, a RAM, and a transient recorder for storing the data. It is found that the calculation of the fast Fourier transform of the quadrature of the stored data of the signal gives a rapid and accurate digital demodulation technique. A Z-80 microcomputer is used for storing and processing the data. A small number of points at the frequency spectrum will give the required unknown values of the amplitude and frequency of the mechanical vibrations

35.1.21    G.-H. Choe, M.-H. Park, "A new injection method for AC harmonic elimination by active power filter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 141-147, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An injection method for an active filter which eliminates the harmonics present in AC lines by injecting PWM harmonic compensating current is proposed. In the proposed method, the active filter produces a pulsewidth modulation (PWM) current that cancels the existing harmonics up to any order completely. To generate such PWM current, both inverter and DC current source is needed. The current source can be replaced by a large inductor without any external power source. This can be achieved by providing the inverter with rectifying capability because the inverter has the same circuit structure as the rectifier. Therefore, the proposed model of PWM injection current includes not only the harmonic components to suppress the existing harmonics up to any order, but also the fundamental one, to raise the inductor current to any desired value. The characteristics of the injection method are investigated through a digital computer simulation. Feasibility is proved by the experimental results

35.1.22    Y.-S. Lee, Y.C. Cheng, "Computer-aided analysis of electronic DC-DC transformers," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 148-152, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An approach to the analysis of electronic DC-to-DC transformers using the SPICE simulation program as an aid is presented. In this approach, the minimum separable switching configuration (MISSCO) of a DC-to-DC transformer is first identified and its equivalent circuit determined before analysis and simulation are carried out on the complete converter circuit. Both the modeling of the MISSCO and the simulation using SPICE program can be easily performed to produce plots of frequency and phase characteristics of the circuit, which are useful for design purposes. A full analysis of the DC-to-DC transformer is also described to enhance an understanding of the circuit behavior, in addition to just modeling and simulation

35.1.23    A.K.S. Bhat, S.B. Dewan, "A novel utility interfaced high-frequency link photovoltaic power conditioning system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 153-159, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Utility-line-interfaced photovoltaic power conditioning (PVPC) systems are gaining popularity in augmenting energy. PVPC systems utilizing a high-frequency (HF) isolation link have the well-known advantages of small size, light weight, etc. Here, a utility interfaced HF-link PVPC system is presented. The system discussed consists of a resonant (load commutated asymmetrical silicon-controlled rectifier) (ASCR) HF inverter, a rectifier, and a line-commutated inverter working with a power factor near unity. An HF transformer provides the isolation between the photovoltaic array and the utility line. The HF resonant inverter uses an LCC type commutation circuit and has inherent fault-protection capability under a number of fault conditions. The working details of the scheme are presented together with logic circuit schematics. Experimental results obtained with a prototype unit are also given

35.1.24    B.K. Bose, "Technology trends in microcomputer control of electrical machines ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 160-177, Feb 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A comprehensive review of technology trends in microcomputer control of electrical machines is presented. Although microcomputer control and computer-aided design techniques are the main themes of discussion, motion control as multidisciplinary technology has been reviewed in the broad perspective of electrical machines, power semiconductor devices, converter technology, microcomputers, and VLSI circuits. The concepts discussed are valid not only for small machines, but for large machines as well

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 35,  Number 2, April 1988           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




35.2.1    M. Hirose, S. Matsushige, S. Buma, K. Kamiya, "Toyota electronic modulated air suspension system for the 1986 Soarer," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 193-200, April 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An electronically controlled air-suspension system is described that uses sensors to detect vehicle speed, throttle position, steering angle, height, and other factors related to vehicle attitude. Its electronic control unit (ECU) drives the actuators to control spring rate, damping force, and height. As a result, the system reduces changes in vehicle attitude such as rolls, dives, squats, etc., and also provides stable maneuverability in high-speed cruising and improved drive characteristics on rough roads. A newly developed single-chip microcomputer is used in the ECU. The actuators for the sporting rate and damping force use DC motors. The system also allows drivers to select preferred suspension characteristics from four modes, and displays on a CRT the suspension status

35.2.2    T. Torii, S. Azuma, Y. Matsuzaki, "Multidisplay system [automobile displays]," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 201-207, April 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A specially-developed multidisplay system using a 6 inch color CRT, created through actual testing in experimental vehicles, was mass-produced for the Japanese market in January 1985. A year later, the multidisplay system was improved through an addition in the information displayed on the CRT and mounted in the 1986 Toyota Soarer. These improvements are described, and an outline of the multidisplay system and details regarding newly developed technology consequent to its development are also described

35.2.3    M. Hirano, M. Takeuchi, T. Tomoda, K.-I. Nakano, "Keyless entry system with radio card transponder [automobiles]," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 208-216, April 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A keyless entry system for locking and unlocking vehicle doors, and for opening the trunk is described. This system utilizes a small (ordinary credit-card size) card transponder with a built-in personal identification code that can be carried in a pocket or a briefcase and the user does not have to take it out for use because the signal transmission is effected by inductive coupling between the card and loop antennas built into the door mirror housing and rear bumper. By touching a switch provided near the trunk keyhole, the user can open the door or trunk as if there were no locks. For anti-theft security and reliability, the system incorporates a twin-loop antenna that generates a rotating magnetic field, and a detection system to prevent the card transponder from being left inside the vehicle. This system has been installed in the luxury classes of Nissan models in the Japanese market

35.2.4    M.R. Kabuka, P.N. Glaskowsky, J. Miranda, "Microcontroller-based architecture for control of a six joint robot arm," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 217-221, April 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A robot arm controller has been developed with a dual emphasis on performance and flexibility. It includes a general-purpose interface for a host microcomputer, and can be configured with up to two floating-point signal processors. The controller responds to high-level control commands from the host, computes the arm trajectory, and corrects motion errors in real-time using Newton-Euler equations. By relieving the host computer of all computational requirements, this controller design permits one host to control multiple robot arms while maintaining maximum performance

35.2.5    W.-K. Chung, H.S. Cho, "On the dynamic characteristics of a balance PUMA-760 robot," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 222-230, April 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: To reduce complexities in robot dynamics, a mechanical counter-balancing concept based on the theory of adding balancing masses to unbalanced conventional manipulators is introduced. The effects of balancing on the dynamic characteristics of the PUMA-760 robot when the designed counter-balancing mechanism is applied to the robot are examined. Through theoretical and experimental study many distinct advantages such as simplicity in the dynamic equation and significant reduction in the total required input torques are demonstrated for various manipulator speeds and payload conditions. Based on these results, the dynamic characteristics of the balanced PUMA-760 robot are discussed in detail

35.2.6    A.A. Goldenberg, L. Chan, "An approach to real-time control of robots in task space. Application to control of PUMA 560 without VAL-II," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 231-238, April 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An approach to real-time control is presented that involves the adaption of existing (commercial) hardware and the integration of new hardware and software, such that both feedback control and offline programming using either task or joint-space coordinates are possible. The approach is illustrated in detail through the implementation of a controller that replaces the conventional Victor's assembly language (VAL) II-based controller with the PUMA 560 robot. The controller presents an improvement over the system under VAL in a number of ways, in addition to being able to use either task or joint-space information in the most general form. In particular, the hardware and software of the new controller can accommodate novel sensory systems, robot programming languages, and dynamic models for research and evaluation of advanced control methods

35.2.7    K.R. Davey, G.J. Vachtsevanos, R. Bass, G. Kelly, D. Ross, "Analysis and control of low-speed fractional horsepower synchronous drive motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 239-244, April 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A study of a quasi-linear synchronous motor used as a wheelchair drive is presented with the intent of highlighting the strength of analytical and simulation tools for low-speed fractional horsepower devices. The method of analysis and the development of the controls for the motor are quite general in their applicability. The analytical field computation capitalizes on the extraction of key spatial and constitutive information in the design. The terminal and field relations are used to examine and simulate control strategies. This information is especially useful in assessing control constraints (e.g., power supply voltage). Various schemes for realizing torque and speed control are discussed. Comparisons between the analytical predictions and actual motor data are presented

35.2.8    T.L. Laopoulos, C.A. Karybakas, "A phase locked motor speed control system with sample-and-hold phase detector," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 245-252, April 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A phase-locked speed-control with a sample-and-hold phase detector, which replaces the common phase detector and lowpass filter thus reducing the system's response time, is investigated. The phase detector's nonlinear behavior when operating inside the loop is discussed, together with the related lower speed limit. The system's operating region is determined by calculating the phase-locked loop (PLL) hold-in range and control system stability limits. Analytical expressions, along with related diagrams, illustrate the role of each of the system, parameters. Minimum system speed is also considered and its improvement through the use of various compensating networks is examined

35.2.9    E.Y.Y. Ho, P.C. Sen, "Decoupling control of induction motor drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 253-262, April 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The decoupling control of induction machines is investigated. Three different schemes for decoupling-control methods based on stator flux, airgap flux, and rotor flux field regulation are developed. The control dynamics of each scheme are outlined and studied. Simulation results are presented to verify that these schemes provide decoupling control with excellent dynamic behavior. The transient and steady-state relationships between slip frequency and torque, under constant stator flux, airgap flux, and rotor flux operations, are simulated and compared. The sensitivity characteristics of the three methods of flux-control, machine fed by impressed currents and voltages, are also compared and studied. A prototype torque-drive system is implemented to demonstrate the decoupling control of a squirrel-cage induction machine

35.2.10    H. Huisman, "A three-phase to three-phase series-resonant power converter with optimal input current waveforms. I. Control strategy," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 263-268, April 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A control strategy for multiphase-input multiphase-output AC to AC series-resonant (SR) power converters is presented. After reviewing some basics in SR power converters, a hierarchy of control mechanisms is presented, together with their respective theoretical backgrounds and practical limitations. The respective controllers are then presented in a simulation context. The control scheme fully exploits the capabilities of high-frequency power converters and facilitates the extraction of currents at a unity power factor from the supply side, even under transient conditions. The control scheme takes into account losses and inaccuracies in the control electronics without deteriorating the intended waveforms. Through computer simulation, it has been shown that, in particular, the input current wave-shapes are greatly improved compared to the best-available operating data

35.2.11    H. Huisman, "A three-phase to three-phase series-resonant power converter with optimal input current waveforms. II. Applications and results," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 269-277, April 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For pt.I see ibid., vol.35, no.2, p.263-8 (1988). A 15 kW three-phase prototype series-resonant power converter is constructed. The converter features sinusoidal output voltage and sinusoidal input currents. The control concepts and necessary electronics, as well as the layout of the power circuit, are discussed. Low distortion levels are achieved for both the output voltages and the input currents, and measurements show the very fast (milliseconds) reaction capabilities of this type of equipment

35.2.12    S.F. Gorman, J.J. Cathey, J.A. Weimer, "A multi-microprocessor controller for a VV-VF cycloconverter-link brushless DC motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 278-283, April 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method of thyristor gating management to allow operation of a cycloconverter-link brushless DC motor drive from a variable-voltage variable-frequency (VV-VF) source is presented. Multiple microprocessors are utilized to assure that no compromise in signal processing priority is necessary as both motor and source frequency vary independently over a wide range. The architecture and logic of the design are discussed. Some experimental results are presented for operation of a laboratory model of the drive system on a load simulator

35.2.13    J.-Y. Lee, Y.-Y. Sun, "Novel sinusoidal pulsewidth modulation schemes for voltage-source inverters with fluctuating input voltage," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 284-294, April 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The optimum waveform parameters of pulse position and pulse widths for voltage-source inverters with fluctuating input voltage are proposed. Eight types of modulation schemes are described for synthesizing the optimum low-distortion output waveforms, of which the harmonic spectra and the peak fundamental-value are almost insensitive to the input-voltage fluctuation, with a minimum voltampere rating of inverter input filter. For fluctuating inverter input voltage with insufficient filtering, the type-VII and the alternative type-III modulation schemes are found to be especially suitable for practical implementation. Detailed descriptions of the suggested circuits with dual-feedback control for implementing two such modulation schemes are given. A peak-value detector that can rapidly produce the peak value of the inverter output voltage with a minimum time constant is also proposed. The theoretical results of the proposed approaches with one-loop self-regulating property are experimentally verified and compared with the conventional method

35.2.14    A. Kawamura, R. Chuarayapratip, T. Haneyoshi, "Deadbeat control of PWM inverter with modified pulse patterns for uninterruptible power supply," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 295-300, April 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A modified algorithm of pulse-width-modulation (PWM) inverter deadbeat control suitable for uninterruptible-power-supply (UPS) systems is presented. Two state variables are measured at each sampling interval, then, using the data, the pulse width is computed in real time in order to force the output voltage equal to the reference at each sampling instant which is called the deadbeat control. Two kinds of PWM pulse patterns are used to increase the fundamental component of the output voltage, considering the microprocessor computation time. Experimentation and simulation has verified that the proposed control scheme increased the output-voltage amplitude, providing an excellent transient response and accurate phase positioning for various load conditions. This algorithm is suitable for applications of high-power UPS systems, in which the switching frequency is in the range of a few kHz and the precise control of power flow is required

35.2.15    A. Barili, A. Brambilla, G. Cottafava, E. Dallago, "A simulation model for the saturable reactor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 301-306, April 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A simulation model for the saturable reactor, an electromagnetic devices widely used as a protective element for the thyristor circuit, is presented. The model has been simulated using an improved version of SPICE, which also contains the model of the single-core reactor (SCR), and has proved to be fast and accurate on practical cases. Examples given include an industrial chopper for an electric drive; the model of the saturable reactor has improved the overall simulation accuracy of the chopper

35.2.16    I. Maric, "Automatic digital correction of measurement data based on M-point autocalibration and inverse polynomial approximation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 317-322, April 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A microprocessor-controlled measurement system model comprising m-point autocalibration and inverse polynomial approximation of the measurement-system transfer characteristics is described. A voltage-to-frequency converter is used for an analog-to-digital conversion of an input quantity. The model is restricted to measurements of slow-varying analog input quantities, and it is suitable for application in severe temperature conditions, common to a variety of industrial environments. By utilizing the computing power of microprocessors, a higher accuracy of measurements can be achieved with low-performance electronic components

35.2.17    H.-H. Loh, J.-G. Leu, R.C. Luo, "The analysis of natural textures using run length features," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 323-328, April 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A family of texture features is presented that have the ability to discriminate different textures in a 3-D scene as well as the ability to recover the range and orientation of the surfaces of the scene. These texture features are derived from the gray-level run-length matrices (GLRLMs) of an image. The GLRLMs are first normalized so that they all have equal average gray-level run length. Features extracted from the normalized GLRLMs are independent of the surface geometry. These features can be used in three-dimensional scene analysis where textures need to be identified according to their differences. Based on the average-run-length information and the classification results, surface range as well as surface orientation of a textured surface can be recovered

35.2.18    R.A.M. Browne, S.W.H. De Haan, J.B. Klaassens, J.D. Lodder, D.J. Verheul, "Computer-aided design of toroidal air-core inductors for high energy levels," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 329-337, April 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method is presented for the design of inductors that recurrently store a substantial amount of electric energy; joules with frequencies in the order of tens of kHz. The objective of this method arose from the necessity of designing air-core inductors as part of an electronic conversion circuit for the control and transfer of electric energy in the submegawatt range. For specific geometrical configurations, design criteria such as weight and electrical losses (or a compromise between them) in combination with the thermal behavior are calculated. An analysis of the design criteria for a normalized inductive storage element is introduced and applied to a computer-aided design method. The computer program provides either the design of a new core or the design of an inductor on an available air-core arrangement, reducing the time for calculation

35.2.19    C.F. Christiansen, J.L. Herrada, M.I. Valla, N.H. Martinez, "Further improvements in a three-phase sine wave generator," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 338-339, April 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: It is shown that the simple three-phase wave generator presented by V.P. Ramamurthi and R.B. Ramaswami (see ibid., vol.IE-29, no.3, p.235-40 (1982)) is able to exhibit a higher performance when more stringent design considerations are adopted. The results show improvements in linearity and distortion as well as an extension in the frequency range with only small changes in circuit implementation

35.2.20    P.S.M. Chin, "Comments on `Stability analysis, design, and simulation of a closed-loop converter-controlled DC drive' by P.B. Anjaneyulu, et al," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 339-341, April 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Applying Popov's stability criterion to the correct transfer function for the system studied in the work P.B. Anjaneyulu et al. (see ibid., vol.IE-31, no.2, p.175-80, (1984)), suitable conditions for stability are derived. From these conditions, the stability region obtained is larger than that given in the mentioned work. These results can be verified by using Lyapunov's second method

35.2.21    A.A. El-Amawy, A. Mirbod, "An efficient software-controlled PLL for low-frequency applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 341-344, April 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The concept of a software-controlled phase-locked loop (SCPLL) is presented. It is shown that SCPLLs can offer several advantages over pure hardware implementations. An example design of an SCPLL for a power converter controller is presented, and the experimental results are reported. This SCPLL can efficiently substitute for the conventional hardware PLL used for timing and clock frequency multiplication in the control circuit of a power converter

35.2.22    L. Ciminiera, A. Valenzano, "Acknowledgement and priority mechanisms in the 802.4 token-bus," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 307-316, April 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Acknowledged datagram services are being considered by several standardization bodies for the data link layer. The performance analysis, based on simulation results of two possible implementations of such a service by using an IEEE 802.4 token-bus MAC (medium-access control) sublayer, is presented. The two implementations include immediate acknowledge (where the acknowledge has to be received before passing the token), and delayed acknowledge (where the acknowledgement can be sent only when the receiver holds the token)

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 35,  Number 3, June 1988           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




35.3.1    J.H. Peden, A.C. Weaver, "Are priorities useful in an 802.5 token ring?," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 361-365, June 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The IEEE standard 802.5 token ring protocol defines eight packet priorities. The intent is that high-priority packets should be delivered prior to low-priority packets. A series of simulations shows that this expected behavior occurs when there are very few network stations, very short data packets (but still long relative to ring latency), very short token hold times, and very high network loads. In the general case, priorities did not markedly influence packet delivery time. Use of the priority system generally resulted in more overhead and longer average packet delays than when all packets were carried as a single priority. The features of the protocol operation that are the cause of this increased delay and lack of priority discrimination are described mathematically

35.3.2    R.M. Gorur, A.C. Weaver, "Setting target rotation times in an IEEE token bus network," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 366-371, June 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The IEEE standard 802.4 token bus protocol requires each network station to implement a synchronous (highest priority) message class, and permits a station to implement three lower priority classes: urgent asynchronous, normal asynchronous, and time available. Each of the lower three priorities (called access classes) is assigned a target token rotation time that limits the amount of time that a station can use to service lower priority traffic. A formulation of the problem is presented in which messages are transmitted from an access class as long as network throughput remains below a user-specified threshold. Formulas are derived that transform this priority scheme, based on network throughput limits, into the proper target rotation time settings that the token bus protocol actually requires. The analytical model is compared with a computer simulation of the token bus protocol and shows close agreement

35.3.3    W. Gora, U. Herzog, S.K. Tripathi, "Clock synchronization on the factory floor (FMS)," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 372-380, June 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The coordination of flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) in an automated factory requires that synchronization amongst the manufacturing processes be based on a common clock. The synchronization requirements on the factory floor are described, and several clock synchronization algorithms, their theoretical bounds, and the results of the authors' work are discussed. Measurement results based on the implementation of such synchronization algorithms on local area networks (LAN) are presented. For hierarchical LANs, an algorithm is developed and its behavior simulated

35.3.4    S.K. Dean, R.J.F. Dow, "A versatile controller for 3-D machining," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 381-386, June 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A controller that produces sculptured surfaces from a small input without postprocessing is presented. It generates straight lines, circular arcs, and algebraic and trigonometric curves in any plane or combinations of such forms to produce complex lines and surfaces for machining applications. The controller is very versatile and can reduce programming costs by orders of magnitude

35.3.5    K.S.M. Panicker, S.I. Ahson, C.M. Bhatia, "Microprocessor-based sliding mode controller for a micromachine," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 387-392, June 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The design and microprocessor-based implementation of a power system stabilizer using variable-structure systems theory is presented. The design is based on a geometric approach for finding the switching hyperplanes for discontinuous control. The stabilizer is implemented on a laboratory micromachine using an INTEL 8085A microprocessor. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the stabilizer in improving system damping. The parameter insensitivity in the sliding mode is demonstrated

35.3.6    C.-M. Liaw, C.-T. Pan, Y.-C. Chen, "Design and implementation of an adaptive controller for current-fed induction motor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 393-401, June 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A model reference adaptive speed controller for a current-fed induction motor drive is proposed. The controller uses a proportional-integral (PI) adaptation to satisfy the hyperstability condition for load and machine parameter changes of the drive. Only the available information on the states and output of the reference model as well as the plant output are required. No explicit parameter identification is needed. The controller can be designed simply by using a reduced reference model without particularly degrading the performance, so it is easy to implement practically. The hardware implementation is detailed, and some experimental results are given to demonstrate its effectiveness

35.3.7    R.C. Becerra, M. Ehsani, "High-speed torque control of brushless permanent magnet motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 402-406, June 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method of converter control that improves the high-speed torque of brushless permanent-magnet (PM) motors is presented. The method consists of modulating the converter conduction intervals and their phase relative to the rotor position in order to deliver current to the stator windings at high speeds where the motor back EMF approaches the convertor rating. A microprocessor-based controller is used in the implementation. With this control, operation of the PM motor drive at its maximum ratings can be extended to higher speeds

35.3.8    K.F. Teng, R.W. Vest, "A microprocessor-controlled ink jet printing system for electronic circuits," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 407-412, June 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The development of a microprocessor-controlled ink jet printing system for hybrid microelectronic circuits is described. The hardware, development, software development, and the performance of the system are discussed. Well-defined circuit patterns have been obtained by the ink-jet printing of metalorganic inks. The application of this technology to the fabrication of microelectronic circuits is demonstrated to be feasible

35.3.9    H.-Y. Chung, Y.-Y. Sun, "Parameter identification of linear distributed systems via Taylor operational matrix," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 413-416, June 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An algorithm has been developed for directly estimating the parameters of a linear distributed systems by means of the Taylor operational matrix of integration. The major advantage of the present method, is that its computational efficiency is better and easier than that of the orthogonal polynomial. A numerical example giving satisfactory results is shown

35.3.10    P.C. Baracos, R.D. Hudson, L.J. Vroomen, P.J.A. Zsombor-Murray, "Advances in binary decision based programmable controllers," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 417-425, June 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Binary decision automata are finite state machines that evaluate switching functions by means of decision rather than Boolean logic. The capability of binary decision machines (BDMs) to evaluate sequential functions is addressed by the authors. The BDM is shown to be less powerful than the deterministic finite automation (DFA) model from automata theory. However, an extended BDM with input control is shown to be equivalent to the DFA and thus can be used to implement finitely computable sequential functions. The use of a BDM finite automaton instead of a more general model is motivated on the basis of expected case time and space complexity analysis. A hardware design following from this analysis is described, and programming methods are discussed

35.3.11    E.M. Thomson, P.J. Medelius, M.A. Uman, "A remote sensor for the three components of transient electric fields," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 426-433, June 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An active device for measuring the three orthogonal components of a wideband (3 Hz to 4 MHz) transient electric field is described. The system design is specifically tailored to detect the electric fields from lightning occurring at distances from less that 1 km to over 100 km. Each electric field component is sensed on one of three isolated sections of a single metallic sphere that itself is electrically isolated from its surroundings. Electronics within the sphere detect and process signals proportional to the charges induced by the electric fields on the isolated sections of the sphere. The signals are passed to a remote recording device via analog fiber optics links. Also contained within the sphere are controls both to change gain settings and to apply internal calibrations on command from a remote VHF transmitter

35.3.12    A.K. Chattopadhyay, N. Mether, "A generalized approach to steady-state analysis of a current-source inverter with induction motor load including commutation overlap," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 434-441, June 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A generalized state-space approach is presented for the steady-state commutation analysis of an autosequential commuted current-source inverter-fed induction motor drive covering all possible modes of operation using a digital computer. The analysis adopts the basic per-phase equivalent circuit for the induction motor model, includes the effect of DC link filter impedance and the variation of back EMF during the commutation interval, and extends the inverter model to cover the complex commutation overlap mode occurring during high frequency operation. A digital computer program is evolved, to identify automatically the relevant sets of equations applicable to a particular mode from a generalized set of equations and to solve them

35.3.13    A. Khoei, S. Yuvarajan, "Single-phase AC-AC converters using power MOSFETs," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 442-443, June 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors analyze the performance of a single-phase AC-AC converter with particular emphasis on the output harmonic content and input voltage utilization. A complete power circuit that makes use of power MOSFETs is given. An analysis of the output waveform shows that its harmonic content is very low. It is also found that the ratio of the switching frequency to the modulating triangular wave, has negligible effect on the harmonic content. Hence, the ratio can be chosen at nominal value of 4 and it is mainly used to control the amplitude of the fundamental component in the output. The only disadvantage of the single-phase AC-AC converter is that the amplitudes of certain harmonic frequencies become abnormally high

35.3.14    P.G. Maranesi, V. Tavazzi, V. Varoli, "Two-part characterization of PWM voltage regulators at low frequencies," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 444-450, June 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The most widely used types of pulse-width-modulated (PWM) DC/DC converters are dynamically modeled at low frequencies in terms of two-port networks. Four DC parameters fully characterize each type of regulator. These closed-loop parameters are related to six transfer functions relevant to the open-loop circuit. Practical dynamic problems involving stability, electromagnetic cleanness, and transmission of disturbances from the load to the voltage source (and vice versa) can be solved on the basis of the formula given

35.3.15    J.-P. Vandelac, P.D. Ziogas, "A DC to DC PWM series resonant converter operated at resonant frequency," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 451-460, June 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Resonant DC-DC converters that are usually operated using frequency modulation to achieve regulation have the disadvantage of wideband frequency modulation. An alternate regulation scheme that uses fixed-frequency pulse width modulation (PWM) is proposed. This control scheme is applied to a series-loaded, series-resonant converter. When operated in a full-bridge configuration and with a variation of PWM that can be described as a phase shift modulation between the two sets of switches, the converter presents low switching stresses. Analytical results presented include VA rating and stresses on critical active and passive components as a function of input voltage variation. A 200 kHz, 700 W, 48 V output offline converter was realized using this concept, and some experimental results are presented to corroborate the analysis

35.3.16    A.R. Prasad, P.D. Ziogas, S. Manias, "A comparative evaluation of SMR converters with and without active input current waveshaping," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 461-468, June 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A comparative evaluation is presented of high-frequency voltage-source fed (VSF) and current-source fed (CSF) switch-mode rectifier (SMR) converters supplied from single-phase AC mains and operating under large input voltage and load fluctuations. For medium power applications (i.e. 3 kW), VSF SMR converters use passive waveshaping techniques. CSF SMR converters, on the other hand, use active waveshaping techniques. Use of active waveshaping techniques increases the input power factor from approximately 0.5 to 0.9-1.0. It is shown that when the active input current waveshaping stage is also used to regulate the SMR DC bus voltage, the converter performance can improve substantially. These improvements include reduction in switching stresses of the power semiconductor switches and reduction in the size and ratings of associated reactive components. Key theoretical results are verified experimentally

35.3.17    L.W. Tao, C.Z. Fang, "State estimation of output-decoupled complex systems with application to fluid pipeline," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 469-475, June 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Most industrial processes are complex systems, characterized by nonlinearity, high order, and even implicit dynamics. The design of a Luenberger-type observer or an extended Kalman filter for state estimation of such systems presents, in general, considerable difficulties. The authors show that a state estimator can be designed and implemented very easily if the system is output-decoupled, as is often the case in process monitoring and control applications. Simulation study and experiments on an experimental water pipeline show that the proposed estimator works very well. Its estimation accuracy is nearly the same as that of an extended Kalman filter, while its computational expenditure is almost as small as the real-time system model

35.3.18    P.S. Rao, V. Ramachandran, "Evaluation of performance criteria of the CSI-IM drive system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 476-478, June 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The stability, sensitivity, and static velocity error coefficient of an induction motor (IM) drive fed by a current-source inverter (CSI) are analyzed to obtain the necessary information for the design of a practical system. These analyses are considered useful for determining an appropriate subsystem to compensate for performance deficiencies

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 35,  Number 4, August 1988           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




35.4.1    A. Moghaddamjoo, "Step-like signal processing with distinct finite number of levels ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 489-493, August 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An algorithm for filtering noisy step-like signals is proposed. This algorithm is based on the assumption of Gaussian contamination. In this procedure data within a moving window is divided into two almost equal clusters and a hypothesis tests (F-test) for differences in the means between two such clusters. Histograms analysis and/or our a priori knowledge about the number of discrete amplitudes in the ideal noise free signal provide information that is used to filter the signal further and produce a clean signal with the desired number of discrete amplitudes (levels). As an illustration the method is tested by simulation

35.4.2    A.K.S. Bhat, "Analysis and design of a DC/DC converter using square-wave output resonant inverter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 494-501, August 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The operating modes of a square-wave output resonant inverter when used in a high-frequency link DC/DC converter are presented and analyzed. The condition of minimum turn-off time for the switches in the discontinuous current mode is obtained. A simple design procedure for the DC/DC converter is presented and illustrated by an example. Experimental results obtained from a prototype converter are presented to verify the theory

35.4.3    C.F. Christiansen, M.I. Valla, C.H. Rivetta, "A synchronization technique for static delta-modulated PWM inverters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 502-507, August 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A synchronization technique for static delta-modulated PWM inverters is presented. This control strategy removes the frequency modulation inherent in the delta-modulated inverter. Furthermore, synchronization of the PWM pulses with the reference signal ensures balanced phase voltages in three-phase applications. The performance of the modulator is analyzed using digital simulations and is verified with experimental circuits

35.4.4    J.W. Dixon, Boon-Teck Ooi, "Indirect current control of a unity power factor sinusoidal current boost type three-phase rectifier," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 508-515, August 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The indirect current control scheme has evolved from the success of the hysteresis current controlled voltage regulated rectifier, which has been shown to be capable of: unity and even leading power factor operation; near sinusoidal current waveforms; and bilateral power transfer without the need of bi-directional solid state power switches. The advance consists of replacing the inner hysteresis current feedback loop by the standard sinusoidal PWM control and in the process saving the cost of the current measuring transducers. The scheme is evaluated through tests on 1 KW size laboratory models and through digital simulations. A theory of the system dynamics is developed and stability boundaries are presented

35.4.5    Tian-Hua Liu, Chung-Ming Young, Chang-Huan Liu, "Microprocessor-based controller design and simulation for a permanent magnet synchronous motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 516-523, August 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The speed control of a permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motor drive that is fed by a current hysteresis-controlled voltage-source inverter is investigated. The objective is to study the feasibility of implementing a microprocessor-based controller that may achieve complete software control of motor speed. A mathematical model and a digital control principle for controlling the PM synchronous motor are described. The sampling period and the controller parameters are determined analytically according to a linearized model. A systematic simulation procedure is proposed for verifying the feasibility of theoretical modeling and controller design. An experimental prototype system is constructed for correlating with the theoretical results. The experimental results closely follow theoretical predictions, thus validating the proposed control method

35.4.6    R.M. Davis, "A comparison of switched reluctance rotor structures," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 524-529, August 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A theoretical comparison of torque production is made between a conventional switched reluctance motor having conventionally laminated salient rotor poles, and a novel structure that uses a cylindrical anisotropic rotor comprised of axially laminated layers of magnetic and nonmagnetic materials. By choosing identical conditions and dimensions in all respects other than the differing rotors and the consequential changes to the stators, and by including the influence of the available space for the windings, the torque production capabilities have been linked specifically to the rotor differences. The results, which are for identical maximum flux density and copper losses, show the salient rotor SR motor to be 20 percent better based on rotor volume and almost 100 percent better on stator plus endwinding volume

35.4.7    G.K. Dubey, "Analysis of DC drive fed by single-phase half-controlled converters in sequence control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 530-536, August 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Separately excited DC motors fed by multistage converters with sequence control are commonly used in mainline traction. The author describes the analysis and performance of a DC drive fed by a two-stage sequentially operated half-controlled converter. The modes of operation of the converter-motor system are identified and a method of performance calculation, taking these modes of operation into account, is presented. The nomograms, and the analytical method of calculating them, are presented for the calculation of an optimum value of filter inductance

35.4.8    P. Pillay, R. Krishnan, "Modeling of permanent magnet motor drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 537-541, August 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Research has indicated that the permanent magnet motor drives, which include the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and the brushless DC motor (BDCM) could become serious competitors to the induction motor for servo applications. The PMSM has a sinusoidal back EMF and requires sinusoidal stator currents to produce constant torque while the BDCM has a trapezoidal back EMF and requires rectangular stator currents to produce constant torque. The PMSM is very similar to the wound rotor synchronous machine except that the PMSM that is used for servo applications tends not to have any damper windings and excitation is provided by a permanent magnet instead of a field winding. Hence the d, q model of the PMSM can be derived from the well-known model of the synchronous machine with the equations of the damper windings and field current dynamics removed. Because of the nonsinusoidal variation of the mutual inductances between the stator and rotor in the BDCM, it is also shown that no particular advantage exists in transforming the abc equations of the BCDM to the d, q frame. Hence the solution of the original abc equations is proposed for the BDCM

35.4.9    M.F. Rahman, Aun-Neow Poo, "An application oriented test procedure for designing microstepping step motor controllers," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 542-546, August 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Describes an application oriented set-up for determining current references for a microstepping step motor controller. This eliminates the need for calculating these references from motor characteristics. Motor nonlinearities and asymmetries are taken into consideration and references for controllers can be obtained by an unattended test for any microstep size desired

35.4.10    B.K. Bose, P.M. Szczesny, "A microcomputer-based control and simulation of an advanced IPM synchronous machine drive system for electric vehicle propulsion," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 547-559, August 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Describes a high-performance microcomputer-based control and digital simulation of an inverter-fed interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous machine that uses a neodymium-iron-boron magnet. The fully operational four-quadrant drive system includes a constant-torque region with zero speed operation and a high-speed field-weakening constant-power region. The control uses the vector or field-oriented technique in constant-torque region with the direct axis aligned to the stator flux, whereas the constant-power region control is based on torque angle orientation of the impressed square-wave voltage. All the key feedback signals for the control are estimated with precision. The drive system is basically designed with an outer torque control loop for electric vehicle application, but speed and position control loops can be added for other industrial applications. The distributed microcomputer-based control system is based on Intel-8096 microcontroller and Texas Instruments TMS32010 type digital signal processor

35.4.11    R. Krishnan, A.S. Bharadwaj, P.N. Materu, "Computer-aided design of electrical machines for variable speed applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 560-571, August 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Product life cycle has decreased and demands for new products have emerged due to competition, modern industrial needs, and rapidly changing technology. This has necessitated changes in design, development, and manufacturing processes to improve quality and efficiency and to reduce cost. Computer-aided design (CAD) helps to meet this challenge in the design evaluation and final product design stages. The authors present the development of interactive software for the optimal design of a motor intended for variable speed applications. The use of finite element analysis methods is proposed as an indispensable part of the CAD system for electrical machine design. An illustration of the method is given for the design of a switched reluctance motor excited with rectangular blocks of current

35.4.12    D. Ciscato, A. Fehl, L. Turolla, "Microstep control of floppy disk drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 572-575, August 1988.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A microprocessor on board of a 5 1/4 in floppy disk unit can be used for microstep control of the step motor able to compensate for unavoidable track deformations. The feedback is derived from a special signal recorded at the beginning of each sector. The resulting track following system is very attractive for magnetic peripherals with very high track density (192 tpi). The authors describe the design of the control system and its implementation using a Z80A system

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Volume 35,  Number 5, Oct 1988           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

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Volume 35,  Number 6, Dec 1988           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 36,  Number 1, Feb 1989           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




36.1.1    T.C.S. Hsia, "A new technique for robust control of servo systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 1-7, Feb 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The robust controller has very simple structures and can be divided into two separate parts: a servo controller and an auxiliary controller. The two controllers are designed independently. The function of the auxiliary controller is to cancel out the plant uncertainties directly without the use of the high loop gain principle. Interpretation of robot controller as a signal-synthesis adaptive controller is given. Practical implementation issues of the auxiliary controller are discussed. Simulations of a design example with large parameter uncertainty, nonlinearity, and external disturbance are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the design technique. This technique is further tested with success in an experimental study of joint position control of a PUMA 560 robot arm

36.1.2    M.R. Khare, G.N. Garud, "Microprocessor-based thyristorized control system for speed control of coiler motor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 8-17, Feb 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A microcomputer system developed for the real-time speed control of a coiler-motor in a wire rod mill at the Bhilai Steel Plant, India, is discussed. The software permits the dynamic control of the coiler motor speed and also controls the tensionless back-end problem of the wire rod, resulting in considerable reduction in metal loss and production delay. The net annual saving due to introduction of the system is Rs. 6.2 million (around $0.50 million), and since the cost of implementation of the system is Rs. 5.3 million, the pay-back period is only ten months

36.1.3    A. Rahrooh, T.T. Hartley, "Adaptive matrix integration for real-time simulation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 18-24, Feb 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The theory of weak stability of linear multistep methods for real-time simulation of nonlinear systems leads to the design of a class of linear multistep methods with varying coefficients. These methods do not suffer from weak instability and are generally very useful, especially for real-time simulation of stiff nonlinear systems. An adaptive technique for numerical integration that allows the simulation stepsize to be chosen independently of the system eigenvalues is presented. The method tracks most changes in the dynamics of the system, and changes accordingly the integration coefficients to ensure accuracy and stability of the simulation

36.1.4    Chin-Cheng Kau, K.W. Olson, E.A. Ribble, C.A. Klein, "Design and implementation of a vision processing system for a walking machine," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 25-33, Feb 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A vision processing system for a six-legged walking machine, the adaptive suspension vehicle, is presented. The vision-processing system consists of a laser range-finder, and vision computer, a terrain-elevation map, and a guidance computer. The range-finder measures the distances from itself to the objects in the scene. The specially designed vision computer processes the range data into a terrain-elevation form and stores the information with time data in a terrain-elevation map. With the real-time elevation information in the map, the guidance computer can select the best footholds for the walking machine in order to maneuver over rough terrain

36.1.5    P.K. Chande, A.K. Ramani, P.C. Sharma, "Modular TMR multiprocessor system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 34-41, Feb 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A tri-module redundant (TMR) multiprocessor system for increased availability to a real-time application is presented. The system incorporates three homogeneous Z-80 based microcomputers, each with necessary analog/digital I/O facilities and global communication hardware. The software design is modular in nature and is, therefore, cost effective and adaptable for expansion to the N-module redundant (NMR) system. The retry mechanism has been employed for recovery from transient faults. The number of retries is programmable, which makes the system adaptable to an application environment. The system has been used to drive a mobile trolley

36.1.6    M. Morimoto, S. Sato, K. Sumito, K. Oshitani, "Single-chip microcomputer control of the inverter by the magnetic flux control PWM method [machine control]," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 42-47, Feb 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Single-chip microcomputer control of a pulsewidth-modulated (PWM) inverter for motor drive applications is presented. The PWM pattern generation and the system control of the inverter are achieved by software of the 8-bit single-chip microcomputer. The single-chip microcomputer has a low processing speed and small memory capacity, disadvantages that can be overcome by the magnetic flux control PWM method. The PWM pattern is generated every 90 μs. The memory capacity of the PWM look-up table is less than 2 kbytes. Experimental results show that the motor performances are the same as that of the multichip triangular-sinewave PWM inverter

36.1.7    J.B. Klaassens, "Steady-state analysis of a series-resonant DC-DC converter with a bipolar power flow," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 48-55, Feb 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A time-domain analysis for the steady-state model of a series-resonant power interface for both step-up and step-down modes is presented. The exchange of electrical energy between a source and the resonant circuit in order to stabilize the stored electrical energy is defined. The characteristics of a series-resonant converter with bilateral power flow are presented in normalized form, described by the output characteristics. The results obtained in a four-quadrant motor drive illustrate the characteristics of a high-frequency power interface

36.1.8    D.G. Manzer, M. Varghese, J.S. Thorp, "Variable reluctance motor characterization," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 56-63, Feb 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A technique to develop a simple, nonlinear dynamic model (from measurements of flux linkage) which captures all of the relevant dynamics of the motor over its entire operating regime is described. A least squares data reduction algorithm that handles the analyses in a natural way to generate bivariate polynomials to approximate the flux linkage is given. Comparisons with a theoretical method and other measurements are presented

36.1.9    J.J. Jozwik, M.K. Kazimierczuk, "Dual sepic PWM switching-mode DC/DC power converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 64-70, Feb 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A steady-state analysis and experimental results for a dual sepic pulse-width-modulated (PWM) DC/DC power converter for both continuous and discontinuous modes of operation are presented. The converter is dual to a sepic converter, but it can also be derived from a forward converter by replacing one of its rectifier diodes with a coupling capacitor. The circuit acts as a step-down or step-up converter, depending on the value of the ON switch duty cycle. The transformerless version of the converter has a positive DC/DC voltage transfer function. Therefore, the circuit is suitable for distributed power systems. Design equations for all circuit components are derived. Experimental results measured at 100 kHz were in good agreement with theoretical predictions

36.1.10    K.F. Teng, Ping Wu, "PV module characterization using Q-R decomposition based on the least square method," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 71-75, Feb 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The determination of solar cell parameters (I-V characteristic) from experimental data was achieved by using the Q -R decomposition technique based on the least squares method, where all data points were considered. The algorithm used a three-parameter equation transformed from the original cell equation of five parameters. This method could be used to analyze the I-V characteristics of photovoltaic (PV) modules of various technologies under the natural conditions of implementation, and to help to establish the best sizing of a PV system and the best adaptation of a PV system to its environment

36.1.11    W. Ahmad, "A simple analogue multiplier with analogue/digital output," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 76-78, Feb 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A simple circuit for the four-quadrant multiplication of voltage signals is described. The output of the multiplier is suitable for analog as well as digital applications. Experimental results obtained are in agreement with the theory developed

36.1.12    C.F. Christiansen, R. Battaiotto, D. Fernandez, E. Tacconi, "Digital measurement of angular velocity for speed control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 79-83, Feb 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A digital method to measure angular velocity for machine control applications is described. The method uses a phase-locked loop to multiply the frequency and reject the jitter. The process for measurement is completed in a very short time, providing not only quick readouts, but also information on transient velocity. Since the sampling intervals are fixed, measurement of angular acceleration can be obtained almost immediately

36.1.13    S. Khalaf, M. Zhu, P. Siy, M. Abdelguerfi, "A real-time industrial pattern classification system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 84-85, Feb 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Using the partitioned matrix approach, a parallel hardware architecture for a parametric (Bayes) classifier is designed. The architecture consists of simple, regularly structured processing elements operating in parallel. As a result, the proposed design is suitable for VLSI implementation. A comparative analysis shows that the approach is more efficient and can significantly reduce the cost required for implementing the classifier, while maintaining high speed

36.1.14    Y.C. Liang, V.J. Gosbell, "A versatile switch model for power electronics SPICE2 simulations ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 86-88, Feb 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Using a versatile switch model, a SPICE2 input file containing voltage-controlled hysteresis, nonhysteresis switches, and ideal silicon-controlled rectifiers can be written to perform both steady-state and transient analysis. Two typical power electronics circuits are simulated to demonstrate various aspects of the model

36.1.15    G. Ciccarella, P. Marietti, "Model reference adaptive control of a thermostatic chamber," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 88-93, Feb 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The design and the implementation of a model reference adaptive controller for continuous systems are presented. The algorithm has been developed taking into account: (1) the influence of discrete control on the behavior of continuous systems; (2) the possibility of working directly on the continuous representations of the plant and of the reference model; and (3) the need for concurrent implementation of the control software on multiple microprocessor architectures to obtain real-time response. The adaptive control algorithm has been implemented on a personal computer to control a thermostatic chamber. Results derived from this application show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm

36.1.16    C.H. Rivetta, E.J. Tacconi, "Comments, with reply, on `An adaptive digital pump controller for phase-locked servo systems' by G.-C. Hsieh et al," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 93-95, Feb 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: It is shown that the linearized model of the adaptive digital pump controller utilized for studying stability conditions and used in the simulations in a previously published paper (see ibid. vol.34, no.3, p.379-86, 1987) does not agree with the proposed circuit. A reply from the authors of the original paper is also included

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 36,  Number 2, April 1989           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




36.2.1    C.F. Hawkins, H.T. Nagle, R.R. Fritzemeier, J.R. Guth, "The VLSI circuit test problem-a tutorial," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 111-116, April 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Defect-free integrated circuits (IC) cannot be guaranteed by VLSI circuit manufacturers. Circuit complexity, IC defect anomalies, and economic considerations prevent complete validation of VLSI circuits. These VLSI test problems are especially acute in high-reliability designs and will only worsen as IC circuit size increases. Designers of IC, board, and system projects must be aware of the difficult engineering challenges that are involved in verifying high-quality ICs. The authors discuss these topics and emphasize the need for basic design for testability methods that must be used to alleviate these problems

36.2.2    R.R. Fritzemeier, H.T. Nagle, C.F. Hawkins, "Fundamentals of testability-a tutorial," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 117-128, April 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A review is presented of electrical testing, failure mechanisms, fault models, fault simulation, testability analysis, and test-generation methods for CMOS VLSI circuits. The relationships between the most commonly used fault models are explored. Various fault simulation methods are contrasted. The basic mechanisms used in test-vector generation are illustrated by examples. The importance of testability analysis as a guide to design and test generation is discussed. Algorithms for automatic test-pattern generation are summarized

36.2.3    H.T. Nagle, S.C. Roy, C.F. Hawkins, M.G. McNamer, R.R. Fritzemeier, "Design for testability and built-in self test: a review," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 129-140, April 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A summary is presented of a number of design-for-testability (DFT) and built-in self-test (BIST) schemes that can be used in modern VLSI circuits. The DFT methods presented are used to increase the controllability and observability of the circuit design. Partitioning, bus architectures, test-point insertion, and scan methods are discussed. On-chip hardware for real-time test-pattern generation and data compression are investigated. Several of the DFT methods are then combined to form BIST hardware configurations. Built-in evaluation and self-test (BEST), autonomous test, scan with random inputs, built-in logic block observer (BILBO), partitioning with BEST, test-point insertion with on-chip control, and combined test-pattern generation and data compression (CTGC) are considered. An overview of each BIST scheme is offered

36.2.4    M.G. McNamer, S.C. Roy, H.T. Nagle, "Statistical fault sampling," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 141-150, April 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Computational requirements often discourage, or even prohibit, complete fault simulation of circuit designs having greater than 20000 single stuck-at faults. To circumvent this problem, statistical sampling methods have been proposed that provide fault coverage values within a small, predictable error range by simulating only a fraction of the circuit's total faults and using the result fault coverage value as an estimate of the fault coverage for the total circuit. As an introduction to the application of sampling methods to fault simulation of integrated circuits, the statistical theory behind these sampling methods and proposed augmentations of these methods for improving the precision of the sample fault coverage are presented. Various proposed sampling schemes are applied to example circuit designs, and the results are analyzed

36.2.5    H.T. Nagle, R.R. Fritzemeier, J.E. Van Well, M.G. McNamer, "Microprocessor testability," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 151-163, April 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: As the level of microprocessor complexity increases to several hundred thousand transistors for a single-chip machine, it is becoming very difficult to test commercially available designs to the level of fault coverage desired by some customers. In order to achieve near 100-percent coverage of single stuck-at faults, future microprocessors must be designed with special testing features (designed for testability). The authors describe the testing problem for microprocessors, including the various methods of generating test sets and their application by the user. A survey of the testability features of some of today's commercially available microprocessors is presented. Suggestions for testability features for future-generation microprocessors are also discussed

36.2.6    J.J. Arena, "Calculating the effective pattern rate for high-speed board test applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 164-174, April 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A complex interplay of tester specifications can force in-circuit and functional board test systems to operate at less than their specified maximum pattern rates in real-world test applications. The author explores the factors that combine to limit test speed. He develops models for calculating the effective pattern rate based on tester performance data and the characteristics of the VLSI board under test

36.2.7    S.-J. Tsai, C.D. Hechtman, "A custom hybrid GaAs driver and sensor device for a high-speed test system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 175-184, April 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A customized hybrid GaAs device has been designed and prototyped that can operate from DC to 100 MHz and above, interface directly with ECL (emitter-coupled logic), TT (transistor-transistor logic), and CMOS components, and handle both the in-circuit and device testing environments. The circuits for both the driver and sensor are delineated, and some of the design issues are discussed. The prototyping of the design into a hybrid IC is explained and experimental performance results are presented

36.2.8    C.W. Branson, "Integrated pin electronic for a VLSI test system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 185-191, April 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Drivers, comparators, active loads, and per-pin timing circuitry for a VLSI test system are placed in two CMOS integrated circuits. This level of integration allows fast, low-capacitance pin electronics to be manufactured at relatively low cost. Novel design and calibration techniques are used to overcome limitations of CMOS technology

36.2.9    C.D. Hechtman, "In-circuit test fixture [PCB testing]," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 192-196, April 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Deficiencies in the conventional in-circuit fixture are presented. A novel fixture is described, and quantitative comparisons are presented. Crosstalk is decreased by 60 dB, and transmission-line matching is possible

36.2.10    E.J. McCluskey, F. Buelow, "IC quality and test transparency," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 197-202, April 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: It is shown that extremely high single-stuck fault coverage is necessary for high-quality products. Even 100% single-stuck fault coverage may not guarantee adequate quality. Results are presented that extend previous work and show that for high required IC quality, process yield has a negligible effect on required test thoroughness. The extensions consist of: removing the assumption of a one-to-one correspondence between chip defects and single-stuck faults; demonstrating that for high quality levels the dependence of quality on test coverage is linear rather than exponential and that for high yields, the dependence of quality on yield is also linear; and showing that the yield used in the calculations should be functional rather than die yield. The theoretical results are compared with data obtained from measurements at a production IC facility

36.2.11    W.D. Ballew, L.M. Streb, "Incoming test strategy based upon in-process failure and repair costs," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 203-210, April 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An economic model is developed that challenges traditional statistical quality control methods in the factory. Incoming inspection levels can be determined as a function of both the PPM failure rates and the lot-to-lot stability. Since current incoming failure rates have fallen two orders of magnitude to below 100 PPM, the model can be used to re-evaluate conventional test strategies in high-volume manufacturing operations. Process variability as measured by statistical process control methods can now be monitored as lot stability and incoming inspection levels are adjusted accordingly

36.2.12    C.F. Hawkins, J.M. Soden, R.R. Fritzemeier, L.K. Horning, "Quiescent power supply current measurement for CMOS IC defect detection," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 211-218, April 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Quiescent power supply current (IDDQ) measurement is a very effective technique for detecting in CMOS integrated circuits (ICs). This technique uniquely detects certain CMOS IC defects such as gate oxide shorts, defective p-n junctions, and parasitic transistor leakage. In addition, IDDQ monitoring will detect all stuck-at faults with the advantage of using a node toggling test set that has fewer test vectors than a stuck-at test set. Individual CMOS ICs from three different fabrication sites had a unique pattern or fingerprint of elevated IDDQ states for a given test set. When IDDQ testing was added to conventional functional test sets, the percentage increase in failures ranged from 60% to 182% for a sample of microprocessor, RAM, and ROM CMOS ICs

36.2.13    P.P. Fasang, "Analog/digital ASIC design for testability," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 219-226, April 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The author addresses three issues in design for testability (DFT) for mixed analog/digital application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips: controllability, observability, and completeness in testing. These are examined for commonly used analog functions, and the results culminate in an architecture for testable mixed analog and digital circuits. The architecture is designed to solve the problems associated with testing basic circuit configurations for different types of commonly used analog macros. Using the recommended architecture to gain access to control and observation test points in the analog portions of the mixed analog/digital ASIC, a series of analog test tables for several different analog functions have been derived. The analog test procedures are independent of any digital design for testability that might be used in the digital portions of the ASIC. General testing procedures for current analog/digital ASICs are described along with desirable characteristics for testers for this type of circuit

36.2.14    K.D. Wagner, T.W. Williams, "Design for testability of analog/digital networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 227-230, April 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The testing of analog/digital integrated circuits is difficult since they allow direct access to relatively few signals. Since the probing of component pins is the fundamental chip production test technique (and possibly that of board test as well, i.e. in-circuit test), methods must be found to enhance the controllability and observability of internal signal networks. The authors provide a set of design for testability (DFT) principles that enhance their ability to test these networks when combined with the requisite analog test plans

36.2.15    J.-C. Lien, M.A. Breuer, "A universal test and maintenance controller for modules and boards ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 231-240, April 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The design of a versatile module test and maintenance controller (MMC) is presented. Driven by structures test programs, an MMC is able to test every chip in a module or PCB via a test bus. More than one test bus can be controlled by an MMC, and can support several bus architectures and many modes of testing. The differences between MMCs on different modules are the test programs that they execute, the number of test buses they control, and the expansion units they use. A simple yet novel circuit, called a test channel, is used in an MMC. The MMC processor can control a test channel by reading/writing its internal registers. Once initialized by the MMC processor, a test channel can carry out most of the testing of a chip. Thus the processor need not deal with detailed test-bus control sequences since they are generated by the test channel. This strategy greatly simplifies the development of test programs. The proposed MMC can be implemented as a single-chip ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) or by off-the-shelf components. Some of its self-test features are presented

36.2.16    M.G. Karpovsky, P. Nagvajara, "Design of self-diagnostic boards by signature analysis," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 241-245, April 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors present a single-faulty-chip diagnostic technique which requires only two reference signatures for any number of chips on the original board. With this technique, it is possible to reduce substantially the hardware overhead compared to the diagnostic technique based on separate testing of each chip on the board. The technique can be also used for identification of faulty printed boards in a system or for identification of faulty processors in a multiprocessor system

36.2.17    P. Mazumder, J.H. Patel, "An efficient built-in self testing for random-access memory," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 246-253, April 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors propose a test algorithm for pattern-sensitive faults in large-size RAM with high circuit density. The algorithm tests an n-bit RAM in 195√n time to detect both static and dynamic pattern-sensitive faults over the 9-neighbourhood of every memory cell. A 4 Mb RAM can be tested by the proposed algorithm several thousand times faster than the conventional sequential algorithms for detecting pattern-sensitive faults. The test speedup has been achieved by writing a test data simultaneously over many cells, and the stored data are tested simultaneously by a parallel comparator and error detector in a read operation. The existing RAM architecture has been modified very little so that the proposed technique can be implemented very easily even in switched-capacitor DRAM (dynamic random-access memory) with low intercell pitch width. The test procedure has also been applied to built-in self-testing (BIST) and is compared with other BIST implementations

36.2.18    S. Mourad, E.J. McCluskey, "Testability of parity checkers," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 254-262, April 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Checkers are used in digital circuits to detect both intermittent and stuck-at faults. The most common error detectors are parity checkers. Such circuits are themselves subject to failures. The use of parity trees is outlined, and techniques for testing them are surveyed. The effect of the checker's structure on its testability is discussed. Several fault models are considered: single stuck-at, multiple stuck-at, and bridging faults. The effectiveness of single stuck-at fault test sets in detecting multiple stuck-at and bridging faults is described. Upper bounds for the double fault coverage of the minimal single fault test are given for different tree structures. The testabilities of some selected checkers are examined to illustrate the concepts developed. A built-in self-test is proposed

36.2.19    F. Brglez, D. Bryan, J. Calhoun, G. Kedem, R. Lisanke, "Automated synthesis for testability," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 263-277, April 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors present an integrated, compiler-driven approach to digital chip design that automates mask layout and test-pattern generation for 100% stuck-at fault coverage. This approach is well suited for designs where it is most important the minimize the design cycle time rather than the silicon area. The authors show that by compiling from a unified design specification followed by logic synthesis it is possible to reduce the problem of automatic test-pattern generation. They present a language-based design capture and logic synthesis with hierarchical test pattern generation and redundancy removal techniques. A section on benchmark results highlights the close coupling of a language-based design specification, logic synthesis, and testability

36.2.20    J.J. Hallenbeck, N. Kanopoulos, J.R. Cybrynski, "The Test Engineer's Assistant: a design environment for testable and diagnosable systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 278-285, April 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The Test Engineer's Assistant (TEA) is a set of computer-aided design (CAD) tools that helps the system design engineer meet testability requirements by construction. TEA addresses system design for testability at all levels of the design hierarchy, the lowest level being the board level. The design is represented as a graph where each node indicates a hardware component (or chip on a board) and each arc represents intercomponent connections. Attributes associated with the graph nodes and a set of rules and testing techniques that are incorporated in the tool databases are used to determine the design features that have to be incorporated into the design to meet test and diagnostic requirements. The tool operates on a design using a combination of algorithmic and heuristic techniques. The authors present the design methodology supported by TEA, discuss the techniques used by the TEA tools to obtain solutions for different design for testability requirements, and present an example of the use of TEA with a real system

36.2.21    C. Robach, P. Wodey, "Linking design and test tools: an implementation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 286-295, April 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A computer-aided test analysis system was designed to appraise the testability of logic systems and to provide the functional specification of the test programs. To provide a helpful tool for both designers and test engineers, it was necessary to fully integrate this tool in a CAD (computer-aided design) system so that testability might be a design parameter and to automate the test-program production. The authors present the link between this tool and the SILVAR LISCO design system

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 36,  Number 3, June 1989           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




36.3.1    J.H. Kim, Z. Bien, "An algorithmic approach to fault diagnosis in linear systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 313-320, June 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An algorithmic approach for multiple fault diagnosis of linear discrete-time systems is proposed. Based on notions of an expected deviation vector and variation factors, it is shown that t faults in functional units of a dynamic system can be diagnosed with t+1 sample times. The method is considered efficient when the number of faults is unknown but small and when the sampling period is lengthy, as in chemical process with large time constants. Its effectiveness is illustrated by simulated examples

36.3.2    J.-X. Xu, H. Hashimoto, J.-J.E. Slotine, Y. Arai, F. Harashima, "Implementation of VSS control to robotic manipulators-smoothing modification," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 321-329, June 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors focus on the implementation of a variable structure systems (VSS) controller with smoothing laws in the design of effective tracking control for multi-input, multi-output robotic arms. The controller is realized by selecting powerful smoothing methods, such as balance conditions or their simplification, to reduce or remove undesirable chattering while keeping the robust characteristic that rejects system uncertainties. Giving careful consideration to actual system constraints, a design principle for selecting different smoothing methods is obtained and confirmed by experimental results

36.3.3    W.L. Nelson, "Continuous steering-function control of robot carts," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 330-337, June 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Three alternative approaches for eliminating steering discontinuities are presented: changing the steering mechanism, changing the guide-point on the cart, or changing the curves on the path. The first approach requires a steering mechanism that allows the cart to move in any direction without changing its heading. The most common configurations in an automatically guided vehicle are the steered-wheel and differential-drive types. The second approach may be a reasonable choice for differential-drive carts but less so for steered-wheel carts because of their limited maneuverability. For applications where the third approach is preferred, two types of curves providing continuous steering functions for both steered-wheel and differential-drive carts are proposed: Cartesian quintics for lane changes and polar splines for symmetric turns of arbitrary angle. These curves have computationally simple, closed-form expressions that provide continuous curvature and precise matching of the boundary conditions at the line-curve junctions on the paths

36.3.4    C. Umeagukwu, B. Maqueira, R. Lambert, "Robotic acoustic seam tracking: system development and application ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 338-348, June 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The description of an ultrasonic-based seam-tracking robotic system that guides a nonwelding torch along different welding grooves is presented. A 100 kHz airborne transducer is used to inspect the workpiece ahead of a welding torch and measures the joint orientation and lateral deviation caused by curvature or discontinuities in the joint part. Data pertaining to the joint orientation and lateral deviation (echo pulse amplitude and time of flight) are obtained periodically by sampling equi-spaced points along the joint as the torch advances. A trajectory-generating algorithm uses this data to calculate the x, y, &thetas; coordinates of the torch-tip trajectory needed to meet the tracking requirements. The experimental results from a feasibility study conducted to determine if this system could be used for tracking during live welding are also presented

36.3.5    H. Haneda, A. Nagao, "Digitally controlled optimal position servo of induction motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 349-360, June 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A high-performance optimal position servo is proposed for a microcomputer-controlled induction motor. The servo is designed and realized by top-down computer-aided design (CAD). A field-orientation-control approach is adopted to design an optimal voltage-controlled regulator for position control. A type of globally stable and parameter insensitive observer-linearizer is presented and utilized to overcome the restricted availability of sensed variables: winding voltages and currents, and shaft speed and angle. The digital scheme has been experimentally tested and verified. The effect of quantization errors and sampling period in analog/digital analog on the response and accuracy of the control system is shown

36.3.6    Jong-Hwan Kim, Yeon-Chan Hong, Sung-Jun Lee, Keh-Kun Choi, "Direct adaptive control of nonminimum phase systems using integral action," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 361-364, June 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A direct adaptive control scheme is proposed for nonminimum-phase systems in which controller parameters are estimated from the recursive least-squares algorithm and additional auxiliary parameters are obtained from the proposed polynomial identity. A local convergence is guaranteed without any extra condition. Integral action is incorporated into the adaptive controller to eliminate the steady-state error and to satisfy a condition of the unique solution for the polynomial identity. The control law used in this scheme is based on the set-point-on-I-only proportional-integral-derivative (PID) structure

36.3.7    G.-C. Hsieh, "A study on position servo control systems by frequency-locked technique," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 365-373, June 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A frequency-pumped controller (FPC) is presented that processes the position servomechanism by the frequency-locked technique. With the proposed FPC, a position/voltage (P/V) transducer, and a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), a frequency-locked position servo (FLPS) control system is established. Mathematical models for the FPC and for the FLPS are constructed, and their stability criteria for in-lock and for out-of-lock cases, respectively, are derived. Computer simulation and experimental results confirm the theoretical prediction that the proposed FLPS can provide real-time control, good stability, higher resolution, and higher precision

36.3.8    L.A. Jones, J.H. Lang, "A state observer for the permanent-magnet synchronous motor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 374-382, June 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An identity state observer for the permanent-magnet synchronous motor is derived which reconstructs the electrical and mechanical states of the motor from current and voltage measurements. The observer operates in the rotor frame and estimates direct and quadrature stator currents, rotor velocity, and rotor position. Since the rotor position is estimated, the rotor reference frame is approximated using the latest rotor position estimate. The motor dynamics and the transformation into the estimated rotor frame are nonlinear, and thus the observer and observer error dynamics are nonlinear. Therefore, stability is analyzed using a linearized error model. Simulations including realistic measurement disturbances are used to investigate the global stability and accuracy of the observer

36.3.9    K.C. Cheok, H.X. Hu, N.K. Loh, "Discrete-time frequency-shaping parametric LQ control with application to active seat suspension control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 383-390, June 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The theory of a discrete-time parametric linear quadratic (PLQ) control is extended to a class of frequency-shaped performance measures. The incorporation of frequency-dependent weighting matrices allows the emphasis or de-emphasis of the importance of the system variables being penalized over specific bands of frequencies. Results are presented for constant-gain and dynamic output feedback configurations of frequency-shaping optimal control. The resultant control is applied to the design of active seat suspension control. The active suspension maximizes ride comfort by discriminatory minimization of average whole-body absorbed power over a band of frequencies that causes the most discomfort to a human being

36.3.10    A.P. Jayasumana, G.G. Jayasumana, "On the use of the IEEE 802.4 token bus in distributed real-time control systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 391-397, June 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The performance of the IEEE 802.4 priority mechanism in handling distributed real-time control traffic is examined. A timer assignment technique is presented for such applications. The timers are set to satisfy the worst-case access delay requirements of real-time control applications. Other applications that are not time constrained can be supported simultaneously. Under certain conditions, such applications can also be guaranteed a minimum bandwidth allocation. Simulation results are used to evaluate the timer assignment scheme

36.3.11    R.M. Nelms, B.W. Evans, L.L. Grigsby, "Simulation of AC spacecraft power systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 398-402, June 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A technique is presented for modeling and simulating AC spacecraft power systems by combining all component models into an overall system model. Each component in the spacecraft power system is treated as a two-port network. A state model is written for each two-port network with the port voltages as the inputs. Each component state model is solved independently using the state transition matrix approach and assuming that its inputs are constant. The inputs to all components are then calculated using network analysis principles. As an example, a 20 kHz system is simulated using this approach, and the results are compared with those of a SPICE2 simulation

36.3.12    B.K. Bose, "Power electronics-an emerging technology," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 403-412, June 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The author presents a tutorial review of power electronics and drives in which the status of the technology and its future are discussed. He focuses on power semiconductor devices, converter circuits, AC machine control, and microcomputer applications in power electronics systems. He examines the impact of computer-aided design and artificial intelligence, and he summarizes the technological trends. He predicts that the technology will grow with increasing momentum as component technologies continue to grow

36.3.13    A. Patra, G.P. Rao, "General hybrid orthogonal functions-a new tool for the analysis of power electronic systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 413-424, June 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A set of general hybrid orthogonal functions (GHOFs) is introduced to meet the needs of any problem of spectral analysis. The completeness of the set of GHOFs is established, and its flexibility and use for efficient representation of signals in typical practical problems is discussed. The GHOF spectral analysis of linear time-invariant dynamical systems in state space is presented. The technique is applied to two illustrative silicon-controlled-rectifier-controlled DC motor drive simulations, which clearly demonstrates the power of the GHOF in simulating such systems. Some aspects of programming necessary for the related software development are presented

36.3.14    M.K. Kazimierczuk, X.T. Bui, "Class-E DC/DC converters with a capacitive impedance inverter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 425-433, June 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Analysis and design rules are presented for three class-E switching-mode DC/DC power converters, each with a capacitive impedance inverter. Experimental results are given for one of the converters. A zero-voltage switching technique is achieved for both class-E inverters and rectifiers. Therefore, the efficiency of the converters is very high at switching frequencies in the megahertz range. By applying a capacitive impedance inverter, lossless operation of the class-E inverter can be obtained for a wide range of converter load resistance, from full load to infinity. Experimental results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical calculations. Only a 12% relative bandwidth of the switching frequency is required to maintain a constant DC output voltage for the load resistance from full load to infinity at about 1 MHz with 15-W output

36.3.15    M. Sakui, H. Fujita, M. Shioya, "A method for calculating harmonic currents of a three-phase bridge uncontrolled rectifier with DC filter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 434-440, June 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A practical method is proposed for calculating the harmonic currents of a three-phase bridge uncontrolled rectifier with a DC filter, taking into account the AC source reactance. The method is based on the frequency-domain method and the rectifier switching functions. Analytical equations for the harmonic currents on both the DC and AC sides are derived. The validity of the method is demonstrated by comparison with the results of time simulation. The approach can be extended to the harmonic analysis of a thyristor rectifier as well as a rectifier with unbalanced line conditions

36.3.16    S. Martinez, M. Castro, R. Antoranz, F. Aldana, "Off-line uninterruptible power supply with zero transfer time using integrated magnetics," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 441-445, June 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An offline uninterruptible power supply (UPS) or emergency power system with zero transfer time is presented. The principal application is to personal computers and systems. The power transformer, a triport-like transformer, acts as an inverter and as a voltage stabilizer with no external loading coil. It is made with commercial EI scrapless laminations. The battery charging circuit is integrated into the transformer and improves the dynamic output response during line-mode operation. The result is robust, short-circuit-proof equipment with harmonic distortion of lower than 3%, a static output stability better than 1.5%, and a very high reliability

36.3.17    C.M. Tan, S. Zukotynski, "Single wafer miniature Hall-effect keyboard," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 446-450, June 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A design is proposed for a miniature Hall-effect keyboard for use in hand-held calculators. The keyboard includes a set of MOSFETs as the Hall effect sensors and all the necessary electronic components for keyboard control and communication on a single silicon substrate. Because of the elimination of wire connections to each key-cap and the use of MOSFET circuitry for key sensing, the implementation is expected to lead to high reliability and low power consumption. Some design aspects, including mask layout, and process steps are described

36.3.18    L.J. Giacoletto, "Simple SCR and TRIAC PSPICE computer models," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 451-455, June 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An ideal voltage-controlled switch provided in PSPICE is used to develop simple computer models for silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs) and TRIACs. With additional parameters, most of the thyristor properties are modeled. Detailed modeling of the C149M10 SCR and ZN6346A TRIAC and related applications are described

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 36,  Number 4, August 1989           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




36.4.1    I.R. Smith, G. Creighton, L.M.C. Mhango, "Analysis and performance of a novel two-phase drive for fan and water-pumping applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 530-538, August 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors describe a novel form of drive, comprising a two-phase induction motor fed by a two-phase inverter, for use in heating, ventilating, demisting, engine-cooling, and water-pumping applications in public service vehicles and passenger cars. A theoretical analysis of the arrangement is presented and a comparison is made between a number of predicted and experimental characteristics for two practical designs. One of these is a fan drive for engine-compartment ventilation and the other a motor-pump drive for a water-cooling system. In both cases, an acceptable range of speed control is achieved (i.e. ±10% of the normal full-load speed of 3300 r/min.), and an accurate prediction of the performance is provided

36.4.2    J. Shiozaki, B. Shibata, H. Matsuyama, E. O'shima, "Fault diagnosis of chemical processes utilizing signed directed graphs-improvement by using temporal information," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 469-474, August 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The fault diagnosis algorithms using a signed directed graph (SDG) as a model of the system is useful in the real-time diagnosis of failures that occur in chemical processes. The accuracy of the algorithm has been improved so that it can select the candidates that are most likely to be the real origin of failure, utilizing the time when the measured variables begins to show abnormality as the representation of the dynamic characteristic of the measured variable. The accuracy and speed of the improved algorithm have been examined by its application to data obtained in fault diagnosis experiments on tank-pipeline systems

36.4.3    J. Holtz, U. Boelkens, "Direct frequency convertor with sinusoidal line currents for speed-variable AC motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 475-479, August 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel concept for a static three-phase to three-phase power converter for an AC drive with a unity power factor and reduced harmonics on the line side is presented. The power circuit comprises two back-to-back connected six-pulse bridges having no energy storage elements in the DC link. This permits pulse-width modulation (PWM) control in both bridges while requiring active turn-off semiconductor switches in only one bridge. The line-side harmonics are suppressed by a three-phase second-order filter. The method of predictive optimization is used for the control of the power converter. The complex control structure of the system is based on an online prediction of space vector trajectories. The steady-state operation of the system is exemplified by simulation results

36.4.4    J.L. Duarte, J.F. Aubry, C. Iung, "Current and speed digital control of commutationless DC drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 480-484, August 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The digital control of commutationless DC drives using a minimal hardware structure is discussed. The authors present a low-cost monochip microcomputer-based control system for speed regulation and current limitation that has no current measurement of a DC motor fed by thyristors in discontinuous current-mode operation. With this system, the speed of the drive is controlled by a classical algorithm using the Z transform. The thyristor firing is synchronized with the power supply and controlled by internal interrupts of the microcomputer. The current limitation is augmented by an estimation algorithm using an experimental simplified model. Results are presented for a 1 kW DC drive

36.4.5    I. Batarseh, C.Q. Lee, "High-frequency high-order parallel resonant converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 485-498, August 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel approach to the analysis of design of a high-order high-frequency LCC-type capacitive coupled parallel resonant converter (PRC-LCC) operated in the continuous-conduction mode is presented. The presence of an additional capacitor in series with the inductance of the conventional PRC results in a converter with more desirable control characteristics. It is shown that, at switching frequencies lower than the resonant frequency, the gain of the LCC-type converter is lower than the grain of the conventional PRC. This facilitates the converter design with a lower turn-ratio transformer and therefore allows for a higher operating frequency. The complete state-plane diagram of the LCC-type converter, from which a set of steady-state characteristic curves is plotted, is given. Various design curves for component value selections and device ratings are given. A design example with computer simulation results is presented

36.4.6    D.M. Vasiljevic, "The design of a battery-operated fluorescent lamp," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 499-503, August 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The author presents the design of a battery-supplied fluorescent lamp for automotive, emergency, or portable light sources. Each fluorescent tube has its own driver circuit that exhibits high efficiency (over 80%), simple design, and low cost. The driver circuit operates at a high frequency (50 kHz) and has an electronic ballast control, symmetrical tube driving, and semiresonance ignition. These operating conditions are optimal, and they provide a long tube life and high illumination

36.4.7    H. Nagase, T. Okuyama, J. Takahashi, K. Saitoh, "A method for suppressing torque ripple of an AC motor by current amplitude control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 504-510, August 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors examine a thyristor motor torque ripple suppression method that is simple in configuration. A simplified method of calculating motor torque ripple is introduced. This method enables calculation of velocity fluctuation due to torque ripple in the vicinity of the resonant frequency. Calculation results show that operation around the resonant frequency constitutes a problem. The current amplitude control method is effective for suppressing the torque ripple at the resonant frequency. This method detects the velocity fluctuation component and controls the current amplitude to eliminate that component. The velocity fluctuation component is detectable by using a filter that has a differential element. In addition, it is shown that the characteristic of the control system can be calculated with the aid of a Bode diagram, and its effectiveness is confirmed through simulation. From simulation results, this suppression method is found to be effective in reducing the velocity fluctuation to a practical level

36.4.8    L.-S. Shieh, X.-M. Zhao, J.-L. Zhang, "Locally optimal-digital redesign of continuous-time systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 511-515, August 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors present a novel optimal digital redesign technique for finding a dynamic digital control law from the given continuous-time counterpart by minimizing a local quadratic performance index. The quadratic performance index is chosen as the integral of the weighted squared difference between the states of the original closed-loop system and those of the digitally controlled open-loop system at any instant between each sampling period. The developed optimal digital redesign control law enables the states of the digitally controlled open-loop system to match closely those of the original closed-loop system at any instant between each sampling period, and it can easily be implemented using microcomputers with a relatively large sampling period. An illustrative example is presented to demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method

36.4.9    K.E. Addoweesh, W. Shepherd, L.N. Hulley, "Induction motor speed control using a microprocessor-based PWM inverter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 516-522, August 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An MC68000, 16-bit microprocessor system was used to generate pulse-width modulation (PWM) voltage waveforms for a three-phase inverter. An MC6840 programmable timer module (PTM) was used to give real-time PWM voltage waveforms at its three outputs. The MC68000 calculates the width of the pulses for only the first quarter cycle and sorts these into a table. The remaining pulses for the complete cycle are generated using the values of the first quarter because there are conditions of quarter and half-wave symmetry. This results in a considerable saving of microprocessing time. The well-known expressions that define the width of regular sampled PWM pulses were modified to be compatible with the timing system. A real-time method of setting the 120° phase shift between the three phases of the pulses using the PTM was developed and showed a good level of accuracy. The PWM inverter was tested with passive impedance and motor loads. With an induction motor load, harmonics of the stator current and voltage of an order lower than the nineteenth and twenty-third were found to be virtually eliminated. The nineteenth and twenty-third harmonics had the value of 0.09 pu of the current, compared with 0.3 for the voltage, at a depth of modulation of unity

36.4.10    P.N. Materu, R. Krishnan, "Steady-state analysis of the variable-speed switched-reluctance motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 523-529, August 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The principle of operation of the switched-reluctance motor (SRM) drive demands that the motor and converter be treated as one unit. Little has been done to develop a complete analysis of this motor-converter combination. The authors present an approach to the steady-state analysis of the drive including the effects of stator winding resistance, input filter parameters, and snubber circuits, which are often neglected. The analysis yields current, voltage, torque, and back-EMF (electromotive force) waveforms that provide guidelines to the optimal design of the drive. Experimental verification is provided for a 6/4 pole prototype SRM drive, and it is shown to be in good agreement with the simulation results. It is noted that this approach can be applied to any other motor-converter combination with minimal modification

36.4.11    G. Amaratunga, K.-W. Kwan, M. Tso, D. Crawley, "A single-chip CMOS IC for closed-loop control of step motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 539-544, August 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A CMOS integrated circuit for the closed-loop drive of step motors that avoids direct rotor position sensing is reported. The sequencer is integrated with the control circuit. The circuit has been fabricated on a 4 μm gate array, and its operation with the motor and chopper drive is characterized. Dynamic torque-speed characteristics, which are linear up to 85% of the maximum static torque with a 40% increase in power output compared to open-loop operation, have been obtained from a test motor. The CMOS integrated circuit controller makes the use of a step motor a viable alternative to series DC motors. It can be extended to provide a closed-loop drive circuit for step-mode operation

36.4.12    Y.-S. Li, T.Y. Young, C.-C. Huang, "Noncontact measurement using line-scan cameras: Analysis of positioning error," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 545-551, August 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A multiprocessor camera controller has been designed and developed for real-time operation of high-resolution industrial CCD (charge coupled device) line-scan cameras. A three-camera system is capable of measuring length, width, height, and volume of steel slabs. Data captured by one camera are made available to other camera processors. A computation scheme is developed to correlate information for accurate cooperative measurement. There are two major sources of measurement errors. Digitizing error has been examined elsewhere, and a 0.1 subpixel accuracy is achievable by appropriate processing. The authors consider positioning errors with emphasis on camera positioning. The cooperative measurement and computation scheme measures object translation and compensates its effect to a certain degree. It is shown that, with calibration, measurement errors caused by camera positioning can be kept error caused by camera positioning can be kept within 0.2%

36.4.13    C. Hutchens, C. Yap, "Continuous background monitoring of plant performance utilizing a single-chip microcomputer and PRTN sequences," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 552-559, August 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors demonstrate a method suitable for a single-chip microcomputer or VLSI implementation that provides continuous real-time background monitoring of linear electromechanical systems. In this implementation method, pseudorandom noise is generated and digitized with a single-chip microcomputer and utilized to observe shifts in plant performance by monitoring the impulse response. A Butterworth filter was chosen to simulate the electromechanical system for ease and convenience of transfer function modification during testing. The feasibility of monitoring and detecting shifts in plant performance using pseudorandom noise in the background mode in real time while the plant continues to carry out routine control was demonstrated experimentally. Guidelines are provided for selecting the pseudorandom noise amplitude and the analog/digital quantization level. Pseudorandom trinary noise was demonstrated to be superior to pseudorandom binary noise

36.4.14    S. Miyazawa, F. Nakamura, N. Yamada, "A novel strategy for microcomputer-based control of a single-phase output cycloconverter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 560-567, August 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel control algorithm using a time process chart that is capable of accurate control of cycloconverters is developed. This algorithm is obtained by making a straight-line approximation in a newly contrived phase plane. In spite of its rather simple procedures, this algorithm is capable of highly accurate control that is comparable to that of the conventional analog scheme. A six-pulse noncirculating current-type cycloconverter is controlled with a small-scale interface and a high-speed control program. Experimental results confirm the validity and usefulness of the proposed method. As far as the processing time is concerned, this method could be used to control a system with a larger pulse number, such as a 12 or 24-pulse system

36.4.15    M.K. Kazimierczuk, J. Jozwik, "Resonant DC/DC converter with class-E inverter and class-E rectifier," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 468-478, August 1989.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new type of high-frequency high-efficiency resonant DC/DC converter is proposed, analyzed, and verified experimentally. It is called a class-E converter because it consists of a class-E inverter and a class-E rectifier. The class-E rectifier acts as an impedance inverter and is compatible with the class-E inverter. Consequently, the converter can operate with load resistances from a full load to ∞ while maintaining zero-voltage switching of the transistor in the inverter and the diode in the rectifier. It operates safely with a short circuit at the output. Because of a high value of the load quality factor Q1, a narrow frequency range suffices to regulate the DC output voltage over the whole load range. The measured relative bandwidth was δf/fmin=42.2% as the load resistance was varied from 70 Ω to open circuit. The measured efficiency at the full load was 89% with a 9 W output power at 1 MHz. A family of class-E2 resonant DC/DC power converters is given. The possibility of reduction of class-E2 converters to lower-order resonant and pulse-width-modulation converters is shown

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 36,  Number 5, Oct 1989           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 36,  Number 6, Dec 1989           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 37,  Number 1, Feb 1990           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




37.1.1    N. Hamada, K. Bekki, T. Yokota, "VLSI logic design with logic programming and knowledge-base technology," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 1-5, Feb 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An approach to VLSI logic design using partial and general structural specifications in addition to behavioral specifications is developed. This approach requires a new style of programming technique, especially if a universal solution procedure for all types of architectures is needed. Knowledge of the design process involves unification of the heterogeneous (i.e. behavior and structure) information between a system and its parts, as well as representation of functional modules in order to ensure their reusability in an efficient manner. Following these strategies, a logic synthesis expert system, ProLogic, is developed, and the system is evaluated using MPU-type VLSIs. It is found that the universal connecting procedure for any compound functional module that unifies the behavioral and structural specifications between a total module and its parts improves logic design efficiency by a factor of 2 and that logic programming, object-oriented frames, and rule bases implemented in ProLogic improve software productivity by a factor of 5

37.1.2    S. Komada, K. Ohnishi, "Force feedback control of robot manipulator by the acceleration tracing orientation method," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 6-12, Feb 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors propose a novel approach to force and compliance control of multi-degree-of-freedom (DOF) robot manipulators. The acceleration tracing orientation method (ATOM) is applied to both controllers. The control law is described in the Cartesian space; however, the final command is the acceleration in the joint space. The interactive terms in each joint disturb and deteriorate the joint motion. The disturbance observer cancels out the total sum of these terms and enables each joint to trace the acceleration command. As a result, a robust control is possible in the force task. The testing of the proposed system in a three-DOF robot manipulator is discussed

37.1.3    H.-G. Yeh, "Real-time implementation of a narrow-band Kalman filter with a floating-point processor DSP32," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 13-18, Feb 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The author presents experimental results from two studies. First, a real-time narrowband Kalman filter is implemented with a floating-point digital processor DSP32. The real-time capability of this narrowband filter is investigated by varying parameters Q and R. The covariance matrices Q and R of the dynamic and measurement noise sequences are found to exhibit duality in the real-time tuning process and have a direct effect on system stability. If the value of Q used is smaller (with fixed R ), the tracking time and the narrower tracking bandwidth of the filter will be longer. In addition, if the value of R used (with fixed Q) is smaller, the tracking time will be smaller, and the tracking bandwidth of the filter will be larger. The results are tabulated. Second, two optimal codes (in the sense of the execution speed), straight-line code and general matrix-based code, have been developed for implementing the narrowband Kalman filter. These two codes are compared in terms of program memory size, data memory size, and speed of execution. With the matrix-based code, the DSP32 performance is evaluated in terms of speed and memory size by varying the number of states of a Kalman filter. The results are also tabulated

37.1.4    R.D. Williams, F.J. Keith, P.E. Allaire, "Digital control of active magnetic bearings," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 19-27, Feb 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Theoretical relationships are developed to relate the characteristics of a controller transfer function to the stiffness and damping properties of an active magnetic bearing for machine rotors. Both proportional and derivative feedback are shown to be necessary for closed-loop system stability, and, for the ideal case, bearing stiffness and damping properties are shown to be simple linear functions of the proportional and derivative feedback gain constants, respectively. The flexibility of a digitally controlled magnetic bearing is demonstrated by the implementation of algorithms which include second-derivative and integral feedback. Second-derivative feedback is shown to be effective at extending the usable bandwidth of the digital controller, and integral feedback rejects rotor position error in the presence of static loads. The relationship between controller sampling rate and bearing performance is investigated, and it is shown that increased sampling rate and increased amounts of second-derivative feedback have similar effects on the bearing properties

37.1.5    T. Egami, H. Morita, T. Tsuchiya, "Efficiency optimized model reference adaptive control system for a DC motor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 28-33, Feb 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The efficiency of a separately excited DC motor is improved by controlling both armature current and field current simultaneously. The model reference adaptive control system (MRACS) can be useful for this control problem because parameter values and load disturbance (load torque) of controlled objects vary greatly. Two adaptive control systems for efficiency-optimized speed control are proposed on the basis of MRACS theory and the error system method. These are MRACS based on the current ratio method and on the voltage/current ratio method. In these systems, integral action is introduced into MRACS to cope with the step-load disturbance. Although the parameter variation of the voltage/current ratio MRACS method is large, the number of parameters to be adjusted is small as compared with that in the current ratio MRACS method. For each method, fast transient response and good characteristics are obtained for the parameter changes, step-load disturbance, and step desired signal in simulation studies. Efficiency is considerably improved by these methods at a light-load condition

37.1.6    J.S. Hsu, A.M.A. Amin, "Torque calculations of current-source induction machines using the 1-2-0 coordinate system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 34-40, Feb 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors extend the use of the classical induction motor equations obtained through the 1-2-0 coordinate system to cover situations with nonsinusoidal, chopped current sources. Detailed analysis is demonstrated through the widely used six-pulse, current-source-inverter-fed induction machines. The derivations of two different types of analytical torque equation (time-domain and frequency-domain series equations) are given. Their results are compared with each other and with results obtained from extensive air-gap and shaft torque measurements. The only difference in results between the frequency- and time-domain methods is that the voltage pulse corresponding to the switching is not included in the time-domain method; however, a voltage spike, as indicated by the frequency-domain-series method, would be expected at each switching point because of the rapid change of flux linkage. Test results agree with calculated results

37.1.7    C.C. Chan, W.S. Leung, C.W. Ng, "Adaptive decoupling control of induction motor drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 41-47, Feb 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel control approach for a robust induction motor drive system with a voltage source inverter has been developed. In the scheme, the induction motor and its corresponding inverter gating signal are controlled using the decoupling control theory. In addition, an adaptive optimal speed regulator employing the model reference adaptive control (MRAC) is incorporated into the drive system to compensate for unfavorable errors. The principles and special features of the control scheme are discussed, and the configuration of the drive system is presented. Comparison is made between conventional proportional plus integral (PI) control and the MRAC. Test results show the robustness and superior dynamic performance of the proposed control system

37.1.8    N. Mutoh, A. Ueda, K. Sakai, M. Hattori, K. Nandoh, "Stabilizing control method for suppressing oscillations of induction motors driven by PWM inverters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 48-56, Feb 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel control method that suppresses oscillations generated when an induction motor is driven by PWM (pulse width modulated) inverters is described. The suppression is done by keeping the power direction constant throughout the period of oscillation of the negative current component of the inverter input current. This period is determined only by the frequency of the PWM signals. Because it is not affected by motor parameters, such as the number of poles or motor capacity, the gains of the regulator in the control system do not have to be adjusted, even if this method is applied to various kinds of induction motor drive systems. Experiments have proven that oscillations can be suppressed regardless of the motor type or speed. This stabilizing control is suitable for general-purpose inverters that drive various types of motors

37.1.9    D. Vincenti, P.D. Ziogas, R.V. Patel, "A PC-based pulse-width modulator for static converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 57-69, Feb 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Developments in power control techniques for pulse-width-modulated inverters are often ignored because of lack of time for adequate testing and evaluation. A programmable PC-based pulse-width modulator that is designed to alleviate this problem is described. The modulator is capable of generating, in ready-to-use form, gating signals for most types of carrier or programmable pulse-width modulation (PWM) scheme under open-loop operating conditions and for most types of converter. It can also generate and display associated converter-output voltage and current waveforms and their respective frequency spectra for further evaluation of selected PWM schemes. Therefore, tasks such as the selection of PWM strategy, switching frequencies, and voltage/frequency curves (for variable-speed AC drives under open-loop control) are easier to perform. Moreover, the proposed research and development tool differs from similar devices in that it is user friendly, multipurpose, and versatile. Selected performance features of the developed prototype are demonstrated by presenting the associated experimental waveforms

37.1.10    S.K. Tso, K.H. Tang, "Digital control strategies for sinewave-output cycloconverters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 70-76, Feb 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Digital control strategies for obtaining sinewave output for a current-source cycloconverter with fast dynamic response are presented. The proposed dual-multiprocessor control system ensures high-quality output. By means of a parameter estimator, it is possible to deduce the instantaneous voltage reference for the cycloconverter without resorting to a high-gain loop. With an appropriate forgetting factor chosen, the estimator is capable of fast tracking, and a reliable, stable voltage reference is thereby produced. Improvement using digital feedback control is achieved by adjusting the loop gain according to the instantaneous input reference level. The resulting current source shows excellent steady-state and transient performance in response to system disturbances, and it generally achieves good waveforms. It also works for induction motor loads under normal running conditions and should find wide application as an adjustable-frequency high-performance power convertor

37.1.11    H.M. El-Bolok, M.E. Masoud, M.M. Mahmoud, "A microprocessor-based adaptive power factor corrector for nonlinear loads," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 77-81, Feb 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A microprocessor-based adaptive power factor corrector for poor power factor (linear or nonlinear) loads is introduced. The system power factor is measured by the microprocessor and compared with a predetermined reference value. Accordingly, the microprocessor adjusts the power factor to get the predetermined value. This is achieved by controlling the firing angle of a thyristorized static VAR (volt-ampere reactive) compensator through microcomputer software. The system power factor is measured by the microprocessor at every supply cycle, and the above sequence is repeated. The proposed scheme achieves both accurate measurement and adjustment of the system power factor

37.1.12    P.T. Ho, S.K. Tso, "Fast extraction of positive-sequence current from harmonically corrupted three-phase currents for TCR compensator control systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 82-85, Feb 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors discuss a practical scheme for extracting the magnitude of the positive-sequence component from harmonically corrupted three-phase currents found in modern energy systems. The scheme is cost-effective, fast, and simple in design, with the novel combination of software processing and digital and analog circuits. The scheme has been successfully applied to a microprocessor-based thyristor-controlled reactor (TCR) control system and is suitable for similar real-time applications that already include one or more processing units. It is demonstrated that the scheme is adequately fast for the TCR control system because the extraction delay is typically less than half a cycle. The scheme is especially suitable for microprocessor-based control systems because the averaging function can be advantageously performed by software

37.1.13    T. Furuhashi, S. Okuma, Y. Uchikawa, "A study on the theory of instantaneous reactive power," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 86-90, Feb 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new definition of instantaneous reactive power is presented. This definition has a clear physical meaning that includes both the conventional instantaneous reactive power and the instantaneous power of a zero-phase component. A simple control algorithm for the active filter derived from the new definition is described. Simulations verified the control algorithm

37.1.14    P.N. Enjeti, P.D. Ziogas, "Analysis of a static power converter under unbalance: a novel approach," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 91-93, Feb 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A general analysis procedure for a static power converter using the transfer function approach is presented. This method provides for closed-form expressions for all harmonics under balanced and unbalanced operating conditions. Unbalance in voltage magnitude and phase angle and errors in switching angles can be easily incorporated into the analysis. An example illustrating the effectiveness of this approach is given

37.1.15    Vineeta, K. Kant, "An efficient algorithm for the control of a microprocessor-based single-phase to three-phase cycloconverter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 93-95, Feb 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An efficient algorithm is designed to calculate the intersection points of a cosine wave and a reference wave in a cycloconverter. The proposed algorithm requires a smaller number of comparisons to calculate the required intersections than the conventional linear search method; hence, processor time is reduced. The algorithm can be implemented on a microprocessor-based cycloconverter multiple feedback system. The reduced number of comparisons as compared with the linear search method make the algorithm useful for many applications in microprocessor-based control circuits

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 37,  Number 2, April 1990           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




37.2.1    J.A. De Abreu-Garcia, T.T. Hartley, F. Mossayebi, "On matrix integrators for real-time simulation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 113-118, April 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A matrix integration method is generalized to systems with zero eigenvalues. It is shown that the regression coefficients of the integrator can be determined without explicitly computing the inverse of the system Jacobian. This is done by transforming the original system into a new system whose Jacobian is in block upper triangular form. A numerical example is included for illustrative purposes

37.2.2    R.M.H. Cheng, S.C.L. Poon, T. Montor, "Adaptive synchronization control of a robotic manipulator operating in an intelligent workcell," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 119-126, April 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The formulation and implementation of a synchronization control scheme applicable to a robotic workcell is described. Such a workcell typically consists of a conveyor system that transports industrial workpieces, a binary camera to recognize the geometric and other characteristics of the workpiece, and a robotic manipulator that is suitably controlled to direct its end effector to achieve a synchronized rendezvous with the workpiece. Subsequent to a successful rendezvous, the robot may pick up the piece (in pick-an-place operations) or perform such other online operations as assembly, processing, or quality inspection. A methodology to ensure rapid rendezvous with accurate tracking is emphasized. Simulation and implementation results are compared and discussed

37.2.3    P.K. Nandam, P.C. Sen, "A comparative study of a Luenberger observer and adaptive observer-based variable structure speed control system using a self-controlled synchronous motor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 127-132, April 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An analysis of the state-observer-based robust speed control of a self-controlled synchronous motor (SCSM) is presented. A variable-structure control technique is utilized to achieve robust (parameter-insensitive) characteristics. The speed and acceleration signals required for the implementation of the variable-structure speed control (VSSC) are dynamically estimated with state observers. Two kinds of observers-the Luenberger full-order observer and an adaptive observer-are explored. The results obtained illustrate that Luenberger observers do not estimate the system states accurately when the system parameters vary. This inaccuracy in the state estimation results in a deterioration of the VSSC performance. Therefore, the possibility of using an adaptive state observer (ASO) is investigated. It is shown that the ASO estimates the system parameters and the system states simultaneously, thus making VSSC possible. The design methods and simulation results are presented to demonstrate the potential of the scheme

37.2.4    A. Lumsdaine, J.H. Lang, "State observers for variable-reluctance motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 133-142, April 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A sequence of progressively more complex state observers, each driven by measurements of phase voltages and currents, is developed for variable-reluctance motors. For the simpler observers, the exponential stability of their error dynamics in a neighborhood of the origin is proved. For all observers, the results of numerical or physical experiments are provided to demonstrate the globally stable error dynamics. In several of the physical experiments, rotor position is estimated to better than one part in 50000 of a revolution

37.2.5    P.N. Enjeti, P.D. Ziogas, J.F. Lindsay, M.H. Rashid, "A new PWM speed control system for high-performance AC motor drives ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 143-151, April 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An approach to speed control for AC motor drives that uses programmed PWM (pulse width modulation) switching patterns over the complete range of output speed is presented. The scheme provides smooth operation during the required switching-pattern changes and guarantees high-quality output voltage and current in the AC motor load, making it most suitable for high-performance, high-efficiency applications. A detailed description of the scheme and its realization is provided. Results of an experimental investigation on a variable-speed induction motor and a permanent-magnet synchronous motor drive system illustrate the advantages of the scheme

37.2.6    H.M. El-Bolok, "A microprocessor-based firing circuit for thyristors working under a three-phase variable-frequency supply," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 152-155, April 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A microprocessor-based firing scheme for controlling antiparallel-connected thyristors working under a three-phase variable frequency supply is presented. The firing angle is controlled by microcomputer software. The desired firing angle is given to the microprocessor and is then kept constant irrespective of supply frequency. This is achieved by measuring the frequency of one-phase (or line-to-line) voltage at every supply voltage cycle and accordingly adjusting the required time delay to get the desired firing angle for the thyristors of each phase. The required hardware is considerably reduced by using a zero-crossing detector for only the one-phase (or line-to-line) voltage of the three-phase supply. The firing instants of the thyristors connected to the other two phases are adjusted relative to the calculated instant of firing for the thyristors connected to the measured phase. The hardware and software used to implement the firing scheme are described

37.2.7    H.M. El-Bolek, S.S. Abd-El-Hamid, "A microprocessor-based self-adjusting system for integral cycle power control of RL loads," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 156-159, April 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A microprocessor-based method is introduced to eliminate the DC current offset component in integral cycle-controlled resistive and inductive (RL) loads. After choosing a suitable initial value of the triac (or thyristor) firing angle α (90° for best results), the microprocessor adjusts α, bringing it closer to the load power factor angle φ at every burst of conduction. A firing angle that is almost equal to φ is reached after few bursts. This eliminates the undesired DC current offset component. The use of the microprocessor allows a simpler and more flexible solution to the problem than conventional techniques

37.2.8    M.K. Kazimierczuk, X.T. Bui, "Class-E amplifier with an inductive impedance inverter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 160-166, April 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A design procedure and experimental results are presented for a class-E amplifier with an inductive impedance inverter. Experimental waveforms and characteristics measured at 1 MHz with an IRF620 MOSFET are given for the amplifier, which can operate under zero-voltage switching conditions for load resistances ranging from a short circuit to an open circuit. As the load resistance is increased at a fixed frequency, (1) the output power decreases, (2) a maximum efficiency of 96% occurs for optimum operation, (3) the peak values of the transistor voltage and the transistor current decrease, (4) the normalized peak values of the transistor voltage decrease, and (5) the normalized peak values of the transistor current increase

37.2.9    J.H.R. Enslin, J.D. Van Wyk, P. Van Rhyn, J.J. Schoeman, "Low-voltage, high-efficiency switch-mode high-power inverters for AC link converter applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 167-172, April 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A 30 kVA high-frequency link converter, which consists of 6×5 kVA center-tap power block topologies operating in parallel, is considered for battery-fed DC-AC converter applications. Practical solutions for minimizing currents circulating between the different power blocks, avoiding transformer saturation in forced commutated center-tap topologies, and minimizing transistor-on losses are incorporated and illustrated by means of practical measurements and results. A simple single-capacitor snubber network, operating in parallel with a second-stage capacitor snubber, is used for these converter types. Typical applications include mobile and telecommunications uninterruptible power supply systems; high AC-voltage loads fed from photovoltaic or hybrid energy systems; and battery-fed, mobile, variable-speed AC and DC drives

37.2.10    J.J. Jozwik, M.K. Kazimierczuk, "Analysis and design of class-E2 DC/DC converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 173-183, April 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A family of class-E2 DC/DC power converters is introduced. Their analysis and design are presented and experimentally verified. The converters are composed of class-E inverters and class-E rectifiers. Zero-voltage switching (with low dv/dt) of the transistor and zero-current switching (with low di/dt ) of the rectifier diode reduce switching losses in both stages of the converters, making them especially suitable for high-frequency operation. Because of the high loaded quality factor of the resonant circuit, the range of frequency required for output-voltage regulation is as narrow as 5.46% for load resistances from a full load of 100 Ω to an open circuit. The full-load overall efficiency is 80.36% at 1 MHz. The converters can also operate at a fixed frequency if synchronous rectifiers are applied. The reduction of class-E2 converters to lower order converters is presented. Many multiresonant converter topologies are created in this way. The class-E2 converters can be utilized to build highly efficient high-power-density switching power supplies

37.2.11    C.W. De Silva, "Design equations for the tooth distribution of stepping motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 184-186, April 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Two design equations for stepping motors are developed in terms of number of phases, number of poles per phase, number of stator teeth per pole, number of steps per revolution, step angle, tooth pitch of the rotor, and tooth pitch of the stator. Two tooth distribution configurations are considered. In one type of motor, the tooth pitch of the rotor is not equal to the tooth pitch of the stator. In the second type, the two pitch angles are equal, but there is a pole-to-pole offset in the stator tooth distribution to generate the necessary driving torque. A typical use of the design equations is illustrated using numerical examples. The design equations can be used in the evaluation of existing motors and in the design of new motors

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 37,  Number 3, June 1990           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




37.3.1    C.M. Lim, "Experimental evaluation of a self-tuning controller," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 193-194, June 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A self-tuning control (STC) scheme is examined in real time by comparing its performance with that of two other control schemes. Experimental results show that the controller is superior to a well-known conventional self-tuning controller and a proportional-plus-integral (PI) self-tuning controller whose parameters are selected on the basis of a pole assignment method. The control scheme can be extended to multi-input multi-output systems

37.3.2    P.A.W. Walker, F.A. Torkey, "On-line self-tuning control of processes with inaccessible state ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 195-202, June 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The practical implementation of an explicit multivariable state-space self-tuning controller using a hybrid configured microcomputer system is described. The control structure is based on the minimization of a multistage quadratic performance index using dynamic programming or a single-stage performance index based on a Lyapunov function. Measurement of readily available output measurements from the controlled plant is all that is required. The system hardware is centered around a 16-b Sirius microcomputer interfaced to an analog computer on which the plant is simulated. Application software is handled under the MS-DOS operating system using a mixture of high-level and low-level programming languages

37.3.3    J.H.R. Enslin, J.D. Van Wyk, M. Naude, "Adaptive, closed-loop control of dynamic power filters as fictitious power compensators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 203-211, June 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new control philosophy, utilizing both thyristor-controlled reactive (TCR) sources and dynamic power filters (DPFs) has been proposed by J.H.R. Enslin and J.D. Van Wyk (IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol.5, no.1, 1990) in the application of fictitious power compensation. This study shows the closed-loop control of a DPF using an adaptive signal processing algorithm based on the cross-correlation between the voltage and current waveforms. The control strategy is based on the derivation of equivalent network parameters, which are calculated from digital time domain cross-correlation signal processing techniques and implemented with the aid of a microcomputer. Practical results under quasidynamic operating conditions obtained from a 15 kVA three-phase dynamic power filter are given

37.3.4    G.O. Beale, "Real-time simulation of dynamic systems on a pyramid architecture ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 212-220, June 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The applicability of a pyramid architecture, the GAM-2 pyramid computer, for the real-time simulation of dynamic systems is demonstrated. The architecture of the computer and the manner in which data are exchanged between processing elements are discussed. The author focuses on how the differential equations and the various computational units of the integration algorithm can be partitioned among the processing elements at the different levels in the pyramid in order to minimize the computation and data transfer times. The required computation time of an integration cycle is evaluated, and conclusions are drawn concerning the efficiency of using the GAM-2 pyramid and similar structures for digital simulation

37.3.5    G.F. Mauer, "On-line cylinder fault diagnostics for internal combustion engines ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 221-226, June 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The ability to continuously monitor internal combustion engines for the existence and location of faults can improve engine reliability and reduce operating costs. The diagnostics method is based on recording the engine speed fluctuations at the flywheel and at the front end of the engine over one combustion cycle. From the speed fluctuations, the cylinder-to-cylinder variations of the net engine torque are computed. The performance deterioration of an individual cylinder is detected as a drop of computed torque. The diagnostic hardware consists of a digital engine speed data acquisition system and an embedded controller and is suited for in-vehicle installation. The method, suited for any multicylinder engine, detects the location and severity of faults during normal engine operation. Adjustments for individual engines of the same class are not required

37.3.6    E.Y.Y. Ho, P.C. Sen, "A microcontroller-based induction motor drive system using variable structure strategy with decoupling," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 227-235, June 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The sliding-mode control concept is applied in the outer loop of a speed drive system utilizing a series-connected wound rotor induction machine (SCWRIM). A design procedure is outlined for the sliding-mode speed controller. The methods of decoupling and torque linearization for the SCWRIM are derived using the field-orientation as well as the torque angle control concepts. Sliding-mode control with cascaded integral operation is used to reduce torque chattering and steady-state error. Accelerator sliding lines are introduced to enable better utilization of the torque capability of the drive system. The parameter-insensitive response provided by this method of control is demonstrated. The effects on the dynamic and static performance with varying drive inertia and load disturbance are studied and compared with the conventional approach using PI control. The influences of sampling effects on sliding-mode control performance are also illustrated and discussed. Microcontroller-based implementation of the speed drive system is employed. Both simulation and experimental results are presented

37.3.7    S. Matsuda, H. Ogi, K. Nishimura, Y. Okataku, S. Tamura, "Power system voltage control by distributed expert systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 236-240, June 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A case study of the application of a distributed control scheme to a power system control is presented. In addition, an investigation has been conducted into voltage control. Combined injection of VAr-compensating devices controlled by distributed expert systems has been proposed as a measure to maintain voltage stability in a power system under heavy loading conditions. A simulation study has been carried out by using five workstations that represent a power system and four VAr-compensating devices. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system for voltage recovery

37.3.8    S.A. Hall, "Pulse-width-modulating control of a nonlinear electromagnetic actuator," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 241-249, June 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The performance of a fast, nonlinear, clapper-type electromagnetic actuator used in impact printing is controlled by real-time measurement and feedback. The objective is to regulate flight time, which is the time from start to actuation to impact. Toward this end, control is applied digitally via pulse-width modulation of a series of coil-driving pulses, which together propel the armature through its trajectory. Each pulse is modulated individually based on state-variable errors measured on its rising edge. The functional relationships between the measured state-variable errors and the required pulse-width modulations are derived systematically, using a computer-controlled method involving trial-and-error experimentation followed by statistical regression. The resulting control law accounts for both mechanical and electrical perturbations and is expressed in an analytic format that can be applied either by look-up tables or by direct computation. Using look-up tables, typical closed-loop operation is shown to achieve dramatic reductions in flight-time error when compared with open-loop operation

37.3.9    K. Mine, Y. Morimoto, "Methods of alternating noise canceling for an instrumentation using strain gages," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 250-252, June 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A description is given of methods of noise canceling in instrumentation using strain gages, such as a sensor-sensordummy, a dual sensor, and a single sensor. As an example, two signals were produced by alternating the switching between the sensor and sensordummy output signals. The data processing of the two signals made a reliable signal without any noise on the signal line. In this case, `any noise' means normal mode noise (NMN) under a quarter frequency of the switching. The accuracy of this method, called alternating noise canceling, has been verified with experiments

37.3.10    A. Valenzano, L. Ciminiera, "Performance evaluation of MiniMAP networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 253-258, June 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A simulation study of the performances of MiniMAP networks is presented. The two network models used in the simulation take into account the effect of the maximum number of outstanding requests set for each manufacturing message specification (MMS) application association. Three different situations are considered. In the first, all the messages are generated at the same priority level, whereas in the other two, four priority classes that are directly mapped onto channel priorities are introduced. However, the second situation considers the use of priorities only on the client side of MMS, whereas the third uses priorities on both sides

37.3.11    J. Caven, J. Jackman, "An icon-based approach to system control development," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 259-264, June 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The implementation of an icon-based manufacturing message specification (MMS) messaging system for system control in a manufacturing automation protocol (MAP environment) is described. The system was designed with a four-layer hierarchy. The top layer acts as a user interface and essentially provides a data manipulation service. The next layer invokes the appropriate firmware calls to manage the communication process. The third layer consists of the firmware that handles the actual transmission of data across the network. The lowest level is the actual network hardware. Twelve MMS services were implemented in order to provide the capability to carry out a typical control session. The system was tested using software that simulates the external communications of an MMS virtual manufacturing device. The LabVIEW MAP environment used imposed at least two limitations on the operation of the system. First, LabVIEW makes no provision for data structures; therefore, each parameter had to be passed from the MMS layer to the code VI layer as a variable of a specific data type. Second, LabVIEW provides no convenient way to maintain global variables throughout a diagram

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 37,  Number 4, August 1990           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




37.4.1    J.-P. Jiang, S. Chen, P.K. Sinha, "Optimal feedback control of direct-current motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 269-274, August 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A methodology for real-time speed control of a thyristor-driven DC motor in the presence of measurement noise and load torque disturbance is developed. An optimal state feedback controller using the Kalman-filter state estimation technique is derived. This is followed by an adaptive control algorithm to compensate for the effects of noise and disturbance. These two algorithms working together are capable of providing a very high-speed regulation and dynamic response over a wide range of operating conditions. Simulated responses using an i80386-based PC with a mathematics coprocessor are presented to highlight the effectiveness of the control strategy

37.4.2    Tian-Hua Liu, Chang-Huan Liu, "Implementation of AC servo controllers employing frequency-domain optimization techniques," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 275-282, August 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The design and implementation of a permanent magnet synchronous motor drive based on H2 and H optimal control theory are presented. A mathematical model of the drive is introduced. Based on appropriate assumptions, the model is reduced to a second-order, linear time-invariant system so that the H2 and H optimization techniques are applicable. H2 and H controllers are derived on the basis of the simplified model. A stability analysis is conducted, and stability regions based on controller tuning parameters and sampling periods are constructed. The relationship between closed-loop bandwidth and sampling period due to discretization effect is investigated. Implementation of the controllers and experimental results are described. A multiprocessor-based, fully digital control system is used to realize and experimentally verify the H2 and H control algorithms. Controller performance is evaluated in terms of speed and position responses, and closed-loop and sensitivity frequency responses

37.4.3    T. Murata, T. Tsuchiya, I. Takeda, "Vector control for induction machine on the application of optimal control theory," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 283-290, August 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An approach for constructing a field-oriented control system using the state-space method is proposed. The field-oriented control system can be realized by coinciding the synchronously rotating reference frame with the axes of the secondary flux linkage reference frame and by simultaneously but independently adjusting the three control inputs. A control-system synthesis method that achieves speed control, field-oriented control, and constant flux control simultaneously is presented. The control system has a full-state feedback structure and is synthesized by applying a multi-input and multi-output optimal regulator theory. The excellent robustness of the constructed system results in zero steady-state errors for changes in parameters such as rotor resistance. The validity of the control scheme is verified by simulation studies. Results are presented for a field-oriented induction motor driven by a PWM (pulse-width modulation) inverter

37.4.4    R. Krishnan, G.-H. Rim, "Modeling, simulation, and analysis of variable-speed constant frequency power conversion scheme with a permanent magnet brushless DC generator," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 291-296, August 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A variable-speed, constant-frequency (VSCF) power-conversion scheme with a permanent magnet DC (PMDC) brushless generator is proposed. The scheme is completely modeled for steady state by integrating the characteristic equations of the generator, the diode rectifier bridge and the inverter, and the harmonic characteristics for steady-state performance computation. Commutation overlap effects are also included. Key performance characteristics are experimentally verified with a laboratory prototype. The excellent correlation between the predicted and experimental results confirms the validity of the model. For the purpose of filter design, harmonics of the rectified generator voltages are analytically derived. A recommendation for overcoming the low power factor on the utility side at low speeds using the forced-commutated converters is given

37.4.5    A.K.S. Bhat, M.M. Swamny, "Analysis and design of a parallel resonant converter including the effect of a high-frequency transformer," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 297-306, August 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A high-frequency (HF)-link DC-DC parallel resonant converter (PRC) operating above resonance is analyzed using the state-space approach. The analysis includes the effect of the leakage and magnetizing inductances of the high-frequency transformer. Steady-state solutions are derived and used to obtain the design curves. A method of obtaining an optimum operating point under certain constraints is developed and used as the basis of a simple design procedure. The analysis shows that including an HF transformer introduces a new mode of operation in between the two general steady-state modes. Experimental results obtained with a MOSFET-based PRC for three different transformer turns ratios are presented to support the theory. Efficiencies of about 89% were obtained for 985 W, 115 V, and 230 V output converters, whereas an efficiency of about 86% was obtained for a 15 V, 63 A converter. It was observed that the introduction of the transformer considerably affected the performance, especially in the case of low output voltage and large load current converters

37.4.6    M.A. Manzoul, "Multiple overcurrent relays using a single microprocessor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 307-309, August 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The implementation of a four-overcurrent-relay system using a single 8085 microprocessor is described. The implementation is based on the concept of multitasking in microprocessors. The relays are considered to be independent of each other. Each relay is realized by a separable counter and a look-up table in the memory. The software development and hardware testing are done using the HP-64000 UX Microprocessor Development System. The system does not depend on the 8085 microprocessor; other microprocessors can be used. The hardware and software are modular, and more relays can be added

37.4.7    Vineeta, K. Kant, "Microcomputer-based single-phase to three-phase cycloconverter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 310-316, August 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A microprocessor application for a single-phase to three-phase cycloconverter is presented. An algorithm is formulated for the cosine-wave modulation method so that it requires only one reference wave (RW) to generate the trigger pulses for all three phases. The method is implemented on an 8085 microprocessor system with output frequencies that are integer submultiples of the input frequency. The operating principle of the cycloconverter is reviewed. A complete software design of the scheme is given, and test results are presented for an induction motor load. The difference between the experimental and the calculated values of the firing angle is in the range of 0 to 0.51° for the selected step size of 1°. This can be reduced further by reducing the step size from 1° to some lower value. Output voltage and current waveforms for an induction motor load approach sinusoidal

37.4.8    M. Emaami, H.C. Wood, H.M. Skarsgard, "A controller for plasma motion in a Tokamak based on model estimation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 317-322, August 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A simple model and its application in designing the plasma position control system in the Saskatoon Torus Medium (STOR-M ) Tokamak are described. Estimating the model parameters, the design of a controller, plasma position measurement, the design of a power driver, and the implementation and testing of the complete system are included. The following assumptions are made to simplify the plasma position model: the plasma is treated as a moving axisymmetric, current-carrying filament; the iron-core of the transformer is approximated by an infinitely long cylinder; and the STOR-M vacuum vessel is constructed of type-304L stainless steel, is circular in cross-section, and is 4 mm in thickness. The model was very useful in the early stages of the design, but due to practical constraints the parameters of the model could not be determined very accurately. A least-squares-error algorithm was used offline to determine revised estimates of the model's parameters. Based on these values, the PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controller was tuned. A 30 kA plasma has been successfully contained for a time of 50 ms, which is the maximum time required for this machine

37.4.9    V. Anunciada, M.M. Silva, "New constant-frequency current-mode control for power converters, stable for all values of duty ratio, and usable in all four quadrants ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 323-325, August 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A constant-frequency, current-mode, pulse-width modulator (PWM) for switching power converters is presented. The PWM is stable for any value of the duty ration (δ) and is suitable for operation in one to four quadrants of the output current-voltage plane. The control system can be used with most DC-DC power-converter topologies. Due to its unique properties of δ range stability and four-quadrant operation, the control process is particularly useful in DC-AC conversion. The process is clearly advantageous compared to the other current-mode control method, the bang-bang process. It has all the advantages inherent to constant-frequency operation, including the possibility of paralleling different converters without low-frequency beating and the suppression of low-frequency subharmonics in DC-AC conversion

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 37,  Number 5, Oct 1990           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




37.5.1    T.M. Jahns, "Designing intelligent muscle into industrial motion control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 329-341, Oct 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Following a brief discussion of the underlying PIC (power integrated circuit) semiconductor technology, a tutorial review of PIC applications in a broad spectrum of stepper, DC, brushless DC, and AC motor drive configurations is presented. PIC designs used in motor drives covering a range of power ratings from <100 W to >10 kW are surveyed. Strengths and limitations of present PIC technology are discussed, revealing likely directions for future PIC developments and their potential impact on tomorrow's motion control systems

37.5.2    P.M. Pelczewski, U.H. Kunz, "The optimal control of a constrained drive system with brushless DC motor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 342-348, Oct 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The optimal (according to the quadratic performance index) control method of a drive position system with an electronically commutated brushless DC motor is discussed. Initially developed for linear, unconstrained, and undistributed systems, this optimal control method is now applied to a system having constrained state and input variables (e.g. armature voltage, armature current, rotor speed) and unknown disturbances (e.g. load torque). The method uses an undisturbed and unconstrained model for a model-following adaptive control of the real system. The control method is verified through computer simulation using the data from a real drive position system. Results show that the controlled system operates effectively at the limiting state variables, which represent the real system. In addition, the final position is reached without overshoots

37.5.3    Bum-Jae You, Young Seok Oh, Zeungnam Bien, "A vision system for an automatic assembly machine of electronic components," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 349-357, Oct 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A vision system for the automatic assembly of electronic components is developed. The vision system presents information about positions, orientations, and quality of rectangular-shaped electronic components in real time. The orientation is detected by the windowed Hough transform along with a simple edge-detection method, whereas the position of each component is determined by using the projection method with dynamic thresholding. In addition, real-time implementation of the vision system in which multiple central processors are used for parallel processing of the algorithms is described

37.5.4    H. Zhang, G. Trott, R.P. Paul, "Minimum delay PID control of interpolated joint trajectories of robot manipulators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 358-364, Oct 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The digital implementation of an optimal PID (proportional integral derivative) controller of linearly interpolated joint trajectories is presented. The controller obtains optimal performance by reformulating the PID control law to minimize the time delay between the position transducer reading and the application of the corrective torque. Compared with the PID controller that is computed in a straightforward fashion, this formulation reduces the time delay by a factor of three. The superior performance of the proposed minimum-delay PID (MD PID) is demonstrated by experiments on a robot manipulator. Other practical issues associated with a digital PID control of joint trajectories of a robot manipulator, such as integer overflow and compensation for dynamics and joint-friction, are discussed

37.5.5    S. Tzafestas, N.P. Papanikolopoulos, "Incremental fuzzy expert PID control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 365-371, Oct 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An approach to intelligent PID (proportional integral derivative) control of industrial systems which is based on the application of fuzzy logic is presented. This approach assumes that one has available nominal controller parameter settings through some classical tuning technique (Ziegler-Nichols, Kalman, etc.). By using an appropriate fuzzy matrix (similar to Macvicar-Whelan matrix), it is possible to determine small changes on these values during the system operation, and these lead to improved performance of the transient and steady behavior of the closed-loop system. This is achieved at the expense of some small extra computational effort, which can be very easily undertaken by a microprocessor. Several experimental results illustrate the improvements achieved

37.5.6    L.A. Dessaint, B.J. Hebert, H. Le-Huy, G. Cavuoti, "A DSP-based adaptive controller for a smooth positioning system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 372-377, Oct 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The implementation of a self-tuning regulator for the positioning of a direct-drive servomotor is described. The servo motor is a permanent magnet DC motor in which no speed reducer is used. The auto-tuning regulator consists of two major loops. The inner loop contains a feedback (PD or PID) regulator with additional feedforward terms. The parameters of the feedforward compensation are adjusted by the outer loop, which contains an online parameter estimator. The estimator is based on a recursive least-squares equation, and the estimated parameters are the load inertia and viscous friction. This self-tuning regulator has been simulated with PC.MATLAB, and the results demonstrate the high performance of the scheme. Experimental results obtained with a small DC motor (Electrocraft E-576) are presented, and these results show good agreement with the digital simulation results. There are two innovative aspects to this work. First, parameter estimation is used to adapt the feedforward compensation terms instead of the gains of the feedback controller, as usually is the case in conventional indirect self-tuning regulators. Secondly, the complete adaptive controller has been implemented using a single-chip digital signal processor (DSP), which results in the reduction of system hardware and cost

37.5.7    M. Yamaguchi, T. Saito, M. Izumitani, S. Sugita, Y. Tsutsumi, "Analysis of control characteristics using fuel cell plant simulator ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 378-386, Oct 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: To estimate the operational characteristics of duel cell power plants, the authors developed a dynamic simulator and analyzed the operating characteristics. In the simulations, attention is given to the pressure difference between the cathode and anode of the fuel cell and the system base pressure. The former is important for safe operation of the fuel cell and the latter is important for safe operation of the reformer. For load following and shut-down modes of the 1 MW plant studied, calculation results were compared with actual test results and agree fairly well

37.5.8    S. Lorenzo, J.M. Ruiz, F. Aldana, M. Shaker, "A new modeling and simulation CAD package for power converter design," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 387-397, Oct 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The PECADS software CAD package is a powerful PC-based tool, used in the study and design of power electronics, in which a new real structure simulation concept has been developed. The system has the capability for steady-state simulation, which allows topology election, FFT analysis, etc., and for slow down real-time simulation, which allows system identification, digital regulator synthesis, and closed-loop system simulation. The full PECADS package also includes power semiconductors, protection sizing (using the magnitudes simulation capability), and a dedicated expert system that generates the most adequate switching pattern sequence for every application. The total system is fully open to expansion or improvement

37.5.9    N.C. Das, A.K. Mukhopadhyay, "Microprocessor-based on-line monitoring and characterization of power factor of a synchronous motor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 398-401, Oct 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An attempt is made to develop a microprocessor-based system for online monitoring of the power factor of a synchronous motor. The method is based purely on software design with the use of two resistors (of small ohmic values and high current carrying capacity) connected in series with the field circuit and load circuit, which generate the reference signals for the microprocessor. However, for mechanical loading, the resistance in the load circuit may be replaced by a torque transducer. The interesting feature of the system is its capability to characterize the status (i.e. leading, lagging, or unity) of the power factor. The system is helpful in providing necessary information for power factor corrections leading to the best utilization of the synchronous motor

37.5.10    B.K. Bose, "An adaptive hysteresis-band current control technique of a voltage-fed PWM inverter for machine drive system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 402-408, Oct 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An adaptive hysteresis-band control method where the band is modulated with the system parameters to maintain the modulation frequency to be nearly constant is described. Although the technique is applicable to general AC motor drives and other types of load, an interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous machine load is considered. Systematic analytical expressions of the hysteresis band are derived as functions of system parameters. An IPM machine drive system with a voltage-fed current-controlled PWM (pulse width modulation) inverter has been computer simulated to study the performance of the proposed method

37.5.11    L.D. Salazar, P.D. Ziogas, "A high-frequency forward DC/DC converter topology with transformer flux balancing capability," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 409-418, Oct 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The analysis and design of a high-frequency forward DC/DC power converter topology with transformer flux balancing capability is presented. The converter utilizes a main switch for load current commutation and an auxiliary switch for transformer flux balancing. Moreover, the converter topology provides the means to recover the energy associated with the parasitic inductances of the circuit components, thus yielding high efficiency and allowing for high operating frequencies. Experimental results for a 1 kW, 20 kHz prototype unit are presented

37.5.12    R.K.F. Teng, A.A. Mostafa, A. Karim, "Study of solar cell fabrication using an electrostatic thick-film printing method," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 419-423, Oct 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel thick-film circuit printing technique which is based on the electrostatic principle known as noncontact electrostatic thick-film printing was developed for the metallization of edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) solar cells. The conventional thick-film solar cell inks were modified by adding 10-20% terpineol solvent. The effects of ink viscosity, applied voltages, nozzle diameter, and nozzle-to-substrate distance on line definition and ink-flow rate were investigated. A simple theoretical model was derived for the electrostatic ink ejection. The minimum line width obtained was 3 mm. Multilayer printing was able to be used to raise the line film thickness. The maximum line width obtained was about 20-30 mm for a single run. The system is now completely computercontrolled and capable of printing films onto solar cell substrates reliably, with a high degree of accuracy. Multiple-layer prints can be made with food layer-to-layer registration

37.5.13    Hurng-Liahng Jou, Hui-Yung Chu, Ching-Lien Huang, Chin-Hsing Chen, "A shortest data window algorithm for detecting the peak value of sinusoidal signals," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 424-425, Oct 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A digital algorithm for detecting the peak value of known-frequency sinusoidal signals is proposed. The algorithm detects the peak value of a sinusoidal signal exactly and uses only two successive sampled data points for each peak value calculation. Hence, its transient response is only a sampling period. Simulation results show that this algorithm is applicable to detecting the peak value of steady-state, varying, and decaying sinusoidal signals used in power system telecontrol. Therefore, this technique is very useful for digital systems in which the peak value of sinusoidal signals must be detected

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 37,  Number 6, Dec 1990           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




37.6.1    V. Catania, L. Milazzo, A. Puliafito, L. Vita, "Enhancing reliability in an industrial LAN: design and performability evaluation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 433-441, Dec 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A fault-tolerant fiber-optic LAN (local area network) is presented and assessed. The reliability of this LAN has been increased by introducing redundancy into the physical transmission medium and by providing the network with a monitor process that is capable of detecting and isolating faults automatically. The network is modeled by applying Markov process theory, through which the mean time to failure (MTTF) and performability are assessed. The results obtained show that the network exhibits a significant increase in MTTF and performability, which is all the more evident if the coverage factor c is closer to 1 and if the number of stations is higher. Redundancy in the transmission medium and the monitor process enable the network to overcome the typical reliability limitations affecting ring topologies and allow it to be used in some critical industrial applications

37.6.2    P. Montuschi, A. Valenzano, L. Ciminiera, "Selection of token holding times in timed-token protocols," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 442-451, Dec 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Minimum requirements for the high-priority token holding time (HPTHT) in a network using timed token access protocols (such as IEEE 802.4 and FDDI) are derived in order to ensure that the throughput of synchronous messages is no lower than the amount of traffic generated for that class. The minimal value is essential in order to avoid unbounded queue length for the synchronous class as well as to achieve high network responsiveness. The results have been obtained for synchronous messages generated according to a generic periodic pattern with no constraint for the shape and for the period of the pattern. The manner in which the theoretical results obtained can be used to tune the network performance is also shown

37.6.3    Fu-Juay Chang, Hsiang-Ju Liao, Shyand Chang, "Position control of DC motors via variable structure systems control: a chattering alleviation approach," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 452-459, Dec 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel chattering alleviation control (CAC) algorithm is proposed for variable structure systems (VSSs). Both analog and digital controllers using the theory of CAC are applied to the position control problem of a DC servomotor system. Comparisons of the CAC with other VSS control algorithms indicate that the chattering can be alleviated. Since the input of the CAC method contains only low-frequency components, it will not excite unmodeled high-frequency plant dynamics

37.6.4    N. Hemati, J.S. Thorp, M.C. Leu, "Robust nonlinear control of brushless DC motors for direct-drive robotic applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 460-468, Dec 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The control problem associated with brushless DC motors (BLDCMs) for direct-drive robotic applications is considered. In order to guarantee the high-performance operation of BLDCMs in such applications, the effects of reluctance variations and magnetic saturation are accounted for in the model. Such a BLDCM model constitutes a highly coupled and nonlinear dynamic system. Using the transformation theory of nonlinear systems, a feedback control law, which is shown to compensate for the system nonlinearities, is derived. Conditions under which such a control law is possible are presented. The need for the derivation of explicit commutation strategies is eliminated, resulting in reduction of the computations involved. To guarantee the high-performance operation of the system under substantial uncertainties, a robust control law is derived and appended to the overall control structure. The inclusion of the robust controller results in good tracking performance when there are modeling and measurement errors and payload uncertainties. The efficacy of the overall control law is investigated by considering a single-link direct-drive arm actuated by a BLDCM

37.6.5    R. Krishnan, P.N. Materu, "Design of a single-switch-per-phase converter for switched reluctance motor drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 469-476, Dec 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The main considerations in the design of a single-switch-per-phase converter for a switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive are described, with particular attention given to the choice of converter topology, the type of switching devices, the normalized rating of the power devices, and input filter design. The converter uses MOSFET switches. Experimental verification is included with a 6/4 pole personal-computer-controlled prototype SRM drive

37.6.6    C.C. Chan, H. Wang, "An effective method for rotor resistance identification for high-performance induction motor vector control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 477-482, Dec 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An effective method for rotor resistance identification is presented for the purpose of improving the performance of vector control of induction motor drives. The method is mathematically derived from proper selection of coordinate axes and utilization of the steady-state model of the induction motor. The major advantages of the method lie in its simplicity and accuracy. A series of computer simulations has been performed with very satisfactory results

37.6.7    I. Avitan, V. Skormin, "Mathematical modeling and computer simulation of a separately excited DC motor with independent armature/field control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 483-489, Dec 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A mathematical model of a separately excited DC motor, providing an in-depth description of major physical transformations, is developed. The model is implemented in computer simulation code which, in combination with a SIMPLEX optimization procedure, is used for parameter estimation and model verification. The model is suggested as a basis for development of microprocessor-based control procedures providing additional flexibility as well as optimizing motor performance

37.6.8    S.S. Valtchev, J.B. Klaassens, "Efficient resonant power conversion," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 490-495, Dec 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The DC analysis of a series-resonant converter operating above resonant frequency is presented. The results are used to analyze the current form factor and its effect on the efficiency. The selection of the switching frequency to maximize the efficiency is considered. The derived expressions are generalized and can be applied to calculations in any of the switching modes for a series-resonant circuit. For switching frequencies higher than the resonant frequency, an area of more efficient operation is indicated which will aid in the design of this class of converters and power supplies. It is pointed out that (especially for power MOSFETs where ohmic losses dominate) it is more attractive to select switching frequencies that are higher than the resonant frequency because of the possibility of nondissipative snubbers. Slowing down the rise of the gate voltage and, hence, the slow decrease of ON resistance during turn-on is also not a drawback to high-frequency switching. Because of this safer operation, the standard intrinsic diode of the power MOSFET could be used at high frequencies instead of the more expensive FREDFET

37.6.9    L.D. Salazar, P.D. Ziogas, "A high-frequency two-switch forward converter with optimized performance," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 496-505, Dec 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The analysis and design of a high-frequency two-switch forward converter topology with transformer flux balancing and extended duty cycle capability are presented. To improve converter performance, an auxiliary circuit connected in parallel with each power switch is proposed. This auxiliary circuit uses a low-power switch or a nonlinear resistor connected in series with a capacitor. As a result, the DC component of the magnetizing current is minimized, and the converter provides the means of recovering the energy associated with the parasitic inductances of the circuit components. Thus, higher than usual efficiency and higher operating frequencies are obtained. Experimental results are presented for a 4 kW, 40 kHz prototype unit

37.6.10    J. Holtz, K.-H. Werner, "Multi-inverter UPS system with redundant load sharing control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 506-513, Dec 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The concept of a redundant multi-inverter UPS (uninterruptible power supply) system which includes extended monitoring of the status and the operating conditions of all power electronic equipment is described. Each block of the UPS system is monitored by two independent microcomputers that process the same data. The microcomputers are part of a redundant distributed monitoring system that is separately interlinked by two serial data buses through which they communicate. They establish a hierarchy among the participating blocks by defining one of the healthy inverter blocks as the master. The actual master runs the central synchronizing unit for the entire system, whereas the slave units perform the control of equal active and reactive load sharing. Operation and fault detection are experimentally illustrated in a dual inverter system with a rating of 10 kVA of redundant power

37.6.11    F.J. Gracia, F. Arizti, F.J. Aranceta, "A nonideal macromodel of thyristor for transient analysis in power electronic systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 514-520, Dec 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A nonideal SCR (silicon controlled rectifier) macromodel for analog power circuit simulation using SPICE has been developed. This model adds important second-order effects such as overvoltage and critical dVAk/dt switch-on, turn-on, and tq times, threshold gate trigger voltage, and nonlinear on-state characteristics. The parameters of any specific SCR can be easily obtained from its data sheet specifications. Any kind of thyristor, from high power up to fast turn-off, can be modeled with only 10 well-defined parameters. Electronic systems with electrical transients can be successfully simulated. Good agreement between manufacturer data sheet specifications and simulated results has been observed for all the thyristors considered

37.6.12    A.R. Prasad, P.D. Ziogas, S. Manias, "A novel passive waveshaping method for single-phase diode rectifiers," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 521-530, Dec 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel passive waveshaping method for single-phase diode rectifiers is presented. It is shown that application of the proposed method maintains high-input power factor, lowers rectifier current stresses, and lowers the volt-ampere (VA) rating of the associated reactive components as compared to the standard diode rectifier. Relevant input and output current waveforms, component ratings, and power factor values are derived. Different modes of operation are discussed as a means of obtaining high performance. Key predictions, such as input/output waveforms and associated harmonic spectra, have been verified experimentally on a 1 kVA laboratory prototype unit

37.6.13    N. Ammasaigounden, M. Subbiah, "Microprocessor-based voltage controller for wind-driven induction generators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 531-537, Dec 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A microprocessor-based closed-loop system has been developed for wind-driven self-excited induction generators using a controlled rectifier to maintain a constant DC load voltage with varying rotor speeds. The configuration and implementation of the control scheme are described. Test results on a self-excited induction generator demonstrate the satisfactory performance of both the hardware and the software of the control scheme, and the utility of the set-up as a whole. The steady-state analysis of the generator is extended to include the controlled rectifier, and the performance characteristics are predicted

37.6.14    Y.-Q. Shi, K.K. Yen, D. Zhang, "Improved stability robustness of linear discrete-time systems via a linear fractional transformation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 538-543, Dec 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Through a linear fractional transformation in the frequency domain, a set of hyperellipsoids, containing only such points in the coefficient space which correspond to stable polynomials in linear discrete-time systems, was obtained. Procedures for searching for a suitable transform parameter β that will achieve a possibly larger coefficient perturbation range (with guaranteed stability) than that obtained by C.B. Soh et al. (1985) are presented. When β=0, the hyperellipsoid degenerates to the largest hypersphere. The result in this work is, therefore, a generalization of the result obtained by C.B. Soh et al

37.6.15    M.M. Jovanovic, C.-S. Leu, F.C.Y. Lee, "Zero-voltage-switched multiresonant converter for high-power, pulse-load applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 544-555, Dec 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A full-bridge zero-voltage-switched (ZVS) multiresonant converter (MRC) was built for a pulse load with a peak power of 1.44 kW and an average power of 360 W. The converter works with an input-voltage range from 220 to 350 V, and delivers 32 V to the pulse load with a constant peak current of 45 A. The efficiency range of the converter was measured from 82.5 to 90.5%. The maximum efficiency occurs at low line and decreases as the input voltage increases. Detailed analysis and design of the converter, along with experimental results, are presented

37.6.16    D.C. Hanselman, "Resolver signal requirements for high accuracy resolver-to-digital conversion," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 556-561, Dec 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Tracking resolver-to-digital (R/D) conversion has emerged as the most robust method for obtaining high-resolution position information from resolvers. When driven by ideal resolver signals, tracking R/D converters currently offer position resolutions up to 216 quantization intervals/period (16-b resolution), and accuracies to 214 intervals/period (14-b accuracy). The effects of nonideal resolver signal characteristics commonly encountered in practice are investigated. Expressions for the position error reported by an R/D converter due to amplitude imbalance, quadrature error, inductive harmonics, reference phase shift, excitation signal distortion, and disturbance signals are found. From these expressions, bounds on the position accuracy achievable in practical resolver-based position-sensing systems are determined

37.6.17    P.C. Sen, "Electric motor drives and control-past, present, and future," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 562-575, Dec 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A comprehensive review of the state of the art in the field of electric motor drives and control strategies is presented. It is pointed out that drive technology has seen impressive growth during the last three decades. Recent advances in semiconductor power electronics and microelectronics have made is possible to use AC motors in many variable-speed drive applications. Implementation of new control techniques, such as field-oriented control and variable-structure control with sliding-mode features, has made AC motors a viable alternative to DC motors in high-performance drive applications. The advent of microprocessors/microcontrollers/microcomputers has made it possible to implement these complex control techniques

37.6.18    Z.O. Yonah, A.M. El-Serafi, A.E. Krause, "On the use of a digital computer as a two-phase variable-amplitude variable-frequency oscillator," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 576-581, Dec 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A feasibility study on the use of a digital computer as a variable-amplitude variable-frequency oscillator which generates two-phase sinusoidal excitation control signals for a dual-excited synchronous generator is described. The oscillator uses two input signals. One input signal is used to control the frequency of the oscillator outputs, and the other is used to control their amplitudes. By a single variable, the software can be configured to vary the oscillator frequency range and to greatly reduce (almost eliminate) the harmonic distortion of the output signals. The harmonic distortion is constant and independent of the output frequency for each possible oscillator frequency range. The software-based oscillator design is flexible and can be used to generate different types of multiphase signal waveforms

37.6.19    E.J. Tacconi, R.J. Mantz, "Linearization and feedforward compensation for switching systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 581-584, Dec 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The linearization of a switching system including a feedforward compensation for power supply perturbations is obtained by the addition of a high-frequency signal. A general expression for the required shape and amplitude of this high-frequency signal is derived. The method is analyzed for its application to AC phase control systems. The method is outlined for the case of a DC electric motor phase control. It is then generalized to any nonlinear switching system

37.6.20    M. Bramanti, "A high sensitivity measuring technique for capacitive sensor transducers," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 584-586, Dec 1990.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A measuring technique is proposed for a capacitive-type sensor that has been developed to measure the density of dielectric powder gaseous suspensions. The basic principle of the proposed technique is to measure the variations of sensor capacitance by measuring the phase shift between voltage and current in a series RLC circuit tuned to resonance. Experimental results obtained with the technique are presented

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 38,  Number 1, Feb 1991           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




38.1.1    H. Dai, N.K. Sinha, "Robust recursive instrumental variable method with modified weights for bilinear system identification," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 1-7, Feb 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Based on P.J. Huber's minimax principle (1981), both symmetric and nonsymmetric robust recursive instrumental variable methods with modified weights are developed for bilinear system identification. A novel approach is used to prove a general convergence theorem for the proposed robust methods. The robustness and convergence of the proposed approaches are demonstrated by comparison with the corresponding nonrobust approaches in two simulation examples. It is shown that the suggested methods are far superior to the nonrobust ones

38.1.2    M.A. Manzoul, "Interrupt-driven microprocessor-based overcurrent relay," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 8-9, Feb 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An interrupt-driven overcurrent relay for power systems using the 8085 microprocessor is presented. The relay requests processing time from the microprocessor only when a fault occurs. In this way, the microprocessor is given the opportunity to run other tasks such as diagnostic tests online during normal conditions

38.1.3    F. Chen, C.S. Chen, "A 20 b dynamic-range floating-point data acquisition system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 10-14, Feb 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The design and engineering of a floating-point data-acquisition system are described. The system has both automatic gain and software-programmable gain adjustment features. In automatic gain adjustment mode, the gain is set automatically dependent on the input amplitude so that the full conversion resolution is maintained irrespective of the signal dynamic range. A high-speed flash ADC with an approximately 35 ns conversion time is used to convert the signal quickly into 8 b data. A programmable array logic (PAL) then transfers this 8 b digital data into 12 b information for setting the gain of the variable-gain amplifier. The amplifier gain settings are all powers of two; thus, the normalization of the digitized data requires only a bit shifting operation and no complex software division. The gain information and the 12 b sampling ADC output increase the dynamic range to 20 b. The software package includes commands needed for the system initiation, automatic gain or software programmable gain selection, sampling and conversion, and data normalization

38.1.4    H. Arai, S. Tachi, "Position control system of a two degree of freedom manipulator with a passive joint," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 15-20, Feb 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method is proposed for controlling the position of a manipulator with passive joints that have holding brakes instead of actuators. In this method, the coupling characteristics of manipulator dynamics are used, and no additional mechanisms are required. The effectiveness of the method was verified by experiments using a prototype manipulator. The prototype is a two-degree-of-freedom, horizontally articulated manipulator. The first axis is an active joint, and the second axis is a passive joint. While the brake of the passive joint is released, the passive joint is indirectly controlled by the motion of the active joint through the use of dynamic coupling. While the brake is engaged, the active joint is controlled. By combining these two control modes, the total position of the manipulator is controlled. The experiments show that use of this method makes the precise positioning of the passive joints possible

38.1.5    T.C.S. Hsia, T.A. Lasky, Z. Guo, "Robust independent joint controller design for industrial robot manipulators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 21-25, Feb 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel approach is presented for the design of simple robust independent joint controllers for industrial robot manipulators. In this approach, each joint actuator is treated as a simple inertial system plus a disturbance torque representing all the unmodeled dynamics. By a very simple algorithm, the disturbance is instantly estimated and rejected, thus allowing a simple proportional-derivative (PD) control scheme to be used. The stability of the proposed control law is analyzed. Experimental evaluations of the controller on a microcomputer-controlled PUMA 560 arm were performed. It is shown that the control scheme is simple and practical and that it can be easily implemented on an industrial manipulator presently in use

38.1.6    Dong Sang Yoo, Myung Jin Chung, Zeungnam Bien, "Real-time implementation and evaluation of dynamic control algorithms for industrial manipulators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 26-31, Feb 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors explore the real-time implementation of various dynamic control algorithms, which use different levels of information of the dynamics of a robot system, to show the feasibility and effectiveness of such algorithms. For this purpose, the dynamic equations of a robot manipulator based on Lagrange mechanisms are derived, converted to the equivalent dynamics with respect to the actuator, and added to the actuator dynamics. Hysteresis current controllers are used as the torque-type controller. Experimental results indicate that the computed torque and iterative learning control methods perform better than classical proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control and that these algorithms can be effectively applied to controlling industrial manipulators

38.1.7    Marn Go Kim, Myung Joong Youn, "A discrete time domain modeling and analysis of controlled series resonant converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 32-40, Feb 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A discrete time domain modeling and analysis technique applicable to all types of inner-feedback and noninner-feedback-controlled series resonant converter (SRC) is presented. The nonlinear discrete time domain equations representing the static and dynamic behavior of the SRC are derived and linearized about the equilibrium state of the SRC. In addition, the inner-feedback control law is linearized about the equilibrium state. The linearized SRC and the linearized inner-feedback control law are then combined to arrive at a linearized inner-feedback-controlled SRC. The linearized modeling is used to analyze the stability and dynamic characteristics of the controlled SRC

38.1.8    M.P. Kazmierkowski, W. Sulkowski, "A novel vector control scheme for transistor PWM inverter-fed induction motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 41-47, Feb 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel vector control scheme for a transistor pulse-width-modulation (PWM)-inverter-fed induction motor drive is presented. The system is based on a current control loop that consists of two independent nonlinear controllers that regulate the DC (field-oriented) components of the stator current vector. Three-level hysteresis comparators are used as current controllers. The outputs of the comparators select the appropriate inverter output voltage vectors via a switching erasable programmable ROM (EPROM) table. The theoretical principle of this method is discussed. Simulation and experimental results that illustrate the operation of the proposed system and performance in comparison with the other known schemes based on two-level hysteresis comparators are presented

38.1.9    C. Frangos, Y. Yavin, "Current controller design for an electromagnetic actuator using an online parameter optimization approach," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 48-50, Feb 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The design is presented of a digital proportional-plus-integral current controller for a nonlinear electromagnetic actuator using an online parameter optimization approach. The minimization algorithm of J.A. Nelder and R. Mead (1965) is used to calculate the proportional and integral controller gain such that a design objective function is minimized. At each iteration of the minimization procedure, the objective function is calculated by sampling the actual current and voltage signals of the actuator

38.1.10    S. Saadate, R. Le Doeuff, R. Periot, "Design of a high-voltage GTO chopper for traction drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 51-56, Feb 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A chopper operating at 4000 V and 800 A RMS using two large series-connected GTOs (4500 V, 2500 A) is designed. The series connection of GTOs is considered, including criteria for the selection of GTOs, design of snubbers, and adaption of GTO controls. The advantages and drawbacks of the strategies used are discussed. Detailed experimental results concerning the GTOs' commutations and the snubber circuits are presented. The influence of important parameters, such as the load current on the transient voltage distribution on the GTOs is discussed. Because series connection of GTOs is liable to be used in the high-voltage converters of rail traction systems, two industrial realizations are proposed

38.1.11    M. Morimoto, S. Sato, K. Sumito, K. Oshitani, "Voltage modulation factor of the magnetic flux control PWM method for inverter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 57-61, Feb 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The voltage modulation factor of the magnetic flux control pulse-width modulation (PWM) method is discussed. The modulation factor is derived from a theoretical study on the flux locus produced from the inverter output voltage. The derivation is based on the fact that the fundamental component of the inverter output voltage is proportional to the radius of the flux locus. It is shown theoretically that the voltage modulation factor is expressed by the content of a zero vector in one cycle of the selected PWM pattern of the space vector expression. The modulation factor of the magnetic flux control PWM method is calculated. The modulation factor can be varied from zero to 12/π2. The output voltage of the magnetic flux control PWM method can be controlled by the modulation factor linearly from zero up to overmodulation. The simulation and experimental results are also shown

38.1.12    W. Ahmad, "Biphase amplifier for precision controlled rectification and polar logic operations," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 62-64, Feb 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A biphase amplifier is a positive-negative controlled unity gain amplifier. Its circuit is simple but very useful in the fields of control, instrumentation, and communications. The use of a biphase amplifier for some novel applications, e.g. polar logic operations and precision controlled rectifications, is described. The circuits described were experimentally tested and found to be quite satisfactory

38.1.13    F.H.F. Leung, P.K.S. Tam, C.K. Li, "The control of switching DC-DC converters-a general LWR problem," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 65-71, Feb 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The control of switching DC-DC converters is reviewed. It is regarded as a general linear quadratic regulator (LQR) problem, and an innovative optimal and robust digital controller is proposed. The control strategy adopted can achieve good regulation, rejection of modest disturbances, and the ability to cater to switching converters with RHP zeros. This controller design is a general approach that is applicable to all PWM-type DC-DC converters with their circuit topologies known or unknown. Modern CAD techniques are used to reach the final control law. Application to a published Cuk converter is used as an example, and the performance is evaluated

38.1.14    M. Kazerani, P.D. Ziogas, G. Joos, "A novel active current waveshaping technique for solid-state input power factor conditioners," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 72-78, Feb 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel input power factor correction method that uses a closed-loop active current waveshaping technique is presented. The novel feature of the method is that nearly sinusoidal input currents are obtained at constant switching frequencies. Moreover, the method exhibits instantaneous current control, which results in very fast response and increased switch reliability. Selected predicted system performance and design methods were verified experimentally on a 1 kVA laboratory prototype

38.1.15    R. Simard, A. Cheriti, T.A. Meynard, K. Al-Haddad, V. Rajagopalan, "An EPROM-based PWM modulator for a three-phase soft commutated inverter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 79-81, Feb 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A fully digital erasable programmable ROM (EPROM)-based pulse width modulator (PWM) that receives voltage and frequency control commands independently at the input and could be used in AC variable-speed drives is described. This modulator is simpler and dynamically better than one built using a microcomputer. A high-1 resolution (one in 256) is obtained, and up to eight different PWM switching strategies can be easily implemented. Changes in the voltage or frequency commands are transient free. Some experimental results are presented

38.1.16    R.E. Zulinski, K.J. Herman, J.C. Mandojana, "The infeasibility of constant output power in a constant-current-fed class-E power inverter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 81-82, Feb 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The possibility of constant output power that is independent of load resistance is investigated. The only possibility is shown to be the trivial case in which the output power is zero. It is concluded that, for load-independent class-E operation, a different class-E inverter configuration, e.g. a class-E inverter with finite DC-feed inductance, may prove to be useful

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 38,  Number 2, April 1991           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




38.2.1    Y.-S. Lee, D.K.W. Cheng, Y.C. Cheng, "Design of a novel AC regulator," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 89-94, April 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A design in which an AC-to-AC electronic transformer is connected in series with the AC mains to provide a regulated AC output voltage is described. The approach reduces the required voltage and power ratings of the circuit components in the electronic transformer and indirectly increases the conversion efficiency. Since the transformer is designed to accept AC mains directly as the input, no rectifier or mains frequency filtering circuit is required. This, together with the high switching frequency, allows the design of small-size and high-efficiency AC regulators for practical use. An experimental 50 W regulator has been designed to give a typical efficiency of 96%

38.2.2    S.K. Panda, G. Amaratunga, "Comparison of two techniques for closed-loop drive of VR step motors without direct rotor position sensing," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 95-101, April 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Closed-loop control of variable-reluctance (VR) step motors without using direct rotor-position sensing is investigated. Two nondirect rotor-position sensing techniques, namely the waveform detection (WD) and the pulse-width-modulation (PWM) techniques, were implemented and applied to a four-phase (15° step-angle) VR step motor. Test results show that a DC shunt motor and a DC series motor type of performance can be achieved from the step motor with PWM drive and WD drive, respectively. The stability problem encountered with the existing PWM controller due to motional EMF effects at higher operating speeds is investigated, and modifications are suggested to include speed as an additional control signal to make the system more stable. With the inclusion of the speed signal, the operating speed of the test motor is from 1000 to 1750 r/min. The performances for the two techniques are compared, and experimental results are presented

38.2.3    K.-W. Lim, T.-S. Low, M.F. Rahman, L.-B. Wee, "A discrete time variable structure controller for a brushless DC motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 102-107, April 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The design and the microprocessor-based implementation of a variable-structure-strategy (VSS) controller for a brushless DC motor drive are described. The controller is a conventional variable-structure design in the continuous-time domain. However, the microprocessor implementation using a constant sample period implies that full sliding mode is not achieved. The properties of the quasi-sliding that results are explored. It is shown that the sliding line expands into a sliding region, which can be described as a sector. The size of this sector is related to the sampling period and the switching gains. A modified design procedure is proposed for discrete-time VSS design. The design was verified on an experimental set-up, which generated variations in system parameters as well as external load disturbances

38.2.4    Seung-Gi Jeong, Min-Ho Park, "The analysis and compensation of dead-time effects in PWM inverters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 108-114, April 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The quantitative prediction of the dead-time effect in pulse width modulated (PWM) inverters is addressed. Through analysis and simulation it is shown that the effect results in a decrease of the fundamental component and an increase in the low-order harmonics in the output voltage of the inverter. To compensate the effect, two simple methods, which are adequate for sinusoidal PWM and memory-based PWM, respectively, are presented. Experimental results show the validity of the analysis and the usefulness of the compensation methods

38.2.5    T. Shimizu, M. Shioya, "Characteristics of electric power transmission on high-frequency inverter having distributed constant line at load side," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 115-120, April 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An induction heating system aimed at improving the characteristics of high-frequency power supplied from the high-frequency, inverter to the parallel resonant load circuit is proposed, and its transmission efficiency is studied. In this system, high-frequency power can be supplied by lowering the effect of the inductance component accompanied by wiring between the inverter circuit and the resonant load circuit. Impedance matching between the inverter and the resonant circuit and high-efficiency power transmission from the inverter to the load circuit are possible. If a flexible coaxial cable is used as the distributed constant line, it is easy to cope with the case in which comparative distance exists between the inverter part and the heating part or the case in which the heating part is moved

38.2.6    S.K. Biswas, B. Basak, M.M. Swamy, "A three-phase half-controlled rectifier with pulse width modulation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 121-125, April 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A three-phase pulse-width-modulated (PWM) half-controlled rectifier using a novel PWM control strategy whereby the low-order harmonic content in both the input current and the output voltage is reduced is presented. The circuit operates with a unity displacement factor at its input and uses minimum power components. The PWM strategy developed can be implemented on a three-phase half-controlled rectifier bridge with only three controlled switches to obtain PWM controlled rectification. Although the circuit operation is explained with force-commutated SCR switches, the basic controlled PWM operation is valid for any type of switch control. The circuit has wide applications ranging from rectifiers to battery chargers to motor drives. Even if an input current filter is desired, its size will be small due to the PWM pattern used

38.2.7    R.J. King, "Analysis and design of an unusual unity-power-factor rectifier," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 126-134, April 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A unity-power-factor rectifier that has a parallel-resonant tank tuned to the second harmonic of the line frequency is analyzed for two filter configurations. A unidirectional-power-flow version of the current-sourced rectifier can operate stably open loop or can be current limited down to zero output voltage. The large inductor normally required is an outstanding disadvantage which can be partially overcome using a resonant filter. The design-oriented analysis includes variable-frequency operation and key component ratings. A design procedure is suggested, and complete experimental verification is obtained using a 120 V, 500 W. 60 Hz rectifier switching at 50 kHz

38.2.8    D. van der Linde, C.A.M. Boon, J.B. Klaassens, "Design of a high-frequency planar power transformer in multilayer technology," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 135-141, April 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A high-frequency power transformer using multilayer printed circuit board (ML-PCB) technology is presented for applications in switched-mode power supplies operating at frequencies up to several megahertz. The mechanical configuration of laboratory prototypes is discussed, as well as the electrical, parasitic, and thermal behavior. The focus is on the leakage inductance, since the analysis of other aspects is relatively simple. Test results show that the transformer has high efficiency, low leakage inductance, good thermal behavior, and good line insulation properties. The topology enables the designer to make a trade-off between leakage inductance and interwinding capacitance. Due to the well-defined geometry, parasitic interwinding capacitance and leakage inductance are reproducible and can be computed relatively easily

38.2.9    W.E. Snyder, M.-L. Hsiao, K.J. Overton, K.E. Boone, "Circuit board inspection using a range camera," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 142-149, April 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A high-speed, high-accuracy three-dimensional (3-D) range camera that possesses sufficient speed and accuracy to inspect circuit boards in real time is presented. The architecture of the system is briefly described, and the algorithms used to make quantitative presolder measurements, including the orientations and lengths of leads and the locations and shapes of holes, are examined in detail. Since the unit runs in real time and performs sophisticated image analysis functions, considerable emphasis in the algorithm development was placed on the ability to partition tasks between general-purpose computers and array processors

38.2.10    M. Numao, S.-i. Morishita, "Cooperative scheduling and its application to steelmaking processes ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 150-155, April 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A cooperative approach to scheduling problems is proposed, and its application to creating daily schedules for steelmaking processes is described. In cooperative scheduling, procedures, rules, and the user cooperate to make a feasible schedule efficiently. The procedures, collectively called a scheduling engine, work as a local constraint satisfier to solve general primitive constraints. Rules that represent domain-dependent knowledge then solve the domain-specific constraints by means of a pattern-matching function. The user evaluates the schedule and modifies it by means of a user-friendly interface with direct-manipulation functions. The user interaction is therefore included in the system architecture as a global constraint satisfier. The iteration of this cycle improves the schedule until it becomes feasible. Experimental results obtained with Scheplan, the scheduling environment that applies this approach to scheduling steelmaking processes, show that the daily scheduling time is much less than in manual scheduling and the quality of the schedule is much improved

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 38,  Number 3, June 1991           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




38.3.1    D. Antic, J. Holtz, "High-efficiency dual transistor base drive circuit based on the Cuk converter topology," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 161-165, June 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A dual transistor base drive circuit that unifies all important functions (on-state base current power supply for two power transistors, off-state negative Ube =-5 V base-emitter voltage, overcurrent and short-circuit protection scheme based on saturation voltage, and on- and off-state monitoring circuits) is described. The unit provides two base drive outputs using a single switching converter. It can be used to control two individual power transistors in different inverter configurations, e.g. common emitter or bridge configuration. The concept of a dual transistor base drive circuit using the Cuk switching regulator topology enables the low volume construction of a high-efficiency base drive unit for a high-power transistor inverter bridge leg. The circuit is powered from a common DC rail. The base current waveforms are characterized by steep slopes and an overcurrent peak at turn on

38.3.2    A. Ishiguro, T. Furuhashi, S. Okuma, "A novel control method for forced commutated cycloconverters using instantaneous values of input line-to-line voltages," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 166-172, June 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors present a novel control method for forced commutated cycloconverters (PWM cycloconverters). Using this control method the sinusoidal input and output current waveforms and the unity input displacement factor can be obtained. Moreover, the compensation of the asymmetrical and/or harmonic contaminated input source voltages is easily realized. This control method allows the input displacement factor not to be controllable, but to be fixed at approximately unity. Since a unity input displacement factor is desirable for motordrive use for the PWM cycloconverters, this constraint is not a new obstacle. Feasibility of the proposed control method is verified by simulations and experiments

38.3.3    M.G. Kim, D.S. Lee, M.J. Youn, "A new state feedback control of resonant converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 173-179, June 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A state feedback control that can be easily implemented is proposed to improve the stability and dynamic characteristics of resonant power converters. An important characteristic of the system with the proposed control is the reduction of order in the discrete time domain. The design parameters of the control are reduced by one, compared with those of the conventional linear state feedback control, and the design procedure is similar to that of a variable structure system (VSS) control. The proposed control is illustrated by its application to a series resonant power converter. The experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed control

38.3.4    S. Iida, Y. Okuma, S. Masukawa, S. Miyairi, B.K. Bose, "Study on magnetic noise caused by harmonics in output voltages of PWM inverter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 180-186, June 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Harmonic components included in the output waveforms of inverter circuits cause magnetic noise from the output transformers or load motors. Functions to estimate the magnetic noise caused by the harmonics are proposed. After confirming the relationship between the proposed functions and the magnetic noise by experiments, the authors compare the magnetic noise qualitatively in several output waveforms of PWM inverters, considering their distortions. By applying those functions, those waveforms that are more noisy can be predicted

38.3.5    Y. Shoji, M. Inaba, T. Fukuda, "Impact control of grasping [robot manipulators]," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 187-194, June 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The stabilization effect of collision in impact-controlled manipulator-object systems is discussed. The stability of system behavior is analyzed by the Lyapunov direct method. Some simulation results are shown to confirm the effect. Collision is one of the nonlinear problems where the dynamical structure changes. In industrial fields, the phenomenon is utilized effectively to suppress vibrations, but collision is a difficult problem to treat in the field of control because the methodology is mostly based on linear theory. The nonlinear impact force is modeled as a Hertz-type force with damping. A nonlinear matrix and a quadratic form is defined to examine system stability. As a results, stable control with collision phenomena is obtained

38.3.6    T. Ozaki, T. Suzuki, T. Furuhashi, S. Okuma, Y. Uchikawa, "Trajectory control of robotic manipulators using neural networks ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 195-202, June 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors present a nonlinear compensator using neural networks for trajectory control of robotic manipulators. The neural networks are not used to learn inverse-dynamics but to compensate nonlinearities of robotic manipulators. The performance of the proposed neural network controller is compared with that of the adaptive controller proposed by J.J. Craig (1988), and the effectiveness of the proposed neural network controller in compensating the unstructured uncertainties is clarified. A learning scheme using a model of known dynamics of manipulators is also proposed. The model learning can be done offline and needs no data recording of actual manipulator operation

38.3.7    E.J. Dede, J.V. Gonzalez, J.A. Linares, J. Jordan, D. Ramirez, P. Rueda, "25-kW/50-kHz generator for induction heating," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 203-209, June 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors present the features, technology, and construction of a transistorized generator for induction heating operating over the 4-50 kHz frequency range. This type of 25 kW output-power generator allows replacement of the electronic tube generators for most of their applications. The advantages of this new generator are more energy efficiency, extended life, reduced size, separated heating station of the generator, and connection by flexible cable. In addition, the generator has incorporated a frequency automatic tracking system that allows operating without any adjustments over a wide frequency range

38.3.8    G. Corriga, S. Sanna, G. Usai, "An optimal tandem active-passive suspension system for road vehicles with minimum power consumption," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 210-216, June 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors examine the problem of the synthesis of an optimal control law for active suspensions of road vehicles, based on a model with two degrees of freedom. The possibility of realizing the desired optimal control law with a tandem active-passive suspension is considered. The procedure for determining the desired optimal control law on the basis of suitable design specification is outlined. In the case of a suspension with two degrees of freedom, the possibility of realizing a control law with an active suspension in tandem with a conventional passive one consisting of a spring and a damper is examined. The characteristic parameters of the passive part of the suspension are identified with the aim of minimizing the power required by the active part. The expressions for calculating the values of the elastic constant of the spring and of the characteristic coefficient of the damper, which are both assumed to be linear, are provided. An example of the application is presented

38.3.9    M. Sunwoo, K.C. Cheok, N.J. Huang, "Model reference adaptive control for vehicle active suspension systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 217-222, June 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A model reference adaptive control (MRAC) technique for vehicle active suspension subsystems is presented. The MRAC automatically self-tunes the active suspension so that disturbance and vibration of a vehicle is reduced to a level determined by an ideal conceptual suspension reference model. The Lyapunov stability method was used in the design of the MRAC. It is shown that the MRAC suspension can accommodate large variances in sprung load and suspension component characteristics and achieves significant improvements over the passive suspension. Real-time simulation and animation (RTSA) software was developed to provide a visual aid for understanding and interpreting the performance of the MRAC suspension

38.3.10    C. Umeagukwu, J. McCormick, "Investigation of an array technique for robotic seam tracking of weld joints," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 223-229, June 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A noncontact optical preview sensing technique for possible application to a robotic seam tracking system is presented. This technique uses a structured laser illumination source: a SELFOC lens array (SLA) coupled to a fiberoptic and a phototransistor (photodetector) array. The experimental results with the SLA and fiberoptic array demonstrate the feasibility of linear fiberoptic array sensing of the weld joint. The intensity profiles acquired by the array were such that when combined with suitable data processing software routines, the sensing technique was able to provide satisfactory measurements of joint width and location of the centerline. An experiment demonstrates the viability of the approach for tracking of a weld seam. A clear profile containing the expected features was obtained at each cross-sectional location as the joint was traversed

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 38,  Number 4, August 1991           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




38.4.1    T.-H. Lee, K.-W. Lim, W.-C. Lai, "Real-time multivariable self-tuning controller using a feedforward paradigm with application to a coupled electric-drive pilot plant," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 237-242, August 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A multivariable self-tuning control design based on a feedforward paradigm and the generalized minimum variance (GMV) control strategy is presented. The real-time implementation of this controller on a coupled electric-drive pilot plant is discussed. The results of experiments on the pilot plant demonstrated that good performance can be achieved using the design

38.4.2    S.T. Hung, "Sensitivity points-based self-tuning," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 243-250, August 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Sensitivity points tuning concepts, extension of these concepts to the self-tuning of multiinput/multioutput (MIMO) systems, and implementation issues are discussed. The means of generating the sensitivities needed for tuning is developed in a matrix transfer function form. A block diagram interpretation is presented to illustrate the conceptual clarity of using MIMO sensitivity points. The effectiveness of the self-tuning technique is demonstrated through the application of self-tuning to a magnetic suspension system

38.4.3    A.K.S. Bhat, "A unified approach for the steady-state analysis of resonant converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 251-259, August 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A generalized approach for the steady-state analysis of resonant converters is presented. Different resonant converter tank circuit configurations are combined into a single tank circuit referred to as a generalized tank circuit. The load presented to this tank circuit is represented by an AC equivalent resistance, and simple complex circuit analysis is used to analyze such a generalized tank circuit. This type of unified approach simplifies the method of analysis for different configurations and eliminates the need for analysis of different schemes separately. In addition, in a computer program, the results for a particular scheme can be obtained by opening or shorting the nonrequired tank circuit components of the generalized scheme. The effect of high-frequency transformers and other parasitics can be taken into account in the analysis. A design example is presented to illustrate the method of designing a converter, and experimental results are presented to verify the analysis

38.4.4    J.G. Cho, G.H. Cho, "Single-cycle resonant converters: a new group of quasi-resonant converters suitable for high-performance DC/DC and AC/AC conversion applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 260-267, August 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel resonant switch and a family of zero-current and zero-voltage mixed-mode switching quasi-resonant converters (QRCs) called single-cycle resonant converters (SCRCs) are proposed to improve the performance of the conventional QRCs. The SCRCs, which include two active switches operated with zero-current switching (ZCS) and zero-voltage switching (ZVS), respectively, show very simple operation and ease of control and analysis, and they overcome the limited load range characteristics of the conventional ZCS QRCs. The SCRCs can be applied even for a high-frequency AC chopper by replacing unidirectional switches with bidirectional ones. Steady-state operation and characteristics of the buck-type SCRCs are analyzed and compared with those of the buck-type full-wave QRC (FW-QRC). Experimental results at a a 200 kHz, 1 kW level are shown to verify the operational principle and characteristics

38.4.5    B.T. Ooi, B.M.M. Mwinyiwiwa, X. Wang, G. Joos, "Operating limits of the current-regulated delta-modulated current-source PWM rectifier," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 268-274, August 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A stand alone, three-phase, delta-modulated, current-source PWM rectifier has been built and has been shown to be capable of operating with near sinusoidal current waveforms, unity power factor. and good DC current regulation. A mathematical model that has been justified against experimental measurements and results from digital simulations is presented. The current waveform distortion limit and the asymptotic stability limit are established. It is shown that the rectifier can operate safely within these limits in the entire range of its power ratings

38.4.6    Chang-Ming Liaw, Ying-Shieh Kung, Ching-Ming Wu, "Design and implementation of a high-performance field-oriented induction motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 275-282, August 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The design and implementation of a high-performance controller for a field-oriented induction motor drive is presented. Dynamic modeling based on the stochastic technique is performed. Based on the estimated drive model, a two-degree-of-freedom controller is proposed so good dynamic responses in both the speed tracking and regulation characteristics can be achieved. The parameters of the controller are found using a proposed systematic design procedure according to the prescribed specifications. Having designed and tested the performance of the controller by simulation, the hardware implementation is successfully made, and some experimental results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller

38.4.7    H. Singh, S.M. Sharma, "Some novel μP-based configurations for controlling remotely located stepper motors as actuators of control valves," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 283-287, August 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Four microprocessor based configurations for controlling remotely located stepper motors with single-step resolution control to work as actuators of control valves with a 4-20 mA control signal generated in a multichannel data acquisition and control system are investigated for their operations, performances, and limitations. One of the configurations is directly hardware compatible with that of electropneumatic valves, but for the other configurations, hardware interfaces are needed to store, generate, and transmit control signals in order to reduce microprocessor busy time. The detection circuits required at the remote end for deriving direction, stepping rate, and drive duration from the control signal become simple if the information about these is explicitly expressed in the control signal

38.4.8    A. Di Stefano, O. Mirabella, "Evaluating the field bus data link layer by a Petri net-based simulation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 288-297, August 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The performance of the data link layer of the field bus, an emerging LAN architecture for control systems presently under standardization, is discussed and evaluated. Some aspects of the communication mechanism are presented, referring to the use of the two kinds of tokens of the protocol and pointing out their main features and the advantages and disadvantages offered by each one. The protocol was specified by extended timed Petri-nets and was evaluated by a suitable simulation tool. The results provide some criteria according to which the designer can choose, among the various mechanisms made available by the standard proposal, those which provide the most efficient solution for the scenario being considered

38.4.9    H.-G. Yeh, "Processing performance of two Kalman filter algorithms with a DSP32C by using assembly and C languages," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 298-302, August 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Two Kalman filter algorithms are implemented with a DSP32C processor. These two Kalman filters use conventional matrix operation and U-D factorization algorithms, respectively. The real-time processing performance of each algorithm is evaluated in terms of throughput, program and data memory sizes. Both DSP32C assembly and high-level C language programs of these two algorithms are developed (a total of four programs) for evaluating the coding efficiency. It is observed that both algorithms can be more efficiently programmed by using assembly language, a matrix-based algorithm enjoys its simple and regular operations so that less program memory is required in both assembly and in C languages, the U-D factorization algorithm involves fewer multiply-accumulate operations and provides a fast throughput in C language only, and the advantage of less multiply-accumulate operations in U-D factorization algorithm no longer exists in assembly language when the number of states of a Kalman filter is large

38.4.10    Dong Seong Oh, Hwi Beom Shin, Myung Joong Youn, "A new slip gain adaptation algorithm for indirect field-oriented drive systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 303-307, August 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The performance of the indirect field-oriented control using the slip frequency depends heavily on the accuracy of the induction machine parameters. It has been shown that the changes in rotor resistance have a dominant effect on the machine performance. An important requirement for obtaining good performance is to find the real machine parameters in the field-oriented controller. A slip gain adjustment algorithm for the field-oriented control proposed is simple and does not need any additional circuitry. It has been shown through the digital simulation that the correct slip frequency can be obtained at any machine parameter deviations by almost one adaptation

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 38,  Number 5, Oct 1991           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




38.5.1    G.S. Buja, M.I. Valla, "Control characteristics of the SRM drives. I. Operation in the linear region," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 313-321, Oct 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The control characteristics of switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives are analyzed for operation of the motor in the linear region of its magnetic characteristics. After reviewing the motor operation, the authors consider the current-fed and voltage SRM drives. For both types of drives, the control variables and the related ranges are identified, the relationships between such variables and the average motor torque are calculated, and the torque capability is found. The basic schemes for the speed control of the SRM drives are also formulated

38.5.2    A.M. Khambadkone, J. Holtz, "Vector-controlled induction motor drive with a self-commissioning scheme," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 322-327, Oct 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Different vector-controlled structures are discussed, and their suitability for an economical and reliable industrial drive system is explored. From this, the design of a compact control hardware is derived, composed of an 80196 microcontroller and an ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) for the generation of the pulsewidth modulation (PWM) signals. The drive system can be configured from a host computer or a hand-held servicing unit through a serial data link. Monitoring and diagnostic functions are included. A self-commissioning scheme permits the setting of the parameters for optimum dynamic performance of the induction motor. Various oscillograms demonstrate the behavior of the vector controller operating a 25-kVA PWM inverter

38.5.3    N. Margaris, T. Goutas, Z. Doulgeri, A. Paschali, "Loss minimization in DC drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 328-336, Oct 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method for determining the optimal DC machine excitation for loss minimization is presented. The proposed method may be implemented by using either analog or digital techniques. The method is simple, and its implementation does not affect significantly the cost, the complexity, and the dynamics of the DC drive. Thus, energy can be saved without sacrificing the quality of the DC drive. Even though the conception of the proposed method is based on the loss model of the DC machine, it is shown that its realization does not require knowledge of the loss model

38.5.4    E.-H. Song, B.-H. Kwon, "A direct digital control for the phase-controlled rectifier," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 337-343, Oct 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Direct digital control of the phase-controlled rectifier (PCR) is implemented with a minimum control hardware structure. A digital phase-locked voltage control (PLVC) without detecting the line voltage is presented. An inner fast control loop is proposed to stabilize the PCR system and to obtain its constant loop gain. In the inner loop, an averaging function is introduced to feed back the average DC voltage of the PCR output without the feedback filter. Its synchronism is modeled and analyzed. An optimal constant digital integral, proportional, and measurable variable feedback (IPM) current controller with a time-multiplied performance index is also proposed to obtain a good dynamic response of the output current. All control functions are implemented with an Intel 8797 single-chip microcomputer. Experimental results show that the scheme gives good dynamic and static performance for the PCR system

38.5.5    M.K. Kazimierczuk, "Class D current-driven rectifiers for resonant DC/DC converter applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 344-354, Oct 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Analyses and experimental results are given for a family of three Class D current-driven rectifiers. The diode current is half-sine wave and the diode voltage is a square wave. The diode forward voltage and forward resistance are taken into account in the analyses. The basic performance parameters of the rectifiers are determined, such as input resistance, voltage transfer function, efficiency, and power factor. The ripple voltage is estimated, and some effects of the equivalent series resistance and equivalent series inductance of filter capacitors on the ripples are discussed. The experimental results were obtained using IR31DQ06 Schottky diodes at 1 MHz and 16 W output power

38.5.6    H. Le-Huy, K. Slimani, P. Viarouge, "A current-controlled quasi-resonant converter for switched-reluctance motor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 355-362, Oct 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A current-controlled quasi-resonant power converter suitable for switched-reluctance motor (SRM) feeding is presented. The converter operation is analyzed and its characteristics are determined in terms of the system parameters. The converter control strategy is studied for different operating conditions. Current control operation is considered and discussed. Theoretical predictions are verified and validated by experimental results obtained with a prototype SRM drive

38.5.7    T. Umeno, Y. Hori, "Robust speed control of DC servomotors using modern two degrees-of-freedom controller design," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 363-368, Oct 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors propose a robust speed control system for DC servomotors based on the parametrization of two-degree-of-freedom controllers. The servosystems can dramatically improve the characteristics of the closed loop systems, i.e. the disturbance torque suppression performance and the robustness to system parameter variations, without changing the command input response. The excellent control performances obtained during laboratory experiments by using a microprocessor-based controller are shown

38.5.8    M.R. Stojic, S.N. Vukosavic, "Design of microprocessor-based system for positioning servomechanism with induction motor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 369-378, Oct 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Digital control algorithms are proposed for a position-controlled system with an inverter-fed induction motor. Two structures for the positioning servomechanism are suggested in which the appropriate digital control laws are applied and a straightforward method for adjusting of controller parameters is developed. The method enables the designer to match the desired dynamic performance and to eliminate the steady-state position error due to the presence of a constant or a slowly varying load disturbance. Particular attention is paid to the nonlinear position control design, which preserves the desired response even in the case when electrical torque reaches limits imposed by the inverter current capacity. To illustrate the proposed design procedure and to verify the efficiency of the nonlinear control laws, simulation results and waveforms from an experimental setup are presented

38.5.9    S. Shimada, S. Ugai, S. Sakamoto, A. Sase, Y. Shimizu, "Intelligent differential pressure transmitter with multiple sensor formed on a (110)-oriented circular silicon diaphragm," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 379-384, Oct 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A multiple piezoresistive gauge sensor was developed for application to intelligent differential pressure transmitters. The sensor can measure differential pressure, static pressure, and temperature. Three piezoresistive gauges are positioned on a (110)-oriented circular monocrystalline silicon diaphragm. Proper dimensional design and optimal gauge positioning maximize the output and minimize crosstalk. Using data maps, three voltage outputs are combined by a microprocessor unit to yield a compensated sensor output. An experimental sensor was fabricated and the compensation scheme was proved useful. The sensor accuracy was within ±0.1% of the full scale in the pressure range of ±80 kPa. The zero and span shifts were less than 0.25% for the temperature range of -20-60°C, and zero shift was less than 0.1% for the static pressure change of 15 MPa

38.5.10    E. Faldella, G.C. Cardinali, P.U. Calzolari, "Architectural and design issues on optimal management of photovoltaic pumping systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 385-392, Oct 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Unconventional design and control techniques for the optimal utilization of photovoltaic energy sources are discussed. The application domain considered concerns photovoltaic pumping plants. A design methodology for plants characterized by direct connection of the load to the generator is illustrated, leading to easy selection of components and proper sizing of the energy source to meet assigned target specifications. A direct coupling matching technique based on the reconfiguration principle of generator geometry is presented. This guarantees transfer of the maximum available power from the source to the load in all environmental and working conditions. A hierarchically structured control system has been conceived for automatic and flexible plant management: at the lower level a microcomputer, equipped with the necessary process interfaces, handles execution of real-time control tasks while a personal computer carries out supervision, monitoring, and diagnostic activities at the higher level. Both simulation studies and experimental tests demonstrate the validity of the techniques as well as the superior performance achievable in comparison with traditional solutions

38.5.11    M.H. Ohsato, G. Kimura, M. Shioya, "Five-stepped PWM inverter used in photovoltaic systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 393-397, Oct 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A PWM (pulse-width-modulated) inverter that has five-stepped output-voltage levels is introduced. In this inverter, the waveform of the output voltage has a smaller harmonic content than that of a conventional PWM inverter. A novel PWM technique is analyzed. The PWM pulses included in the waveform of the output voltage are formed using a criterion based on the calculation that each area of voltage pulses is equal to the integrated value of each time shared area of a reference sinusoidal waveform. This PWM technique for the five-stepped PWM inverter is superior to the conventional PWM technique, and the experimental results coincided with the calculation obtained using the fast Fourier transform. In addition, the relations between the number of PWM pulses and the harmonic contents of the output voltage are described

38.5.12    A. Patra, G.P. Rao, "Parameter estimation in a converter driven DC motor system via general hybrid orthogonal functions," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 398-403, Oct 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An algorithm for parameter estimation in a power converter-controlled DC motor drive system is proposed. The algorithm is based on the recently proposed framework of general hybrid orthogonal functions (GHOFs) for signal characterization in power electronic systems. The use of GHOFs allows parameter estimation directly in continuous-time models, bypassing the nontrivial problems of discretization which would otherwise arise in conventional techniques based on discrete-time models

38.5.13    G. Arsov, "A novel algorithm for microcomputer-based digitally controlled cycloconverter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 404-405, Oct 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The problem of microcomputer-based digital control of a naturally commutated cycloconverter (NCC) operating with variable frequency input voltage waveform is discussed. A method based on cosine wave crossing pulse timing control is proposed. The proposed algorithm provides a very simple and yet quite accurate method for operation of a circulating-current NCC with variable frequency input voltage. The output voltage will stabilize in less than two-thirds of the input voltage period even for abrupt changes in the input frequency. The variation of the magnitude of the input voltage can be easily corrected by simple voltage feedback. A computer simulation was performed for preliminary testing of the proposed algorithm

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 38,  Number 6, Dec 1991           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




38.6.1    L. Zhou, G. Cook, "Path planning for robotic manipulators with redundant degrees of freedom," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 413-420, Dec 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The problem of path planning for robotic manipulators with redundant and nonredundant degrees of freedom is addressed. It is assumed that the motors for each joint are capable of achieving the commanded velocity within limits. Thus, the dynamic model is simplified and the main complexity is that of the kinematic relationships. Of primary interest is the problem of moving the end effector from point A to point B in an efficient manner, possibly in the presence of obstacles. A suboptimal solution is proposed and discussed. Examples are presented in order to compare the performance of the redundant and the nonredundant manipulators

38.6.2    J.Y. Hung, "Control of industrial robots that have transmission elasticity," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 421-427, Dec 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A control scheme is presented for electrically driven, industrial robots that have transmission elasticity. Some feedback structures that have been described in the past have an inner control loop to cancel the elastic coupling torque between motor and link. An outer feedback loop is then used for the control of the arm position. A refinement of such a control scheme is analyzed using singular perturbation methods. A broad spectrum of control algorithms that were originally designed under the assumption of ideal, rigid joints can now be extended to the elastic transmission case with minor modifications. One contribution is that exact cancellation of the elastic torque is not necessary. In fact, the elasticity effects in some robots can be adequately damped by simply adding only a term that is proportional to the differential speed (difference between link velocity and motor velocity). Experimental results are also presented

38.6.3    C.C. Hang, K.K. Sin, "On-line auto tuning of PID controllers based on the cross-correlation technique," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 428-437, Dec 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The development of an online version of an autotuning algorithm for proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers based on the cross-correlation technique is described. The autotuner causes only minor perturbation on the normal operation of the process, needs little prior information, and is robust to noise. The design rules for automatic selection of the length and bit interval of the pseudorandom binary-sequence (PRBS) probing signal used by this autotuner are also discussed. The accuracy and performance of this autotuning method have been substantiated by extensive simulations

38.6.4    A.C. Lippincott, R.M. Nelms, "A capacitor-charging power supply using a series-resonant topology, constant on-time/variable frequency control, and zero-current switching ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 438-447, Dec 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A power supply specifically designed for capacitor-charging applications that uses a series-resonant circuit topology, a constant on-time/variable frequency control scheme, and zero-current switching techniques has been developed. The performance of this capacitor-charging power supply (CCPS) has been evaluated in the laboratory by charging several values of load capacitance at various repetition rates. The CCPS has charged a 1 μF capacitor from 0 to 1500 V DC in 750 μs, exhibiting a charging power of 1500 J/s. This operation has been repeated at a rate of 800 charges per second, which corresponds to an average power output of 900 W. A 10 μF capacitor has been charged from 0-1500 V DC in 8 ms. These results indicate that this design is feasible for use in capacitor-charging applications

38.6.5    M.-y. Chow, P.M. Mangum, S.O. Yee, "A neural network approach to real-time condition monitoring of induction motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 448-453, Dec 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A neural network-based incipient fault detector for small and medium-size induction motors is developed. The detector avoids the problems associated with traditional incipient fault detection schemes by employing more readily available information such as rotor speed and stator current. The neural network design is evaluated in real time in the laboratory on a 3/4 hp permanent magnet induction motor. The results of this evaluation indicate that the neural-network-based incipient fault detector provides a satisfactory level of accuracy, greater than 95%, which is suitable for real-world applications

38.6.6    K.-T. Chau, Y.-S. Lee, A. Ioinovici, "Computer-aided modeling of quasi-resonant converters in the presence of parasitic losses by using the MISSCO concept," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 454-461, Dec 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The DC and small-signal models of quasi-resonant converters, operating in both half-wave and full-wave modes, are developed in a suitable form for computer simulation. The starting step is the extraction of a minimum separable switching configuration (MISSCO) containing all power switches but a minimum number of other components (resonant ones). By using the step-response analysis and average technique, and by perturbing and separating the DC and AC components in the resulting equations, the equivalent models of MISSCO are derived. They are introduced in the converter structure to replace the circuit initially extracted. Models of different quasi-resonant converters can be obtained by this general approach. The analysis takes into account the conduction losses of the switching devices and reactive elements, which improves considerably the model accuracy. Model-based computer simulation agrees with the experimental results

38.6.7    C.Q. Lee, S. Sooksatra, "Performance characteristics of the full-bridge zero voltage switching PWM resonant converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 462-468, Dec 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors present the exact analysis of the full-bridge zero voltage switching (ZVS) pulse width modulated (PWM) converter by using the state-plane technique. Based on the analysis, they derive the necessary conditions for ZVS operation and the performance characteristics of the converter in terms of characteristic curves from which the converter design procedure can be formulated. The performances of the converter operating outside the limits of ZVS operation, including the switching loss and the attainable efficiency under different load conditions, are also given. The analytical work is confirmed by experimental results

38.6.8    J.G. Kettleborough, I.R. Smith, V.V. Vadher, F.L.M. Antunes, "Microprocessor-based DC motor drive with spillover field weakening ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 469-475, Dec 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A microprocessor-based speed control scheme for a separately excited DC motor fed from a DC source, which incorporates both armature-voltage control and spillover field weakening to provide smooth and precise control from standstill to speeds well above the base value, is described. Armature-current limitation during transient operation is achieved using an interventionist system external to the microprocessor controller, thereby simplifying considerably the overall system design. Experimental results obtained from a prototype 5 kW drive are presented to illustrate the excellent dynamic behavior of the scheme

38.6.9    M. Prokin, "Speed measurement using the improved DMA transfer method," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 476-483, Dec 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A wide-range speed measurement method using the direct memory access (DMA) transfer of a content of the timer to the memory is presented. The DMA method is based on both pulse counting and time measurement during the constant sampling time. The hardware configuration and algorithms for a microcontroller implementation are also presented. The proposed method is suitable in systems using microcontrollers with integrated DMA controller and timers. Limitations and sources of errors are discussed in detail

38.6.10    S. Seereeram, J.T.-Y. Wen, "An all-geodesic algorithm for filament winding of a T-shaped form ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 484-490, Dec 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An algorithm that generates all-geodesic paths for the complete surface coverage of a T-shaped form composed of the adjoining of two cylinders of equal radii is presented. This has been recognized as a challenging filament-winding problem as its form is nonaxisymmetric. This algorithm was implemented on the robotic filament-winding system developed at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

38.6.11    Zhe Chen, "Local observability and its application to multiple measurement estimation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 491-496, Dec 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The concept of local observability is introduced for linear time-varying systems. The concept is useful for the analysis of the observability of a system during a chosen time period. It has important applications in estimation involving multiple measurements. The observability matrix, used for testing complete observability, is also used to determine local observability. The condition number of the matrix is adopted as a scalar measure of degree of local observability. The use of the matrix and its condition number is illustrated by a practical application involving a terrain-aided inertial navigation system. Error covariance analysis, done by computer, is performed to confirm the local observability predicted by the condition number

38.6.12    V.V. Bapeswara Rao, P. Enjetti, P.D. Ziogas, "Comment, with reply, on `Analysis of a static power converter under unbalance: a novel approach' by P. N. Enjeti and P.D. Ziogas," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 497-498, Dec 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The commenter argues that the expressions obtained in the above-named work (see ibid., vol.37, no.1, pp.91-93, Feb. 1990) by P.N. Enjeti and P. D. Ziogas for the harmonics of the output voltage are in error. Certain modifications of the formulas presented by Enjeti and Ziogas are suggested. An authors' reply is presented

38.6.13    P.D. Olivier, "Feedback linearization of DC motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 498-501, Dec 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The feedback linearization of series and shunt-connected motors is studied. It is found that they can be feedback linearized in a variety of ways. The series-connected motor can be input-to-state linearized, whereas the shunt-connected motor cannot. All of the feedback linearizations are valid except on `thin sets' of states

38.6.14    D.C. Hanselman, "Techniques for improving resolver-to-digital conversion accuracy ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 501-504, Dec 1991.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Several methods for reducing the position error caused by the existence of imperfect resolver signal characteristics are introduced. The most straightforward method is simply to calibrate each resolver and resolver-to-digital (R/D) converter and then correct the R/D converter output in real time. Although this method corrects all errors, including those with an origin in the R/D converter, it is also the most time-consuming and labor-intensive. By appropriate signal processing, it is shown that quadrature error can be eliminated by simple algebraic manipulation of the resolver signals. Similarly, it is shown that all even harmonics in the resolver signals can be canceled if the resolver is constructed with complementary phases. It is shown that amplitude imbalance can be used to reduce the position error due to inductive harmonics

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 39,  Number 1, Feb 1992           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




39.1.1    A. De Luca, G. Paesano, G. Ulivi, "A frequency-domain approach to learning control: implementation for a robot manipulator," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 1-10, Feb 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A frequency-domain approach to the analysis and design of learning control laws for achieving a desired repetitive behavior in a dynamical system is presented. The scheme uses two separate filters in order to obtain rapid improvement in a specified bandwidth, while cutting off possibly destabilizing dynamic effects that would bar learning convergence. In this way the trade-off between global convergence conditions and approximate learning of trajectories is made explicit. The synthesis is presented for single-input, single-output (SISO) linear systems, but the method is of general application. The proposed learning controller has been used for exact tracking of repetitive trajectories in robot manipulators. In particular, actuator inputs that enable accurate reproduction of robot joint-space trajectories are learned in a few iterations without the knowledge of the robot dynamic model. Implementation aspects are discussed, and experimental results are reported

39.1.2    R.H. Brown, S.C. Schneider, M.G. Mulligan, "Analysis of algorithms for velocity estimation from discrete position versus time data," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 11-19, Feb 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Algorithms for constructing velocity approximations from discrete position versus time data are investigated. The study is limited to algorithms suitable to provide velocity information in discrete-time feedback control systems such as microprocessor-based systems with a discrete position encoder. Velocity estimators based on lines per period, reciprocal-time, Taylor series expansion, backward difference expansions, and least-square curve fits are presented. Based on computer simulations, comparisons of relative accuracies of the different algorithms are made. The least-squares velocity estimators filtered the effect of imperfect measurements best, whereas the Taylor series expansions and backward difference equation estimators respond better to velocity transients

39.1.3    P.B. Crilly, "Increased throughput for process chromatography using constrained deconvolution," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 20-24, Feb 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Signal restoration using Jansson's method of constrained deconvolution was investigated and tested to deconvolve and thereby resolve severely overlapped gas chromatographic peaks. The results of this technique were compared to those obtained with an instrument that uses a longer column that already produces fully resolved peaks. Jannson's deconvolution method enabled significant resolution improvement at a minimal cost in computational time. Thus, for a given amount of peak resolution, this technique increased the instrument's throughput by 10 times. Test results show that Jansson's method provides similar measurement accuracies and variances as those obtained on an instrument using a longer column

39.1.4    Fu-Juay Chang, Shih-Hsiung Twu, Shyang Chang, "Tracking control of DC motors via an improved chattering alleviation control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 25-29, Feb 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An improved version of the chattering alleviation control (CAC) augmented with boundary layers is proposed. It preserves all the features of CAC and exhibits three additional advantageous properties. First, the resultant control law is continuous instead of the discontinuous function proposed in CAC. Second, the chattering level is smaller than that of CAC. Third, the parameters in the boundary layer approach can be determined quantitatively via this algorithm. The resultant system via this nonlinear feedback control law is proved to be asymptotically stable, which is then applied to the tracking control of DC motors. Experimental results indicate that the high-speed tracking of the desired trajectory can be achieved. In addition, the applied armature voltage contains fewer higher frequency components as compared to other variable structure systems control

39.1.5    M. Ishida, J. Hamaguchi, K. Shirasuka, T. Hori, "A new friction-type piezoelectric motor utilizing mechanism of the strain wave gearing," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 30-35, Feb 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A motor that utilizes multilayer piezoelectric devices for electromechanical power conversion and the mechanism of the strain wave gearing for generation of traveling motive forces is proposed. The construction, basic operation, and torque generation mechanism of the motor are described. The motor can be operated under variable frequency. Experimental results on the prototype motor made of metals are also presented. The feasibility of the proposed motor is verified, and the possibility of realizing piezoelectric motors with a larger torque is shown

39.1.6    O. Vainio, S.J. Ovaska, J.J. Pasanen, "A digital signal processing approach to real-time AC motor modeling ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 36-45, Feb 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Discrete-time computational models of squirrel-cage AC motors are derived and analyzed for the purpose of advanced motor control. The starting point is a continuous-time model defined by a pair of simultaneous complex-coefficient differential equations. Discrete-time models are derived using both the bilinear transformation and the forward-difference approximation. The exact dependence between stability and the minimum sampling rate in the forward-difference approach is shown. The responses of the two discretized models are compared using real-world motor parameters. Using the forward difference method, a more compact implementation is obtained (although a higher sampling rate is required) as compared to the bilinear transformed model of equivalent performance and 2.7 times higher computational complexity. A 16/24-b DSP-ASIC coprocessor prototype implementing the AC motor model is introduced

39.1.7    Yau-Tze Kao, Change-Huan Liu, "Analysis and design of microprocessor-based vector-controlled induction motor drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 46-54, Feb 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The design and implementation of controllers for induction motor drives under vector control is considered. The control of induction motor drives is considered in both constant torque and constant horsepower operation regions. A systematic mathematical formulation is presented for designing motor controllers. These include conventional proportional-integral controllers and more advanced frequency-domain optimal controllers. A 32-b microprocessor-based experimental control system is implemented for verifying the proposed control strategies. The theoretical results are validated by the experimental work

39.1.8    V. Rajagopalan, K. Debebe, A. Chandrasekaran, S.A. Sudha, "User-friendly dedicated power electronic converter simulator," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 55-62, Feb 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A user-friendly power electronic simulator for the design and analysis of power electronic circuits is presented. A graphic input interface module called ATOSECG has been developed for the dedicated power electronic converter system simulator ATOSEC5. ATOSECG has tremendously facilitated the interaction of the user with the simulator. Examples of application of the ATOSEC5 simulator for the analysis of a complex multiconverter system are given

39.1.9    A. Tripathi, P.C. Sen, "Comparative analysis of fixed and sinusoidal band hysteresis current controllers for voltage source inverters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 63-73, Feb 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A hysteresis controller with a sinusoidal band for current regulation is described. The behavior of the conventional fixed-band controller and the proposed sinusoidal band controller has been thoroughly studied. Simulation results demonstrate that with no lockout (permitting a very high switching frequency) the current waveform can be confined within the desired hysteresis bands. At low lockout frequencies the current is not confined within the hysteresis bands and both fixed and sinusoidal band controllers give a high ripple. The study also shows that with a reasonable lockout frequency, a sinusoidal band control results in a reduced ripple and lower harmonic content. However, the switching frequency is higher with the sinusoidal bands. This should not be a major concern with the availability of fast switching devices that allow higher lockout frequencies

39.1.10    Hui-Yung Chu, Hurng-Liahng Jou, Ching-Lien Huang, "Transient response of a peak voltage detector for sinusoidal signals," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 74-79, Feb 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A fast peak detector for constant frequency sinusoidal signals is proposed. This detector is based on the concept of the orthogonal function set. The theoretical response time of this detector is less than one-fourth of a cycle. When this detector is used, the transient response of the output voltage is different under different inception angles. The mathematical equations to describe transient phenomena are derived and simulated. Because its transient response performance is superior to the conventional sinusoidal amplitude detector used in an analog controller, it can improve the transient response performance of the controller. For practical applications, the effects of harmonics and frequency variation are also discussed, simulated, and tested

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 39,  Number 2, April 1992           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




39.2.1    T. Furuhashi, S. Sangwongwanich, S. Okuma, "A position-and-velocity sensorless control for brushless DC motors using an adaptive sliding mode observer," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 89-95, April 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The sliding mode observer is robust to measurement noises. Since the switching signals of the sliding mode observer contain the induced voltages of the motors, it is possible to obtain the position and velocity of the motors directly from the switching signals. Although the estimated position can be used for locating the position of the rotor, the estimated velocity is heavily contaminated by noises from the switching signals. This direct method nullifies the merit of the sliding mode observer. Thus, the authors also present an adaptive scheme for robust estimation of the velocity of brushless DC motors. Stability of the adaptive scheme is assured, and estimation errors due to parameter deviations are analyzed. A method of parameter adjustment is described

39.2.2    M. Kaneko, W. Paetsch, H. Tolle, "Input-dependent stability of joint torque control of tendon-driven robot hands," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 96-104, April 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The input-dependent stability observed during torque control experiments using the first joint of the Darmstadt-HAND is discussed. Friction and compliance existing in tendon-sheath drive systems introduce a hysteresis nonlinearity between the joint torque output and the actuator displacement. Although this transmission characteristic is close to the well-known backlash behavior of the gears situated between a motor and a load shift, this hysteresis loop exhibits input-dependent characteristics in the backlash region of the transmission system, with springlike behavior within a portion of the backlash region. Experiments confirmed that there is a close relationship between the input-dependent backlash characteristics and the input-dependent stability. Based on these experiments, the authors describe the transmission characteristic using a simple model and explore the system stability using sinusoidal-input-describing-functions (SIDF). A nondimensional stability-criterion-map that successfully predicts the experimental results is presented

39.2.3    L.-A. Dessaint, M. Saad, B. Hebert, K. Al-Haddad, "An adaptive controller for a direct-drive SCARA robot," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 105-111, April 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A direct adaptive controller for trajectory tracking of high-speed robots such as a direct-drive SCARA robot is presented. In this robot, nonlinear effects due to centrifugal, Coriolis, and inertial forces are more important than friction and gravity forces, unlike most industrial robots. The control law of the adaptive scheme consists of a PD regulator plus feedforward compensation of full dynamics. The feedforward terms are adjusted by an adaptation law so that the steady-state position errors are zero. With this adaptive controller, the joint acceleration measurement is not required and no inversion of the estimated mass matrix is involved. The tracking performances of the controller applied to a two-degree-of-freedom SCARA is illustrated by a real-time implementation based on a single-chip digital signal processor (DSP)

39.2.4    J.-C. Li, G.-C. Hsieh, "A phase/frequency-locked controller for stepping servo control systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 112-119, April 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A phase-controlled oscillator (PCO), composed of an adaptive digital-pumped controller (ADPC) and a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), is proposed as a novel stepping motor driver. A phase-locked stepping servomechanism (PLSS) is established and the PCO can provide an accurate and stable pulse train to adaptively drive the stepping motor. System modeling, analysis, stability investigation, design, and implementation are all conducted. Computer simulation and experimental results indicate that the performance of the PLSS is close to the theoretical prediction. Some speed responses for 40-1000 r/min are examined in the real PLSS. A speed regulation of ±0.15 r/min was achieved. An adaptive line density selector can be used to improve the system performance

39.2.5    E. Bassi, F. Benzi, R. Scattolini, "Design of a digital adaptive controller for electrical drives in industrial applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 120-127, April 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The adaptive control of an electrical drive intended for positioning applications is addressed. The regulator is based on a pole-placement technique and an online identification algorithm. The results of previous work by the authors are reviewed and a more accurate modeling is worked out by including a term accounting for the torque; to this aim a static feedforward element is designed and added to the control scheme. The limit on the motor current provided in actual systems is taken into account, and a desaturation strategy is proposed and tested. A further improvement of the performances is obtained by a dynamical change in the saturation limits. A number of simulations are presented to illustrate the performance of the system

39.2.6    L.D. Salazar, P.D. Ziogas, "Design and evaluation of two types of controllers for a two-switch forward converter with extended duty cycle capability," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 128-140, April 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A single-voltage loop and dual-current-voltage loop-control system are proposed to improve the output regulation and the dynamic response of a 2 kW two-switch high-frequency forward converter with an extended duty cycle capability. A design method in the frequency domain is described. It is shown that both control systems can be designed by using an equivalent single-input/output control transfer function. Moreover, an all-pass constant-time-delay filter is included in the transfer function of the converter to improve the linear model at high-frequency. Simulated and experimental results to verify the design and the effects on the dynamic performance of the converter using both controllers are presented

39.2.7    V. Agrawal, A.K. Agarwal, K. Kant, "A study of single-phase to three-phase cycloconverters using PSPICE ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 141-148, April 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A single-phase-to-three-phase cycloconverter system operating from a 50 Hz input has been simulated under various loading conditions using a PSPICE circuit simulator. The Giacolleto SCR model has been modified. Detailed waveforms of load voltage, load current, and current of various semiconductor-controlled rectifiers (SCRs) have been plotted. It has been demonstrated that for low and medium L/R loads a simple constant firing angle sequence works well, whereas the cosine wave crossing method (CWCM) seems to be optimum for high L/R loads. Theoretical results are validated with the experimental results

39.2.8    B.-H. Kwon, "Design of a highly stable electromagnet power supply," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 149-158, April 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method for designing a highly stable electromagnet power supply combining the 12-pulse phase-controlled rectifier (PCR), passive filter, and transformed active filter is investigated. The PCR system is analyzed, and passive filter parameters are designed from this analysis. A phase-locked voltage control circuit with a fast dynamic characteristic is analyzed, and an optimal constant proportional-integral and measurable variable feedback plus feedforward (PIMF) current controller is designed using a time-weighted quadratic performance index. It is shown via experimental results that the proposed design method gives good performance

39.2.9    A. Campos, G. Joos, P. Ziogas, J. Lindsay, "Analysis and design of a series voltage compensator for three-phase unbalanced sources," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 159-167, April 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Voltage unbalance typically present in three-phase AC supply systems adversely affects power system components, static converters, drive systems, electric machines, etc., connected to the system. A method to eliminate this unbalance by means of a voltage compensator connected in series with the supply through transformers is described. The technique is based on extracting the negative sequence voltage component of the supply and canceling it in order to obtain balanced voltages. The positive sequence component is then adjusted to achieve voltage regulation. It is shown that the compensation can be achieved with low kilovolt-ampere inverters and that harmonic injection is reduced to a minimum. The authors include implementation principles, design equations, and a design example. Simulated and experimental results confirm the theoretical concept and feasibility of the proposed system

39.2.10    R.M. Davis, "Variable reluctance rotor structures-their influence on torque production," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 168-174, April 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Switched reluctance (SR) motors with differing structures are compared in terms of their torque prediction capabilities. The first structure is doubly salient with conventional laminations, also referred to as the CRS motor. The second has semiclosed stator slots and a cylindrical rotor with anisotropic magnetic properties arising from axial laminations interleaved with nonmagnetic material, also referred to as the CRR motor. The second structure has been claimed, on theoretical grounds, to be the superior structure in terms of torque per stator volume. The present comparison, based on RMS currents, concludes that the torque produced by the conventionally laminated motor is approximately 2.5 times that of the anisotropic design when the two copper losses are equalized. However, when the CRR motor has been optimized in terms of magnetic and electric loading, the CRS motor is still twice as torque productive. These results reverse the benefits previously claimed for the anisotropic motor design

39.2.11    G.L. Arsov, "Comments on `a nonideal macromodel of thyristor for transient analysis in power electronic systems'," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 175-176, April 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the above-titled paper by F.J. Gracia et al. (see ibid., vol.37, no.6, p.514-20, 1990) the authors proposed a nonideal macromodel for analog power circuit simulation using SPICE. The model is quite simple and incorporates important second-order effects such as breakover voltage triggering, critical dv/dt, turn-on and turn-off times, threshold gate trigger voltage, and the nonlinear on-state characteristic. The commenter introduces some necessary corrections to the model and proposes some improvements concerning other versions of SPICE and the thermal effects on the breakdown voltage and breakover voltage turn-off characteristics

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 39,  Number 3, June 1992           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




39.3.1    J. Manigel, W. Leonhard, "Vehicle control by computer vision," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 181-188, June 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method is described for guiding an autonomous vehicle along roadways based on visual signals. The vehicle follows a white guideline on a flat road sensed by a computer-controlled display (CCD) camera. The camera, mounted behind the windscreen of the vehicle, looks forward and down, detecting an area between 5 and 25 m ahead. An image processor (based on Transputers T800) scans the image for the borderline of the road. The line coordinates detected by the image processor are transmitted via transputer links to another transputer network. The implemented algorithm uses geometric coordinate-transformation and a dynamical model (Kalman filter) to identify the road curvature ahead and the relative position of the vehicle on the road. The reference angle for the electrical steering servo is computed from the lateral deviation, the yaw-angle deviation, the road-curvature, and the velocity of the vehicle. Altogether, it takes about 70 ms per image for recognition and control. Results for an experimental system are reported

39.3.2    J.K. McElveen, K.R. Lee, J.E. Bennett, "Identification of multivariable linear systems from input/output measurements," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 189-193, June 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A stochastic approximation technique for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system identification is proposed where the technique is based on state space formalization of a system with known indices. The proposed method is applicable to digital computer implementation. Convergence of the technique is shown, and an example showing its effectiveness when compared with another approximation technique is presented

39.3.3    A.S. Hodel, S.T. Hung, "Solution and applications of the Lyapunov equation for control systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 194-202, June 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Recent advances in control systems analysis and design have implied new uses for the Lyapunov equation of the form AX+XAT+Q=0. Implementation requirements for the incorporation of the use of Lyapunov equations in practical design, however, point out the need for a set of specialized numerical procedures. This special set of numerical procedures must efficiently solve large, sparse Lyapunov equations, solve sets of Lyapunov equations that differ only in the coefficient matrix Q, and provide good low rank estimates of the Lyapunov equation solution X in the case where low rank approximations are applicable. Discussions of the motivations for the solution of these problems and of candidate solution approaches are provided

39.3.4    E.M. Sollbach, A.A. Goldenberg, I. Laniado, "A universal robot control system (URCS) based on the TUNIS multiprocessor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 203-207, June 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The design and development of a universal robot control system (URCS) that would enable computation-intensive control algorithms to be implemented and modified is reported. This required shifting from hardware to software, using high-performance computing platforms. In general, multiprocessing has been found to be a cost-effective method for increasing performance, especially when the control algorithm can be composed into concurrent computational tasks. The URCS was developed using the University of Toronto Multiprocessor System (TUNIS) as the computing platform. One processor reads sensors, another calculates compensation signals and commands to the motors, a third is designated for operator requests, and the last is used for the operating system. An interface that allows the URCS to control the PUMA 560 robot was designed and built

39.3.5    C.E. Lin, Y.-R. Sheu, "A hybrid-control approach for pendulum-car control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 208-214, June 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A hybrid-control approach for operation of a pendulum-car mechanical system that improves the unstable control phenomenon within a limited length of car position is presented. The proposed hybrid-control approach combines a fuzzy logic control approach and a linear state-feedback control approach to obtain the desired performance. The experimental system has been designed and its control system implemented into a 16-b personal computer with successful operation from a downward stable position to an upright holding position

39.3.6    P.T. Krein, R.M. Bass, "Autonomous control technique for high-performance switches," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 215-222, June 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method for creating high-performance switch modules from power transistors and simple control circuits is presented. The method is based on switching function principles by which any type of switch can be represented by an ideal switch in combination with basic logic elements. These high-performance modules can be configured to emulate diodes, thyristors, special resonant devices, or nearly any other switch type. The control is autonomous-it depends on the terminal behavior and external gate signals and requires no additional information from the application circuit. Experimental examples of several switch modules in low-voltage power converters are given. The experimental modules use power MOSFETs and give performance similar to that of synchronous rectifiers but with much greater flexibility. An example is noted in which a module configured to emulate a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) shows voltage drops below 0.25 V at several amperes of forward current

39.3.7    J. Holtz, J.O. Krah, "Suppression of time-varying resonances in the power supply line of AC locomotives by inverter control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 223-229, June 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The harmonic currents generated by the line-side converter of an electric locomotive are injected into the overhead supply system. Although low in magnitude, they give rise to traveling waves that start propagating in both directions along the overhead line. The traveling waves are reflected at various electrical discontinuities along the line such as the feeding substations and other traction vehicles, the positions of which are time varying. This produces eigenresonances at multiple frequencies. High resonant currents may be generated that cause problems of electromagnetic interference with railway communication and signaling systems. It is demonstrated that the time-varying eigenresonances can be identified in real time. Methods of optimal adaptive inverter control are employed in order to avoid the excitation of the line resonances

39.3.8    G.M. Brown, B. Szabados, G.J. Hoolbloom, M.E. Poloujadoff, "High-power cycloconverter drive for double-fed induction motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 230-240, June 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Two cycloconverters independently supply stator and rotor windings of a wound rotor induction machine. The control strategy to stabilize this inherently unstable system is derived from the double-fed machine matrix (DFM) and the resulting algorithm is implemented in hardware with a simple field calculator. A practical implementation of a 2 kW drive illustrates the feasibility of the drive, and practical performances of full speed in both directions, as well as speed ramps of up to 700 r/min, are realized. The system benefits from the simplicity of line-commutated converters associated with a relatively high frequency of operation of each individual cycloconverter, thereby avoiding saturation effects appearing at low frequencies, combined with control of harmonic generation using the extra degree of freedom provided by the DFM

39.3.9    L. Ben-Brahim, A. Kawamura, "A fully digitized field-oriented controlled induction motor drive using only current sensors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 241-249, June 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A field-oriented control method based on a predictive observer with digital current regulation of an induction motor, without speed and voltage sensors, is proposed. Measuring only stator currents and estimating motor speed and rotor fluxes by a predictive state observer with variable pole selection the stator currents are controlled to be exactly equal to the reference currents at every sampling instant. The resulting speed and rotor fluxes are estimated with low sensitivity to parameter variation, and the torque ripples are reduced. The proposed method consists of four parts: identification of the rotor speed, derivation of a digital control law, construction of a state observer that predicts the rotor flux and the stator currents, and derivation of field-oriented control. A theoretical analysis of the method, computer simulations, and experimental results are described

39.3.10    N. Mutoh, K. Nandoh, A. Ueda, "Automatic torque boost control method suitable for PWM inverter with a high switching frequency," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 250-257, June 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A torque control method is described that can generate a motor torque larger than the rated torque over a wide speed range without a current regulator and a speed sensor, even if the induction motor is driven by a pulse-width-modulation (PWM) inverter with a high switching frequency. Control is performed by a magnetic flux compensation control loop. The first control loop suppresses the magnetic flux reduction generated when the load torque and the inverter angular frequency are varied. This reduction is calculated using both inverter angular frequency and slip angular frequency. The current distortion due to the dead time of the PWM signals is suppressed by correcting the signal pulse widths on the basis of errors generated between the PWM reference signals and the inverter output voltage. Experiments confirmed that an induction motor could generate motor torque of more than 150% of the rated torque. The current distortion factor was less than 10% over a wide frequency range

39.3.11    J.Y. Hung, H. Van White, "Precision winding of fiber optic filament. I. Winding characteristics," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 258-267, June 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Some unique aspects and characteristics for precision winding of optical fiber are described. The characteristics of optical fiber and the manner of winding chosen give rise to unique challenges. The peculiarities of the problem are discussed and a summary of basic winding practices is included. After a brief description of the hardware in an automated optical fiber winder, normal winding patterns are considered. The high-speed automatic winder is described along with the technical challenges that are unique to winding of optical fiber, and a qualitative analysis of the winding process is given. The basic requirements for precision winding of optical fiber filaments are summarized

39.3.12    T.T. Hartley, G. Cook, "One-step-ahead control with improved sensitivity robustness," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 268-272, June 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An alternative one-step-ahead control configuration is presented that has improved sensitivity with respect to process disturbances and to plant changes at desired frequencies. The requirement for using this formulation is that the plant be minimum phase. Its utility is demonstrated via application to a DC motor

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 39,  Number 4, August 1992           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




39.4.1    J.A. Malone, L.M. Smith, "A system for sequential step detection with application to video image processing," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 277-284, August 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method for detecting the occurrence of an abrupt steplike change in a time sequence of video images is presented. A single-pole recursive high-pass filter cascaded with a moving average filter processes the input data to remove the quiescent background level and accumulate a sustained change in amplitude. The absolute value of the output is compared to a threshold to decide whether a steplike change in signal amplitude has occurred. It is shown that, for a given cutoff frequency of the high-pass filter, an optimal value exists for the number of terms in the moving average. Considerations for implementation of the algorithm on practical image processors are discussed. The results of numerical and laboratory experiments are presented that verify the effectiveness of the method

39.4.2    H. Dai, N.K. Sinha, "A robust off-line output error method for system identification," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 285-292, August 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The model reference technique and Huber's minimax principle have been successfully used to develop an offline output error method for robust identification of systems. This method is named the robust iterative output error method with modified residuals. A convergence analysis of the proposed method has been included as well as some simulation results. In the presence of a small number of large errors (called outliers) in the input-output data, the presented method has demonstrated its distinctive advantages over not only the nonrobust methods but also previously developed robust methods. The main advantages are a fast convergence speed and satisfactory robustness. It is concluded that the method developed here is much superior to the other methods and therefore can be widely used in many real-time applications

39.4.3    J.E. Bennett, H. Almaula, "Control-based motivation for alternate concepts in electrical generator and steam turbine design," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 293-300, August 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Motivation for alternate designs of electrical generators and steam turbines used in electrical power systems is presented. This motivation stems from a proposed concept in nonlinear suboptimal control that could enhance power system reliability and stability and lessen the demand for the construction of new and costly electrical power generating facilities. The proposed methods could also be applicable to wind generation systems

39.4.4    G.O. Beale, F.J. Arteaga, W.M. Black, "Design and evaluation of a controller for the process of microwave joining of ceramics," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 301-312, August 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A temperature control system is designed and simulated for the process of microwave joining of ceramics. The overall goal is to develop a control system that allows reliable, high-quality joints to be produced on a variety of ceramics. The described procedure permits the derivation of a closed-loop configuration for controlling temperature. The ceramics (alumina) heating model equation is linearized around an operating point and represented as a transfer function. A compensator is designed based on the `worst case' for the value of the gain. Conditions for closed-loop stability with any linearized plant model are presented and mathematically proven. Expressions for the time response parameters of the compensated system are derived. A simulation is implemented in MATLAB for the closed-loop control, and a numerical integration method is used for solving the nonlinear heating equations. The results obtained for the simulation are excellent and show that the temperature can be regulated to a set point value and the thermal runaway problem in the ceramics can be prevented

39.4.5    J.Y. Hung, H.V. White, "Precision winding of fiber optic filament. II. Winding control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 313-322, August 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For pt.I see ibid., vol.39, no.3, p.258-67 (1992). The winding of fiber optic filament in the hoop, or precision, pattern is considered. Various automatic control options that have been designed and tested are described. The controllers are designed to regulate the fiber lag angle, which is the angle at which the feed filament approaches the take-up spool. Successful, flawless winding is directly related to accurate lag regulation. The contributions are distinguished by the fact that the automatic winding rate is 10 to 30 times greater than that achieved before by operator-assisted winding

39.4.6    Gyu-Sik Kim, In-Joong Ha, Myoung-Sam Ko, "Control of induction motors for both high dynamic performance and high power efficiency," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 323-333, August 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors attempt to control induction motors with maximum power efficiency as well as high dynamic performance by means of decoupling of motor speed (or motor torque) and rotor flux. For maximum power efficiency, the squared rotor flux is adjusted according to a minimum power search algorithm until the measured power input reaches the minimum. Since the motor speed is dynamically decoupled from the rotor flux, this can be done successfully without any degradation of motor speed responses. The controller depends on rotor resistance but not on stator resistance. However, the performance of the control scheme is robust with respect to variations in rotor resistance because an identification algorithm for rotor resistance is employed. The identification algorithm for rotor resistance has some advantages over the previous methods. To demonstrate the practical significance of the results, some experimental results are presented

39.4.7    A. Gastli, N. Matsui, "Stator flux controlled V/f PWM inverter with identification of IM parameters [induction motors]," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 334-340, August 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A V/f PWM inverter control algorithm based on controlling the stator flux vector of an induction motor is presented. The algorithm permits an automatic boost of inverter voltage in such a way that the stator flux magnitude is kept constant. The voltage autoboost method is based on knowledge of the IM equivalent circuit parameters and given load characteristics. An offline auto measurement of the equivalent circuit parameters using a PWM inverter is described. The technique consists of performing the no-load and single-phase tests when the motor is connected to the inverter. The complete control system has been constructed and tested and the experimental results have been found satisfactory. The proposed method has achieved a considerable improvement of IM torque-speed characteristics under optimal slip frequency operation

39.4.8    C.C. Chan, K.-T. Chau, "A fast and exact time-domain simulation of switched-mode power regulators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 341-350, August 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new approach for the time-domain simulation of switched-mode power regulators is developed. The concept of this approach is to model each switch element by a linear time-varying nodal equation, thus formulating a modified nodal equation system that describes the global dynamic behavior of the power regulator. By using the symbolic Laplace transform inversion, the time-domain expressions can be obtained in a closed and continuous form, which allows a fast and exact simulation of the system. The time efficiency of the proposed approach is shown by comparing it with a standard numerical integration method. Various transient responses of a practical switched-mode power regulator due to the start-up, the step change in input voltage, and the step change in reference voltage have been simulated. The simulations include the overcurrent protection limitation, the duty-cycle limitation control, the discontinuous conduction mode, and the continuous conduction mode of operation

39.4.9    P. Jain, F.P. Dawson, S.B. Dewan, "A near-zero current-switching series resonant inverter using GTOs ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 351-358, August 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel implementation of fast gate-turn-off thyristors (GTOs) for a series resonant power converter operating above 10 kHz and an output power rating of 10 kW or greater is presented. A zero current switching gating strategy that eliminates the need for large negative gate drive circuits is presented. This permits the operation of the converter at a near-unity load power factor independent of the operating frequency. Consequently, for a given output power, the installed kVA capacity of the converter is minimized, and the system simplicity is maintained. A simplified analysis and component ratings for the GTO-based converter are presented. All the results are verified experimentally

39.4.10    P.Y. Kokate, M. Das, R.N.K. Loh, "Rule-based control of slowly varying systems using compensator segmentation determined by simulated annealing," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 359-367, August 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel compensator segmentation scheme for rule-based control of a linear system characterized by structured uncertainties is presented. It is assumed that the design of a segmented compensator becomes necessary because the parameter variation region is too wide to be handled by a single robust compensator. The segmentation scheme is based on the simulated annealing technique. Starting with an initial estimate of the number of segments, the offline segmentation scheme attempts to minimize it while assuring coverage of the entire parameter variation region. The information about the segment boundaries and the appropriate compensators is then utilized as the database of a rule-based switching controller. The results of simulation studies that demonstrate the performance of the proposed scheme are included

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 39,  Number 5, Oct 1992           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




39.5.1    Choong-Hyuk Yim, In-Joong Ha, Myoung-Sam Ko, "A resolver-to-digital conversion method for fast tracking," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 369-378, Oct 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A resolver-to-digital (R/D) conversion method in which a bang-bang type phase comparator is used for fast tracking is proposed. The low-pass filter needed to reject carrier signal and noise is eliminated from the R/D conversion loop. Instead, two prefilters outside the R/D conversion loop take the role of the low-pass filter, resulting in a fast and accurate tracking R/D converter. Some simulation and experimental results and a mathematical performance analysis are presented to demonstrate the superior tracking performance

39.5.2    Wei-Shiu Wang, Chang-Huan Liu, "Controller design and implementation for industrial robots with flexible joints," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 379-391, Oct 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A control strategy which consists of feedforward and feedback compensation loops is proposed to improve the performance of industrial robots. The feedforward loop is similar to the usual inverse-dynamics compensation. The feedback control loop uses a frequency-domain optimal controller. The design starts from the single-link case and is extended to the control of multilinkage flexible-joint robots. An experimental system consisting of a single-link robot is constructed for verifying the proposed control strategies. Experiments show good performance of the proposed control strategy in stiffening the flexible joint and in tracking desired polynomial-type trajectories

39.5.3    T. Hikihara, Y. Hirane, "A measurement of a magnetic field vector-application of the magneto-birefringence effect by magnetic fluid," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 392-397, Oct 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The measurement of a magnetic field vector using the magneto-birefringence effect in a magnetic fluid is discussed, and the characteristics of the experimental system are described. The system applies a laser diode and a thin film of magnetic fluid as a refracting element to measure magneto-birefringence. Magnetic fluids have both a large anomalous magneto-birefringence effect and a Faraday effect. These effects cause the change of intensity and the phase shift of a refracted laser beam. In the experimental system, a method for detecting these effects is proposed. On the basis of the experimental results, it is clear that the direction and the intensity of a two-dimensional magnetic field vector can be measured in the cases of both direct and alternating magnetic fields

39.5.4    J.H. Aylor, A. Thieme, B.W. Johnso, "A battery state-of-charge indicator for electric wheelchairs," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 398-409, Oct 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Deep-discharge-type lead-acid batteries used in most electric wheelchairs require acurrate battery state-of-charge indication to prevent stranding and to provide economical operation of the wheelchair. A monitoring technique combining the open-circuit voltage and the coulometric measurements had been previously implemented on a microcomputer-based circuit. This adaptive monitoring technique enables the monitor to adjust to different battery sizes as well as the aging process. Several improvements are reported. A technique has been developed to enhance the acurracy and reduce the required rest period of the open-circuit voltage measurement. The open-circuit voltage recovery curve is approximated by two asymptotes on a semilog scale. The open-circuit voltage is then extrapolated from the slope of the first asymptote before it fully stabilizes. The accuracy of the monitor has been verified in field tests, and comparison with a commercial battery monitor shows it to be superior in several respects

39.5.5    J. Holtz, "Pulsewidth modulation-a survey," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 410-420, Oct 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The author evaluates the state of the art in pulsewidth modulation for AC drives fed from three-phase voltage source inverters. Feedforward and feedback pulsewidth modulation schemes with relevance for industrial application are described and their respective merits and shortcomings are explained. Secondary effects such as the influence of load-current dependent switching time delay and transients in synchronized pulsewidth modulation schemes are discussed, and adequate compensation methods are presented. Recorded oscillograms illustrate the performance of the respective pulsewidth modulation principles. The author provides a guideline and quick reference for the practicing engineer to decide which methods should be considered for an application of a given power level, switching frequency, and dynamic response

39.5.6    R.M. Nelms, J.E. Schatz, "A capacitor charging power supply utilizing a Ward converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 421-428, Oct 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A prototype capacitor-charging power supply (CCPS) that utilizes a Ward converter is presented. This converter is a member of the family of resonant converters and is capable of zero-current switching. It is applicable to capacitor charging because of its inherent short-circuit protection and its insensitivity to the value of the load capacitance. The converter is controlled using a constant on-time constant frequency scheme that allows the utilization of zero-current switching techniques. The prototype CCPS is capable of charging various values of load capacitors up to 1000 V DC. Waveforms that show single- and repetitive-charge operation of the CCPS are presented

39.5.7    J. Majo, L. Martinez, A. Poveda, L.G. de Vicuna, F. Guinjoan, A.F. Sanchez, M. Valentin, J.C. Marpinard, "Large-signal feedback control of a bidirectional coupled-inductor Cuk converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 429-436, Oct 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Under conditions of order reduction, a nonlinear control of a bidirectional coupled-inductor Cuk converter suitable for large-signal applications is presented. The converter is accurately modeled as a second-order bilinear system, and the conditions for local controllability are established. The integration of converter state equations and the subsequent introduction of a linear recurrence between the output variable and an external reference signal lead to a nonlinear control law that is implemented by means of an analog divider, standard operational amplifiers, and a pulsewidth modulator. As a result, the output variable proportionally follows the reference signal, thus allowing different types of power waveforms in the converter output to be obtained. Experimental results verify the theoretical predictions

39.5.8    I.D. Nanov, "Influence of DC conversion ratio over small-signal performances of buck-boost programmable switching regulator," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 437-443, Oct 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The influence of DC conversion ratio on the dynamic characteristics of a PWM buck-boost programmable regulator using current-injected control (CIC) and the capability of the control scheme to improve performance of the regulator are investigated. The analysis is performed by applying the small-signal model of the regulator to a number of steady-state operating points. The comparison between small-signal characteristics obtained for the same operating points and for different system open-loop gains (SOLGs) is used to evaluate the capability of CIC to improve the performance of the regulator. The analysis shows that considerable improvements can be expected only for frequencies below unity SOLG cross-over frequency and for small DC conversion ratios

39.5.9    In-Dong Kim, Eui-Cheol Nho, Gyu-Hyeong Cho, "Novel constant frequency PWM DC/DC converter with zero voltage switching for both primary switches and secondary rectifying diodes," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 444-452, Oct 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) DC/DC converter operating at constant frequency and having wide linearity is proposed. ZVS operation is achieved not only for the primary switches but also for the secondary rectifier diodes to reduce the switching stresses and losses. The converter overcomes other shortcomings of the conventional resonant DC/DC converters, among which are the high VA ratings of devices and passive components and load-dependent DC characteristics

39.5.10    A.R. Chowdhury, M.K.S. Rao, A.M. Trzynadlowski, "Disc-crawling motor: a high-torque magnetic-attraction positioning actuator," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 453-459, Oct 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel disk-crawling motor (DCM) utilizing the forces of magnetic attraction, magnetic adhesion, and material resiliency is proposed. The motor is characterized by high-torque low-speed stepped rotational motion. Microprocessor control of the motor allows it to be used as an accurate positioning actuator. The principle of operation, a description of a prototype, and experimental results are presented

39.5.11    Tzuen-Lih Chen, Yung-Chun Wu, "An optimal variable structure control with integral compensation for electrohydraulic position servo control systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 460-463, Oct 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An approach using variable-structure control with integral compensation is presented for an electrohydraulic position servo control system to achieve accurate servo tracking in the presence of load disturbance and plant parameter variation. Simulations show that the proposed approach may give a rather accurate servo-tracking result and is fairly robust to plant parameter variation and load disturbance

39.5.12    P.J. Chrzan, P. Kurzynski, "A rotor time constant evaluation for vector-controlled induction motor drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 463-465, Oct 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The online identification method for the rotor time constant of an induction machine is derived from the steady-state analysis of the machine space vectors. The indirect field orientation system is simulated to verify the convergence of the method in quasi-steady-state operation, independent of the initial controller parameters

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 39,  Number 6, Dec 1992           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




39.6.1    T. Fukuda, T. Shibata, "Theory and applications of neural networks for industrial control systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 472-489, Dec 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The theory and the applications of artificial neural networks, especially in a control field, are described. Recurrent networks and feedforward networks are discussed. Application to pattern recognition, information processing, design, planning, diagnosis, and control are examined. Hybrid systems using the neural networks, fuzzy sets, and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies are surveyed

39.6.2    H. Hashimoto, T. Kubota, M. Sato, F. Harashima, "Visual control of robotic manipulator based on neural networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 490-496, Dec 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A control scheme for a robotic manipulator system that uses visual information to position and orient the end-effector is described. The control system directly integrates visual data into the servoing process without subdividing the process into determination of the position and orientation of the workplace and inverse kinematic calculation. The feature of the control scheme is the use of neural networks for the determination of the change in joint angles required in order to achieve the desired position and orientation. The proposed system is able to control the robot so that it can approach the desired position and orientation from arbitrary initial ones. Simulations for a robotic manipulator with six degrees of freedom are described. The validity and the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme are verified by computer simulations

39.6.3    T. Fukuda, T. Shibata, M. Tokita, T. Mitsuoka, "Neuromorphic control: adaptation and learning," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 497-503, Dec 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A structure for a neural network-based robotic motion controller is presented. Simulations of both position and force servos are carried out, and the approach is shown to be useful for a nonlinear system in an uncertain environment. The neural network comprises a four-layer network, including input/output layers and two hidden layers. Time delay elements are included in the first hidden layer, so that the neural network can learn dynamics of the system. The authors also implement a new learning method based on fuzzy logic, which is useful to accelerate learning and improve convergence

39.6.4    H.-M. Tai, J. Wang, K. Ashenayi, "A neural network-based tracking control system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 504-510, Dec 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An application of the backpropagation neural network to the tracking control of industrial drive systems is presented. The merits of the approach lie in the simplicity of the scheme and its practicality for real-time control. Feedback error trajectories, rather than desired and/or actual trajectories, are employed as inputs to the neural network tracking controller. It can follow any arbitrarily prescribed trajectory even when the desired trajectory is changed to that not used in the training. Simulation was performed to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme

39.6.5    J. Tanomaru, S. Omatu, "Process control by on-line trained neural controllers," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 511-521, Dec 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The question of how to perform online training of multilayer neural controllers in order to reduce the training time is addressed. First, based on multilayer neural networks, structures for a plant emulator and a controller are described. Basic control configurations are briefly presented, and new online training methods, based on performing multiple updating operations during each sampling period, are proposed and described in algorithmic form. One method, the direct inverse control error approach, is effective for small adjustments of the neural controller when it is already reasonably trained; another, the predicted output error approach, directly minimizes the control error and greatly improves convergence of the controller. Simulation and experimental results using a simple plant show the effectiveness of the proposed control structures and training methods

39.6.6    G.L. Dempsey, E.S. McVey, "A Hough transform system based on neural networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 522-528, Dec 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Neural-like analog circuitry is suggested for image-to-parameter-space mapping, and a modified Hopfield optimization network is proposed for the parameter space peak detection. Solution time under 50 μs is obtainable with general-purpose operational amplifiers. Example system applications include autonomous navigation, tracking multiple targets, curve following, mensuration, and image recognition

39.6.7    M.S. Obaidat, D.S. Abu-Saymeh, "Methodologies for characterizing ultrasonic transducers using neural network and pattern recognition techniques," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 529-536, Dec 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: System hardware for characterizing ultrasonic transducers and the associated data acquisition software and characterizing algorithms are considered. The hardware consists mainly of a workstation computer, a receiver/pulser with gated peak detector, various monitoring devices, a microcomputer-based 3D positioning controller, and an A/D converter. The characterization algorithms are based on neural network and pattern recognition techniques. It is found that artificial neural network techniques provide far better classification results than the pattern recognition techniques. A multilayer backpropagation neural network which provides a classification accuracy of 94% is developed. Two other multilayer neural networks-sum-of-products and a newly devised neural network called hybrid sum-of-products-have a classification accuracy of 90% and 93%, respectively. The most successful pattern recognition technique for this application is found to be the perceptron, which provides a classification accuracy of 77%

39.6.8    K. Saga, T. Sugasaka, M. Sekiguchi, S. Nagata, K. Asakawa, "Mobile robot control by neural networks using self-supervised learning," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 537-542, Dec 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A reinforcement learning algorithm based on supervised learning is described. It uses associative search to discover and learn actions that make the system perform a desired task. One problem with associative search is that the system's actions are often inconsistent. In the searching process, the system's actions are always decided stochastically, so the system cannot perform learned actions more than once, even if they have been determined to be suitable actions for the desired task. To solve this problem, a neural network that can predict an evaluation of an action and control the influence of the stochastic element is used. Results from computer simulations using the algorithms to control a mobile robot are described

39.6.9    H. Kita, H. Odani, Y. Nishikawa, "Solving a placement problem by means of an analog neural network ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 543-551, Dec 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The effectiveness of the Hopfield model is examined through its application to a circuit block placement problem. The results of computer simulation show that, although the Hopfield model is not effective enough if it is used without sophisticated preexamination of combinatorial problems, it has the ability to yield quite satisfactory solutions when it is endowed with an appropriate form and parameters of the energy function. The meaning of appropriate parameter values yielding good solutions is also investigated theoretically

39.6.10    S.P. Eberhardt, R. Tawel, T.X. Brown, T. Daud, A.P. Thakoor, "Analog VLSI neural networks: implementation issues and examples in optimization and supervised learning," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 552-564, Dec 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Time-critical neural network applications that require fully parallel hardware implementations for maximal throughput are considered. The rich array of technologies that are being pursued is surveyed, and the analog CMOS VLSI medium approach is focused on. This medium is messy in that limited dynamic range, offset voltages, and noise sources all reduce precision. The authors examine how neural networks can be directly implemented in analog VLSI, giving examples of approaches that have been pursued to date. Two important application areas are highlighted: optimization, because neural hardware may offer a speed advantage of orders of magnitude over other methods; and supervised learning, because of the widespread use and generality of gradient-descent learning algorithms as applied to feedforward networks

39.6.11    A. Ishiguro, T. Furuhashi, S. Okuma, Y. Uchikawa, "A neural network compensator for uncertainties of robotics manipulators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 565-570, Dec 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A neural network controller for trajectory control of robotic manipulators that is used not to internalize the inverse dynamic model of the controlled object but to compensate only the uncertainties of the robotic manipulator is presented. Its performance is compared with that of the conventional adaptive scheme. The results show the ability of the neural network controller to adapt to unstructured effects. A learning method for the neural network compensator with true teaching signals is shown. The tracking error of the robotic manipulator was greatly reduced when this controller was used

39.6.12    W.B. Lawrance, W. Mielczarski, "Harmonic current reduction in a three-phase diode bridge rectifier ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 571-576, Dec 1992.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel method for reducing harmonic currents on the AC supply side of a three-phase bridge rectifier is presented. The principle of the method is to modify the current waveforms in the DC windings of the converter transformer by injecting a third harmonic current into the neutral point of the transformer. Passive LC filters connected between the rectifier output and the secondary neutral point act as third harmonic current sources. The effectiveness of the method is confirmed by laboratory recordings

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 40,  Number 1, Feb 1993           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




40.1.1    J.Y. Hung, W. Gao, J.C. Hung, "Variable structure control: a survey," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 2-22, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A tutorial account of variable structure control with sliding mode is presented. The purpose is to introduce in a concise manner the fundamental theory, main results, and practical applications of this powerful control system design approach. This approach is particularly attractive for the control of nonlinear systems. Prominent characteristics such as invariance, robustness, order reduction, and control chattering are discussed in detail. Methods for coping with chattering are presented. Both linear and nonlinear systems are considered. Future research areas are suggested and an extensive list of references is included

40.1.2    V.I. Utkin, "Sliding mode control design principles and applications to electric drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 23-36, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The basic concepts, mathematics, and design aspects of variable-structure systems as well as those with sliding modes as a principle operation mode are treated. The main arguments in favor of sliding-mode control are order reduction, decoupling design procedure, disturbance rejection, insensitivity to parameter variations, and simple implementation by means of power converters. The control algorithms and data processing used in variable structure systems are analyzed. The potential of sliding mode control methodology is demonstrated for versatility of electric drives and functional goals of control

40.1.3    K. Furuta, "VSS type self-tuning control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 37-44, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Discrete variable-structure control and its application to self-tuning control are considered. The proposed variable structure control does not use state variables but uses present and past output or input-output signals. Variable-structure control for the deterministic discrete-time system based on the minimum variance and generalized minimum variance control is proposed. The method is then extended so that self-tuning control is realized for the plants with uncertain parameters by identifying the control law online. A simulation study shows the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm

40.1.4    Weibing Gao, J.C. Hung, "Variable structure control of nonlinear systems: a new approach," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 45-55, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new approach for the design of variable structure control (VSC) of nonlinear systems is presented. It is based on a new method called the reaching law method, and is complemented by a sliding-mode equivalence technique. They facilitate the design of the system dynamics in all three modes of a VSC system including the sliding, reaching, and steady-state modes. Invariance and robustness properties are discussed. The approach is applied to a robot manipulator to demonstrate its effectiveness

40.1.5    G.S. Buja, R. Menis, M.I. Valla, "Variable structure control of an SRM drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 56-63, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The applications of a variable-structure system (VSS) to the control of a switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive is presented. After reviewing the operation of an SRM drive, a VSS-based scheme is formulated to control the drive speed. The scheme is then designed and tested by simulation. The results show that the VSS control is effective in reducing the torque ripple of the motor, compensating for the nonlinear torque characteristics, and making the drive insensitive to parameter variations and disturbances

40.1.6    A. Ishigame, T. Furukawa, S. Kawamoto, T. Taniguchi, "Sliding mode controller design based on fuzzy inference for nonlinear systems [power systems]," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 64-70, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Sliding-mode control can deal with nonlinearities of control systems and is robust. However, it has drawbacks, such as high control gain effect and control chattering. A method of nonlinear feedback control that introduces fuzzy interference into sliding-mode control, to treat nonlinearities and reduce chattering is proposed. The stability of the system is discussed using fuzzy stability theory based on Lyapunov's direct method. The method is applied numerically to the stabilizing control of an electric power system, and is shown to give good results

40.1.7    C.-Y. Su, T.-P. Leung, Y. Stepanenko, "Real-time implementation of regressor-based sliding mode control algorithm for robotic manipulators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 71-79, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A regressor-based variable-structure control scheme has been developed for the trajectory control of robot manipulators in the presence of disturbances, parameter variations, and unmodeled dynamics. The method is based on the regressor structure given by J.J.E. Slotine and W. Li, without parameter adaptation. This avoids the requirement of persistency of excitation, and the convergence of the overall transient exponential. The method is robust against a class of state-dependent uncertainties, which may result, for example, from unmodeled dynamics. The problem of chattering is solved by the smoothing control law. It is with respect to a set around the origin, which can be made arbitrarily small. To illustrate the feasibility of this controller, it was implemented using a Motorola M68000 microprocessor on a two-link revolute joint manipulator subjected to a variable payload. Experimental results confirm the validity of accurate tracking capability and the robust performance

40.1.8    A. Suyitno, J. Fujikawa, H. Kobayashi, Y. Dote, "Variable-structured robust controller by fuzzy logic for servomotors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 80-88, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A variable-structure robust controller whose structure is continuously changed by fuzzy logic so that the system responds quickly if the error or its rate is large and vice versa is proposed. Such a controller is insensitive to both the plant noise and the observation noise. It is applied to speed control for an induction servomotor. Experiments show that the controller is superior to both a sliding-mode controller and a proportional integral-derivative (PID) controller. The paper includes the stability analysis of the overall system and the design procedure by using Lyapunov's method

40.1.9    S. Komada, K. Nomura, M. Ishida, T. Hori, "Robust force control based on compensation for parameter variations of dynamic environment," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 89-95, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Force control strategies that are robust against disturbance and parameter variations are proposed. These strategies are expansions of disturbance observer-based control strategy, and require little computation. Observers are proposed that estimate parameter variations of the dynamic environment on which the force is imposed are introduced. Since the observer-based control represents a nominal system, a second derivative of force can be controlled. A force control strategy for controlling the second derivative of force is also proposed. The force response similar to the force command is realized by these strategies in spite of the disturbance and the parameter variations of the control object. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is confirmed by simulation and experimental results

40.1.10    S.T. Hung, D.C. Hopkins, C.R. Mosling, "Extension of battery life via charge equalization control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 96-104, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The primary difficulty in charging storage batteries is in attaining process regulation that allows fast charging while avoiding destructive overcharging. A two-level approach to controlling the charging process is presented. A general background discussion of batteries and charging problems is followed by the presentation of a novel recirculating charge equalization technique that enhances the uniformity of batteries made up from long serial strings of cells. A straightforward means of embedding equalization within an outer-loop supervisory control that maintains a fast charging rate while providing overall protection against overcharging is briefly described. Simulation and experimental results confirm the applicability of the equalization control technique

40.1.11    F. Filicori, C.G. Lo Bianco, A. Tonielli, "Modeling and control strategies for a variable reluctance direct-drive motor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 105-115, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A high-performance ripple-free dynamic torque controller for a variable-reluctance (VR) motor intended for trajectory tracking in robotic applications is designed. A modeling approach that simplifies the design of the controller is investigated. Model structure and parameter estimation techniques are presented. Different approaches to the overall torque controller design problem are discussed, and the solution adopted is illustrated. A cascade controller structure consisting of a feedforward nonlinear torque compensator, cascaded to a nonlinear flux or current closed-loop controller is considered, and optimization techniques are used for its design. Although developed for a specific commercial motor, the proposed modeling and optimization strategies can be used for other VR motors with magnetically decoupled phases, both rotating and linear. Laboratory experiments for model validation and preliminary simulation results of the overall torque control system are presented

40.1.12    C.C. Hang, Y.S. Cai, K.W. Lim, "A dual-rate self-tuning pole-placement controller," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 116-129, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A dual-rate self-tuning pole-placement controller is proposed. It allows the use of a larger sampling interval for on-line parameter estimation and a smaller sampling interval for control. The conversion of model parameters from one sampling interval to another can be readily performed using a pole-zero mapping technique. The major problem encountered is that the process zeros at the slow sampling rate cannot be estimated accurately by using input-output data obtained at the fast sampling rate. The proposed solution of fixing the zeros at z=-1 while keeping the DC gain the same is supported by analysis of the Nyquist plot. The main merits of the dual-rate self-tuning control system are in the simultaneous achievement of robust estimation and reduced computation load and in improved performance in the regulation of deterministic and stochastic load disturbances. Its performance is substantiated by digital simulation and experiments on a pilot plant

40.1.13    S.N. Vukosavic, M.R. Stojic, "On-line tuning of the rotor time constant for vector-controlled induction motor in position control applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 130-138, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The induction motor drive with an indirect field-oriented controller (IFO) exhibits excellent behavior in a low-speed region. Thus, the motor can be advantageously used as an actuator in positioning servomechanisms. The authors propose the adaptation scheme for the continuous on-line tuning of the parameter T*r, suitable for the environment of a position servo. The outlined analytical considerations and experimental results are focused on operation conditions characterized by the zero speed and a light load of the drive. The proposed adaptation scheme is based on the measurement of the terminal voltages that are used as an auxiliary information; then the scheme is designed in such a way that stator resistance fluctuations and nonlinearities within the analog processing circuitry do not affect the estimated value of the rotor time constant. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme gives good results even in conditions at zero speed and dynamic loads that may be as low as 0.2 p.u

40.1.14    P.J. Wolfs, "A current-sourced DC-DC converter derived via the duality principle from the half-bridge converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 139-144, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A current-sourced switch-mode power supply topology is developed by applying a duality principle to a voltage-sourced half-bridge converter. The converter has boost converter characteristics and is suited to low-voltage high-current input applications. It is shown to compare favorably with the center-tapped transformer converter. Two optional enhancements-nondissipative snubber networks and inductor clamping windings-are also examined. Some results obtained with a low-power prototype are presented

40.1.15    S. Murata, T. Hirose, "Onboard locating system using real-time image processing for a self-navigating vehicle," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 145-154, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An onboard location system for a self-navigating vehicle using signposts with bar codes placed along the routes is described. The system has two independent measuring subsystems. The first is a machine vision system composed of an onboard camera, an onboard image processing unit, and signposts. This subsystem measures location and direction of the vehicle by triangulation when the signposts are detected. The second is a dead-reckoning subsystem based on rotation counts for the right and left wheels. Data from these two subsystems are systematically combined by an extended Kalman filter. The experimental results show that an accurate and smooth estimation of the location and direction of the vehicle is obtained

40.1.16    B. Hebert, M. Brule, L.-A. Dessaint, "A high efficiency interface for a biphase incremental encoder with error detection [servomotor control]," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 155-156, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The use of incremental instead of absolute encoders for servomotor control involves the design of an interface to feed bidirectional counters. A robust method that the authors have implemented with a minimum number of components is presented. The method is also suitable for an all-software version that could be used in microcontroller applications with low CPU overhead

40.1.17    Hung-Ching Lu, Wen-Chen Lin, "Robust controller with disturbance rejection for hydraulic servo systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 157-162, Feb 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A controller is presented that improves the performance and reduces the sensitivity of hydraulic servo systems in the presence of parameter variations, nonlinear effects, and other disturbances. The control system has enhanced closed-loop stability and can recover from steady-state and transient error quickly and completely. It consists of a servo controller, an auxiliary controller, and a robust controller. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the validity of the controller

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 40,  Number 2, April 1993           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




40.2.1    P.J. Werbos, "Neurocontrol and elastic fuzzy logic: capabilities, concepts, and applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 170-180, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The author shows how elastic fuzzy logic (EFL) nets make it possible to combine the capabilities of expert systems with the learning capabilities of neural networks at a high level. ANN (artificial neural network) implementations have advantages in terms of hardware implementation, ease of use, generality, and links to the brain, which is still the only true intelligent controller available. Neurocontrol is useful in cloning experts, tracking trajectories or setpoints, and optimization (e.g., approximate dynamic programming). There has been substantial success in controlling robot arms (including the main arm of the Space Shuttle), chemical process control, continuous production of high-quality parts, and other aerospace applications. A review of the basic designs and concepts, with reference to both the applications and future research opportunities, is given

40.2.2    M.-Y. Chow, R.N. Sharpe, J.C. Hung, "On the application and design of artificial neural networks for motor fault detection. I," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 181-188, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The general design considerations for feedforward artificial neural networks (ANNs) to perform motor fault detection are presented. A few noninvasive fault detection techniques are discussed, including the parameter estimation approach, human expert approach, and ANN approach. A brief overview of feedforward nets and the backpropagation training algorithm, along with its pseudocodes, is given. Some of the neural network design considerations such as network performance, network implementation, size of training data set, assignment of training parameter values, and stopping criteria are discussed. A fuzzy logic approach to configuring the network structure is presented

40.2.3    M.-Y. Chow, R.N. Sharpe, J.C. Hung, "On the application and design of artificial neural networks for motor fault detection. II," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 189-196, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For part I see ibid., vol.40, no.2, p.181-8 (1993). Some neural network design considerations, such as network performance, network implementation, size of training data set, assignment of training parameter values, and stopping criteria, are discussed. A fuzzy logic approach to configuring the network structure is presented, to automate the network design. Successful results are obtained from using artificial neural networks (ANNs) on motor fault detection and fuzzy logic in the network configuration design. It is concluded that these emerging technologies are promising for future widespread industrial usage

40.2.4    H.H. Szu, "Automatic fault recognition by image correlation neural network techniques," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 197-208, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The image correlation technique, a useful method for online inspection for quality production control, is discussed. A Cauchy machine determines the imperfection by the degree of orthogonality between the automated extracted feature from the send-through image and the class feature of early good samples. The performance measure used for such an automatic feature extraction is based on a certain minimax cost function useful for image classification. Such an inspection theory based on image sequences is simulated by incorporating space-filling Peano curves, fast simulated Cauchy annealing, and minimax classification performance measures. An artificial neural network (ANN) is discussed as a possible implementation

40.2.5    I.E. Alguindigue, A. Loskiewicz-Buczak, R.E. Uhrig, "Monitoring and diagnosis of rolling element bearings using artificial neural networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 209-217, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Vibration monitoring of components in manufacturing plants involves the collection of vibration data from plant components and detailed analysis to detect features that reflect the operational state of the machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology for rolling element bearings (REB) based on neural network technology is presented. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural networks to operate in real-time mode and to handle data that may be distorted or noisy. The significance of this work relies on the fact that REB failures are responsible for a large fraction of the malfunctions in manufacturing equipment. The technique enhances traditional vibration analysis and provides a means of automating the monitoring and diagnosis of vibrating equipment

40.2.6    O.K. Ersoy, D. Hong, "Parallel, self-organizing, hierarchical neural networks. II," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 218-227, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For pt.I see IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, vol.1, p.167-78 (1990). Parallel, self-organizing, hierarchical neural networks (PSHNNs) involve a number of stages with error detection at the end of each stage, i.e., rejection of error-causing vectors, which are then fed into the next stage after a nonlinear transformation. The stages operate in parallel during testing. Statistical properties and the mechanisms of vector rejection of the PSHNN are discussed in comparison to the maximum likelihood method and the backpropagation network. The PSHNN is highly fault tolerant and robust against errors in the weight values due to the adjustment of the error detection bounds to compensate errors in the weight values. These properties are exploited to develop architectures for programmable implementations in which the programmable parts are reduced to on-off or bipolar switching operations for bulk computations and attenuators for pointwise operations

40.2.7    L.J. Olsson, S. Gruber, "Web process inspection using neural classification of scattering light," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 228-234, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Web process inspection requires rapid examination of vast amounts of data. The two resulting issues, the sensory system and the computer processing required to detect faults in the sheet material accurately, were examined. It was found that scattered coherent light from the surface of the material being processed could be directly conditioned by a photodetector so as to produce a small set of features which are then examined by a neural network trained to find unsatisfactory surface conditions. A surface inspection system using measurement of the angular distribution over a 25°C cone angle of the scattering was constructed, calibrated, and evaluated for inspection of coated sheet and steel samples. Features, created by a simulated segmented photodetector, were inputs to a neural network which used classification based upon T. Kohonen's (1989) learning vector quantization (LVQ2). The system was evaluated with CrO2 coated steel samples. Classification by fault or no-fault categorized 133 samples corrected out of 135, while there were seven errors in one attempt at classification by the various common types of surface fault out of the same number of test samples and nine in another

40.2.8    M.S. Obaidat, D.T. Macchiarolo, "An online neural network system for computer access security," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 235-242, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method for identifying computer users based on the individual typing techniques of the users is presented. The identification system is a pattern classification system based on a simulation of an artificial neural network. The user types a known sequence of characters, and the intercharacter times represent a pattern vector to be classified. This vector is presented to the classification system, and the pattern is assigned to a predefined class, thus identifying the user. The major work is divided into two phases: the investigation phase and the implementation phase. Experimental results are discussed, followed by a description of a real-time implementation of this system, using a personal computer, known as the OnLine User Identification System. In an operational trial, the system correctly identified users 97.8% of the time. This intelligent system can be used, in addition to the traditional user name and password procedures, to improve computer security in a cost-effective manner

40.2.9    T.-S. Low, T.-H. Lee, H.-K. Lim, "A methodology for neural network training for control of drives with nonlinearities," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 243-249, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The learning process of a multilayered feedforward neural network involves extracting a desired function from the training data presented through an appropriate training algorithm. To achieve the desired function, the generation of good training data is necessary. A closed-loop methodology for neural network training for control of drives with nonlinearities is presented. Problems associated with the more common open-loop training scheme, and how these are addressed by the proposed closed-loop method, are discussed. An inverse nonlinear control using a neural network (INC/NN), a control strategy which incorporates the neural network for control of nonlinear systems, is described and used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the closed-loop training scheme. Simulation studies and experimental results are presented to verify the improvement achieved by the closed-loop training methodology

40.2.10    W.E. Snyder, M.-L. Hsiao, J.N. Campbell, "Restoration of ultrasonic NDE images," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 250-258, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The problem of determining the ultrasonic reflectivity function resulting from density changes in a material is posed as an image restoration problem. The received time-domain signal is modeled as resulting from convolution of the acoustic pulse with the reflectivity function with additive noise. A new deconvolution method is used to estimate the reflectivity function. The method operates by an iterative maximum-a-posteriori (MAP) optimization method that not only estimates the deconvolved function but incorporates the a prior knowledge that the material is relatively uniform, except for step discontinuities. Finally, an annealing algorithm is added that allows the optimization to avoid many local minima. Initial results, based on application of the method to synthetic signals and to real signals from a nondestructive evaluation sensor, are presented

40.2.11    T. Murakami, F. Yu, K. Ohnishi, "Torque sensorless control in multidegree-of-freedom manipulator," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 259-265, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A torque sensorless control for a multi-degree-of-freedom manipulator is described. In the method, two disturbance observers are applied to each joint. One is used to realize a robust motion controller. The other is used to obtain a sensorless torque controller. A robust acceleration controller based on the disturbance observer is shown. To obtain the sensorless torque control, it is necessary to calculate the reaction torque when the mechanical system performs a force task. The calculation method for the reaction torque is explained. Then the method is expanded to workspace force control in the multi-degree-of-freedom manipulator. Several experimental results are shown to confirm the validity of the proposed sensorless force controller

40.2.12    Jia Yush Yen, Gu Jeng Wang, Yung-Jaw Chen, "A fuzzy scheduling controller for a computer disk file track-following servo," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 266-272, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A fuzzy scheduling capability is superimposed on a computer disk drive track-following servocontroller to adjust for the plant variation as the actuator is locked onto different tracks on the disk. The fuzzy algorithm is found to best represent the complex relationship among the controllers for various tracks. Models of a Zentek 3100 disk drive actuator as it locks on a number of different tracks are experimentally identified to be the reference points. H design technique is employed to obtain a robust optimal controller for each reference point. The actual controller for the disk drive actuator is calculated using fuzzy interpolation. It is shown that with the controller scheduling action, the closed-loop performance is improved for the actuator at every track position. Error can be kept at a lower level than is the case when only a single controller is used

40.2.13    B.W. Drake, T.C.S. Hsia, "Implementation of a unified robot kinematics and inverse dynamics algorithm on a DSP chip," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 273-281, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The feasibility and performance of implementing kinematics and inverse dynamics algorithms on a DSP chip for real-time robot arm control is investigated. The algorithms include the following modules: forward and inverse kinematics; Jacobian, inverse Jacobian, and Jacobian derivative term; and Newton-Euler inverse dynamics. These modules are unified under a common coordinate system, and then computationally optimized by eliminating the redundancies among the modules. Further optimization is indicated for the PUMA-like arms. The algorithms are implemented on a TI TMS320C30 DSP chip. It is found that the execution time for the entire set of algorithms is about 0.78 ms for a six-degree-of-freedom robot with a spherical wrist, and is about 0.63 ms for a PUMA-specific arm. The communication time between the host PC and the DSP chip is about 0.376 ms. Thus, it is possible to implement a complete Cartesian controller at a 1000 Hz sampling rate. The algorithms have been successfully tested on a PUMA arm with a PC-based advanced controller

40.2.14    K. Liu, J.M. Fitzgerald, F.L. Lewis, "Kinematic analysis of a Stewart platform manipulator," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 282-293, April 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The Stewart platform manipulator is a fully parallel kinematic linkage system that has major mechanical differences from typical serial link robots. Its closed kinematic chain and parallel linkage structure give it greatly rigidity and a high force-to-weight ratio. However, due to the lack of efficient algorithms for solving the kinematic equations, its potential application as a robotic manipulator is difficult to realize. A simplified algorithm for solving the forward kinematics of a six-link, six-degrees-of-freedom Stewart platform is proposed. The algorithm involves solving only three nonlinear simultaneous equations. Explicit expressions for some special configurations that can directly give the geometric limitations to motion (such as the highest position, lowest position, most titled position, most twisted position, etc.) in terms of the geometric dimensions of the platforms and the legs are derived. This information is being used to direct the design of an actual Stewart platform

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 40,  Number 3, June 1993           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




40.3.1    S. Cavalieri, A. Di Stefano, O. Mirabella, "Optimization of acyclic bandwidth allocation exploiting the priority mechanism in the FieldBus data link layer," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 297-306, June 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In process control applications, the bandwidth assigned to acyclic traffic is oversized in order to ensure that the time constraints of control traffic are met. In the FieldBus, a protocol designed to support the exchange of information between sensors/actuators and regulating elements in an automation environment, this means allocating an excessive portion of the macrocycle to acyclic traffic. The use of traffic management based on priority can allow more efficient management of the available bandwidth. The authors analyze the priority mechanism provided for in the FieldBus data link layer and assess various strategies for management of aperiodic traffic and different application scenarios

40.3.2    T.-S. Low, T.-H. Lee, K.-T. Chang, "A nonlinear speed observer for permanent-magnet synchronous motors ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 307-316, June 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The application of vector control techniques in AC motor drives demands accurate position and velocity feedback information for the current control and servo control loops. The authors describe a speed observer system suitable for use with permanent magnet synchronous motors as a software transducer. The observer is developed from the dq model of the machine. Design considerations for the observer are discussed. The nonlinearities in the machine model present a problem to the observer design, so a state detection technique is used to achieve global stability and consistent convergence of the observer system. The simulations show that the performance of the observer is robust against noise and parameter uncertainties

40.3.3    N.S. Gehlot, P.J. Alsina, "A discrete model of induction motors for real-time control applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 317-325, June 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The real-time digital control of induction motors and AC servomotor drives often involves estimation, identification, and adaptive control algorithms. An efficient and numerically stable discrete model of the induction motor is required to implement these algorithms in real time. A predictor-corrector discrete model of induction motors is developed here for real-time model is analyzed by a discrete root locus technique. The digital simulation of the model is presented and compared with a rigorous solution, and satisfactory results are obtained

40.3.4    D.-G. Ni, G. Rojat, G. Clerc, J.-P. Chante, "Numerical modeling of gate turn-off thyristor using SICOS," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 326-333, June 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A numerical model of gate turn-off thyristors (GTOs) is presented. The concept of a controlled switch realized by a controlled current source is first introduced. Using this basic model, an equivalent circuit for the GTO is given. Using the GTO characteristics given by manufacturers, the equations connected with all the parameters of the equivalent circuit are deduced, and all of the parameters are determined. A sample study is presented. Simulation of this numerical model with the SICOS program gave results in accordance with the experiment

40.3.5    M.M. Swamy, A.K.S. Bhat, "Analysis, design, and optimization of a secondary-side resonant converter operating in the discontinuous capacitor voltage mode," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 334-346, June 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A high-frequency link parallel resonant DC/DC power converter (PRC) operating in the lagging power factor mode with the resonating capacitor on the secondary side of the high-frequency (HF) transformer is analyzed for operation in the discontinuous capacitor voltage mode (DCVM) using a state-space approach. Converter equations are solved for operation under steady-state condition. Based on the analysis, design curves are obtained for DCVM operation. A method of obtaining the optimum operating point under certain constraints for DCVM operation is developed and is used to develop a simple design procedure. Experimental results obtained with a MOSFET-based 1 kW PRC are presented to support the theory

40.3.6    N. Abdel-Rahim, J.E. Quaicoe, "A single-phase delta-modulated inverter for UPS applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 347-354, June 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The performance characteristics of the rectangular wave delta modulation (RWDM) scheme for uninterruptible power supply (UPS) applications is investigated. Normalized characteristic curves that show the effect of various modulator parameters on the frequency spectrum of the inverter output voltage are obtained using discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and harmonic analysis techniques. The performance of a single-phase half-bridge inverter with an LC filter is discussed, and experimental results are provided to validate the predicted and simulated results. It is shown that the harmonic content of the inverter output waveform can be controlled through the control of the modulator parameters

40.3.7    B.-H. Kwon, B. Min, "A fully software-controlled PWM rectifier with current link," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 355-363, June 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A fully-software-controlled pulse-width-modulated (PWM) rectifier with a current link is presented. The rectifier uses six switches to connect the three-phase source of the load directly. Line power factor is controlled while maintaining DC current. The input filter of the rectifier is analyzed, showing that unity power factor is achieved by the lagging of the input current of the rectifier with respect to the source voltage. The PWM technique is developed using a space vector modulation, and its implementation is carried out with a minimal control hardware structure based on a 16 b single-chip microcomputer. It is shown experimentally that the scheme gives good performance

40.3.8    C.A. Karybakas, C.A. Kosmatopoulos, "Filter design method for a PWM feedback inverter system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 364-372, June 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel approach to filter design for a closed-loop, pulse-width-modulated (PWM) DC-AC inverter system driving an RL load is investigated. The system has a rectangular hysteresis in the forward path and it is closed by current feedback. When it is excited by a sinusoidal input reference, it provides square pulses that produce a nearly sinusoidal current in the load. Using a describing function technique, design equations for the filter are derived. The data needed for the filter evaluation are the amplitude of current ripple and the frequency of square pulses delivered by the power bridge. System simulation and experimental results show that the design of the filter can be based on the method proposed and that the filter can provide a significant reduction of current ripple, or otherwise a significant reduction of switching frequency

40.3.9    J.-C. Montano, B.J. Gutierrez, O.A. Lopez, I.M. Castilla, "Effects of voltage-waveform distortion in TCR-type compensators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 373-383, June 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The effect of system voltage distortion on the performance of a thyristor controlled reactor (TCR) type of compensator is examined. Toward this end, the real and imaginary values of harmonic current through the TCR, and the optimal gating angle that controls it, are calculated with a view toward minimizing the RMS value of the supply current and to achieving an optimum power factor (PF). The precision of the formulae obtained, assuming an equal conduction angle of the thyristors in the two half periods, is compared with the results achieved using two different methods for simulating the TCR, one by means of a Pascal program and the other with PSPICE. The optimum PF values, calculated by analytical methods that use the conventional formulation (which assumes that the voltage waveform is sinusoidal), are compared with those obtained using the formulation developed here

40.3.10    J.-T. Lim, G.-H. Shim, "Asymptotic performance evaluation of token-passing networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 384-385, June 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Analytical formulae for evaluating the performance of token passing networks with a finite number of buffered users are presented. The effect of the buffer capacity of users on performance characteristics is investigated, and the maximum achievable throughput with respect to the buffer capacity of users is derived

40.3.11    B.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Suh, S.-H. Han, "Novel transformer active filters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 385-388, June 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Novel transformer active filters are proposed to obtain high attenuation of voltage or current ripple without deteriorating the transient response of the system considered. Experimental results show that the scheme gives good steady-state performance of the power supply

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 40,  Number 4, August 1993           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




40.4.1    P. Chiacchio, F. Pierrot, L. Sciavicco, B. Siciliano, "Robust design of independent joint controllers with experimentation on a high-speed parallel robot," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 393-403, August 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A linear independent joint control scheme is proposed. The design is made robust by closing another feedback loop that uses acceleration information besides the typical position and velocity loops. Reconstruction of acceleration measurements is performed via a suitable state-variable filter. Linear feedforward compensation is used to improve tracking performance of the closed-loop scheme. The control algorithm is tested first in a discrete-time simulation on a single-joint drive system with imposed disturbance torques. Then, real-time implementation on a high-speed parallel robot is presented. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique

40.4.2    A.E. Elnakhal, H. Rzehak, "Design and performance evaluation of real-time communication architectures," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 404-411, August 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For an in-depth analysis of the delay characteristics and to demonstrate the feasibility of a reduced architecture, a pilot implementation based on the token bus was performed in the author's laboratory. The theoretical and measurement results of this work are reported. It is shown that using the immediate response option in all situations within the intended field of application leads to greater delays. Problems such as the mapping of the application services-manufacturing message standard (MMS)-onto logical line control (LLC) services are discussed

40.4.3    H.S. Park, S.C. Ahn, W.H. Kwon, "Performance and parameter region for real-time use in IEEE 802.4 token bus network," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 412-420, August 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The upper and lower bounds for the mean cycle time and the mean message transmission time of class six and class four in the IEEE 802.4 token bus network, within which the minimum utilization constraint of class four is guaranteed, are derived. Stability conditions for the token bus network are also derived. These bounds and stability conditions are represented in terms of the high-priority token hold time, the token rotation time, the arrival rate, the total number of stations, etc. A parameter-tuning algorithm in a partially symmetric token bus network with two classes is suggested. This algorithm maximizes the utilization of class four for a given high-priority token hold time and at the same time meets the constraints of the stability condition of the network, the real-time constraint, and the minimum utilization of class four

40.4.4    D.-W. Kim, H.S. Park, W.H. Kwon, "The performance of a timer-controlled token passing mechanism with finite buffers in an industrial communication network," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 421-427, August 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The timer-controlled token-passing mechanism widely used in industrial communication networks is analyzed. Several real network parameters, such as finite buffers and finite token-holding time (THT), which generally determine the overall performance of a network, are considered. The approximate matrix equation between the queue length distribution and the token rotation time is derived. Based on this matrix equation, the equations for the mean waiting time and the blocking probability are also derived. These equations can be easily solved using personal computers, due to its simple matrix structure and small computation time. Using these equations, the performance of field bus or other timer-controlled token-passing networks can be more accurately evaluated, since finite size buffers and finite THT are considered. The approximation error is shown to be small by computer simulation

40.4.5    T. Kajima, "Development of a high-speed solenoid valve-investigation of the energizing circuits," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 428-435, August 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The electrical circuits developed for the purpose of energizing the solenoid valve are examined. These circuits, called the dummy coil method, where energy stored in a dummy coil in the form of a magnetic field is transferred to an energizing solenoid, and the pre-energize method, where the solenoid is electrically energized in advance by taking advantage of the solenoid's attraction force characteristics, are discussed. The results of experiments show that the pre-energize method is highly effective in speeding up the operation of solenoid valves. These experimental results are discussed along with the results of calculations conducted using a mathematical model

40.4.6    G. Joos, P.D. Ziogas, "On maximizing gain and minimizing switching frequency of delta modulated inverters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 436-444, August 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A simple modification to the structure of three-phase delta modulators is proposed that stabilizes and reduces the switching frequency, particularly at low modulation indexes, and increases the voltage gain to the level of optimized techniques. The proposed delta modulator is described and analyzed, and design equations are derived. The modulator is implemented and the theoretical results are verified experimentally

40.4.7    P.P. Kumar, R. Parimelalagan, B. Ramaswami, "A microprocessor-based DC drive control scheme using predictive synchronization," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 445-452, August 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: With the advent of fast microprocessors, refinements in the control systems for thyristor-fed DC drives have become possible. In such drives, the problem of detecting the true zero crossings of the input voltage, when the main supply is contaminated with noise spikes, is quite important. A new approach for this problem, based on the predictive synchronization concept, is presented. The algorithm also covers other aspects, like generation of firing pulses and closed-loop calculations for the drive control. The microcomputer-based system has been tested on a separately excited DC motor, and the test results are presented

40.4.8    D.R. Zrudsky, J.W. Webb, "Proportional AC power control with zero-fire capability," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 453-458, August 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The interface circuit presented facilitates closed-loop feedback control of AC load currents under strict zero-fire switching and is primarily intended for heating applications. The circuit converts an input analog signal to a time-proportioned series of full-cycle energy pulses, interspersed with missing integral numbers of half cycles. The circuit thus provides a power average in time delivered to the load proportional to analog control voltage, continuously minimizing the number of off-power half cycles, or wink time. Lamp load transient current data show the improved zero-crossing control capability of the interface circuits driving a commercial solid-state relay. The linearity and monotonicity of the interface circuit are verified under steady-state conditions. The temperature response in time of a lamp-heated sample under PID closed-loop temperature control shows the success of the interface circuit for its intended application

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 40,  Number 5, Oct 1993           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




40.5.1    F.H.F. Leung, P.K.S. Tam, C.K. Li, "An improved LQR-based controller for switching DC-DC converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 521-528, Oct 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A general approach for controlling pulse-width-modulated (PWM) -type switching DC-DC converters digitally using state-feedback techniques and linear optimal control theory is reported. The methodology for redesigning the state estimator is investigated, and a method derived from the general linear-quadratic-regulator (LQR) problem, is proposed. The method is found to offer better transient responses and robustness to uncertainties in plant parameters when compared with the typical eigenvalue-assignment method. Special attention is directed to plant models with possible migrations of the open-loop zeroes across the stability boundary during operation. Results of applying these techniques to a published Cuk converter are reported to illustrate different points of interest

40.5.2    V. Catania, A. Puliafito, L. Vita, "A modeling framework to evaluate performability parameters in gracefully degrading systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 461-472, Oct 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A systematic approach to modeling and assessing gracefully degrading systems, exploiting the formalism offered by Petri nets, is provided. The procedure followed is based on the definition of some fundamental modules, the composition of which allows a complete model of the system to be obtained. The model can then be solved by computer simulation or analytically by means of a class of Petri nets to obtain interesting performability parameters either at steady state or when the system is time-varying. A number of real cases are examined and the results obtained are described

40.5.3    T. Umeno, T. Kaneko, Y. Hori, "Robust servosystem design with two degrees of freedom and its application to novel motion control of robot manipulators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 473-485, Oct 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel robust servosystem design method based on the two-degree-of-freedom (TDOF) controller and its application to advanced motion control for a robot manipulator is proposed. This servosystem is derived from the simple parametrization. The command input response and the closed loop characteristics can be specified independently by using two parameters which belong to the ring of stable and proper rational functions. The sensitivity and the complementary sensitivity functions can be determined straightforwardly through the optimization of the two design parameters. The control performance of the servosystem has been demonstrated. A completely decentralized joint control system for multiaxis robut manipulators has been realized. In particular, various kinds of robot motion controls, such as compliance, force, and hybrid controls, are realized in a unified way based on the robust position control. This servosystem has been implemented using DSP

40.5.4    F.J. Lin, C.M. Liaw, "Control of indirect field-oriented induction motor drives considering the effects of dead-time and parameter variations," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 486-495, Oct 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A speed controller that considers the effects of system dead time and parameter variations is presented. An indirect field-oriented induction motor drive is implemented, and its dynamic model is found, using a stochastic approach. A two-degree-of-freedom speed controller is designed to match the prescribed speed command tracking and load regulating specifications. Since the performance of the closed-loop controlled plant is greatly influenced by the presence of the inherent system dead time and parameter variations during wide-range operations, a dead-time compensator and a model-following controller are proposed to enhance the robustness of the two-degree-of-freedom speed controller. The simulated and experimental results show that good control performance both in speed command tracking and load regulating characteristics is achieved

40.5.5    L. Salvatore, S. Stasi, L. Tarchioni, "A new EKF-based algorithm for flux estimation in induction machines ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 496-504, Oct 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A reduced-order algorithm for estimating the rotor flux components of induction motors with schemes such as field-oriented control is described. The algorithm is based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) theory and estimates the desired quantities online using only measurements of the stator voltages and currents and the rotor speed. The online adaptation of the inverse rotor time constant makes it possible to obtain very accurate estimates of rotor flux components, in spite of temperature and magnetic saturation effects. The algorithm order reduction decreases the computational complexity and makes the proposed estimator superior to others based on EKF theory

40.5.6    R. Weidenbrug, F.P. Dawson, R. Bonert, "New synchronization method for thyristor power converters to weak AC-systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 505-511, Oct 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An improved approach to obtaining good zero-voltage-crossing signals is presented. These signals are subsequently used as synchronization signals for a phase-controlled thyristor power converter. Detection of accurate zero crossings is possible even when there are large frequency changes, sudden load changes, or large commutation overlap angles. The improved accuracy in the integrity of the zero crossing is obtained by reconstructing a voltage representing the AC source voltage. This voltage is determined from the distorted thyristor converter input voltage, the converter input current, and an online identification of the source impedance using a microcontroller-based adaptive algorithm. The improvement provided by the new zero crossing detection scheme is verified experimentally

40.5.7    J.S. Ko, J.H. Lee, S.K. Chung, M.J. Youn, "A robust digital position control of brushless DC motor with dead beat load torque observer," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 512-520, Oct 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method for the robust position control of brushless DC (BLDC) motors is presented. The linear quadratic controller plus load torque observer is used to obtain an approximately linearized robust BLDC motor system for an AC servo, using the field-orientation method. The gains are obtained systematically from a discrete state space analysis. The robustness is obtained without affecting the overall system response. The load disturbance is detected by a zero-observer of the unknown and inaccessible input, and is feedforward compensated without requiring noisy current information. The overall system is controlled using a microprocessor, and the performance of each control algorithm is compared with both the simulation and the experimental results for two types of machines, a BLDC motor and a brushless direct drive (BLDD) motor

40.5.8    L. Goras, C. Marcuta, "On linear inductance- and capacitance-time conversions using NIC-type configurations," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 529-531, Oct 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The problem of linear inductance- and capacitance-time (L/T, C/T) conversion is approached through the systematic study of four approaches to building astable multivibrators using piecewise linear resistances obtained from one operational amplifier (OA) negative impedance converter (NIC) configuration. A new L/T converter with grounded inductance is found. Formulas for the time period taking into consideration the losses as well as the OA saturation output resistance are derived

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 40,  Number 6, Dec 1993           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




40.6.1    R.J. Lalonde, T.T. Hartley, J.A. de Abreu-Garcia, "Least-squares model order reduction enhancements," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 533-541, Dec 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Two enhancements to the least-squares (LS) discrete-time model order reduction (MOR) method are presented: scaling and frequency response matching. Scaling generally improves the low-frequency fit between the reduced-order model (ROM) and the original model. For exact gains at specific frequencies, optional frequency response constraints can easily be added to the LS MOR method. An example is presented that illustrates these enhancements. The example model is reduced with the Hankel norm, weighted impulse response gramian, and LS MOR methods. Plots of error versus frequency are given for each of the three MOR methods

40.6.2    M.K. Kazmierczuk, D. Czarkowski, N. Thirunarayan, "A new phase-controlled parallel resonant converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 542-552, Dec 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A phase-controlled resonant converter was obtained by connecting in parallel the AC loads of two identical parallel resonant inverters. A phase shift between the drive signals of the two inverters controls the amplitude of the output voltage of the new inverter. A voltage-driven rectifier is used as an AC load of the inverter, which results in a phase-controlled parallel resonant DC-DC converter. A frequency-domain analysis is performed for the steady-state operation of the inverter, and two types of voltage-driven rectifiers and design equations are derived. The converter can be operated at a constant switching frequency, which reduces EMI problems. It is found that for switching frequencies higher than the resonant frequency by a factor of 1.07, the load of each switching leg is inductive. The converter is capable of regulating the output voltage in the range of load resistance from full-load to no-load. Experimental results are presented for a prototype of the phase-controlled parallel resonant converter with a center-taped rectifier tested at an output power of 50 W and a switching frequency of 116 kHz

40.6.3    M. Iwasaki, N. Matusi, "Robust speed control of IM with torque feedforward control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 553-560, Dec 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors describe a digital signal processor-based (DSP-based) robust speed control for an induction motor (IM) with the load-torque observer and the torque feedforward control. In the proposed system, the load torque is estimated by the minimal-order state observer based on the torque component of a vector-controlled IM. Using the load-torque observer, a speed controller can be provided with a torque feedforward loop, thus realizing a robust speed control system. The control system is composed of a DSP-based controller, a voltage-fed pulsewidth modulated (PWM) transistor inverter and a 3.7 kW IM system. An eccentric load with an arm and a weight is coupled to the IM and it generates the sinusoidal gravitational fluctuating torque. Experimental results show robustness against disturbance torque and system parameter change

40.6.4    S.M. Abdulrahman, J.G. Kettleborough, I.R. Smith, "Fast calculation of harmonic torque pulsations in a VSI/induction motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 561-569, Dec 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors present a frequency-domain model for the accurate and efficient prediction of harmonic torque pulsations in three-phase VSI/induction motor drives, which enables rapid consideration to be given to their potentially harmful effects in producing uneven shaft rotation. A detailed analysis is provided for both quasi-square wave (QSW) and optimal pulse-width modulated (PWM) modes of switching operation, with the latter technique designed to improve the low-speed drive performance by eliminating low-order harmonic components. A comparison is made with practical results obtained from an experimental 0.56 kW drive and from a comprehensive time-domain model using a numerical solution of the machine equations. It is shown that accurate prediction of the actual performance is provided

40.6.5    C.C. Chan, J.Z. Jiang, G.H. Chen, K.-T. Chau, "Computer simulation and analysis of a new polyphase multipole motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 570-576, Dec 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new configuration for a high-power-density, high-efficiency polyphase multipole permanent magnet motor and its control system are presented. The mathematical model and simulation for this motor drive are presented in detail. The motor is essentially a kind of brushless DC motor with a novel arrangement of its magnet and winding. The control system is virtually a dual closed-loop system with a current controller as the inner loop and a speed controller as the outer loop. State-space equations are used for the mathematical model of the motor, and real-time simulation is applied for the controller and switching devices. The simulation results are verified with the experimental results and shown to be very satisfactory

40.6.6    J. Xu, M. Grotzbach, "Time-domain analysis of half-wave zero-current switch quasi-resonant converters by using SPICE," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 577-579, Dec 1993.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A SPICE-compatible time-domain equivalent circuit model of half-wave zero-current switch (HW-ZCS), based upon which half-wave zero-current-switch quasi-resonant converters (HW-ZCS-QRCs) can be analyzed by using SPICE, is proposed. As an example, the open-loop time-domain behavior of a buck (HW-ZCS-QRC) can be analyzed without any simplifying assumptions by using SPICE to illustrate the applications of the equivalent circuit model proposed

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 41,  Number 1, Feb 1994           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




41.1.1    W.A. Gruver, "Intelligent robotics in manufacturing, service, and rehabilitation: an overview," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 4-11, Feb 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Advances in intelligent robotics are resulting in a new generation of programmable, sensory-interactive, computer-controlled machines capable of operating with human supervision or autonomously from sensed information. The design and integration of these machines require knowledge of actuators, control, mechanisms, mobility, programming, and sensors. The application of intelligent robotic technologies can increase the productivity, safety, and the quality of life for people in a wide range of tasks for land, space, and undersea environments. This paper provides an overview of developments of intelligent robotics to manufacturing systems, robotic aids for the disabled, and service. The references highlight advances in robot control, sensor integration, mechanical hands, manufacturing automation, walking machines, and powered prostheses

41.1.2    M. Vukobratovic, A. Tuneski, "Contact control concepts in manipulation robotics-an overview," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 12-24, Feb 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the state of the art in the control of robotic manipulators in constrained motion tasks. Contact control concepts are classified using different criteria, and their main characteristics are analyzed. For each of the presented contact control concepts, the essential characteristics are stated. The paper covers some early ideas and their later improvements, as well as trends in this field. The advantages and drawbacks of the various control schemes are outlined, and they are compared from the standpoint of their implementation issues. In the paper, all characteristic results in the stability analysis of robotic manipulators in the constrained motion tasks are briefly reported. A new approach to the correct solution of contact tasks control is mentioned as well

41.1.3    H. Arai, K. Tanie, S. Tachi, "Path tracking control of a manipulator considering torque saturation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 25-31, Feb 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: When the minimum-time trajectory of a manipulator along a geometrically prescribed path is planned taking into consideration the manipulator's dynamics and actuator's torque limits, at least one of the joints should be at the torque limit. The execution of such a trajectory by a conventional feedback control scheme results in torque saturation. Consequently, the tracking error cannot be suppressed and the manipulator may deviate from the desired path. In this paper, the author's propose a feedback control method for path tracking which takes the torque saturation into account. Based on the desired path, a coordinate system called path coordinates is defined. The path coordinates are composed of the component along the path and the components normal to the path. The equation of motion is described in terms of the path coordinates. Control of the components normal to the path is given priority in order to keep the motion of the manipulator on the path. Simulations of a two-degree-of-freedom manipulator show the effectiveness of this method

41.1.4    S.A. Bortoff, "Advanced nonlinear robotic control using digital signal processing ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 32-39, Feb 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a technique for the construction of the pseudolinearizing controller. The new method, intimately related to gain scheduling, uses splines to approximate functions which are often impossible to compute in practice. The Acrobot is used to illustrate the design technique, and experimental results are presented which support assertions of computational efficiency and high performance

41.1.5    N. Nakao, T. Harakawa, M. Sakagami, T. Nakayama, S. Matsuhashi, "Automated equipment to assemble connectors for telecommunication cables," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 40-44, Feb 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Automated equipment to assemble connectors for telecommunication cables is proposed. The equipment can pick up a conductor from a set of twisted conductors, identify the conductor number by the color of its insulation, and arrange it on a connector. Experiments on test versions determine and evaluate the basic requirements and confirm the process control method for lines. Based on experimental results, estimations, and human interface, the equipment is designed and a prototype is manufactured. The use of this equipment is expected to reduce assembly time and eliminate human error

41.1.6    Seo-Wook Park, Jun-Ho Oh, "Hardware realization of inverse kinematics for robot manipulators ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 45-50, Feb 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For real-time processing of kinematic information required for intelligent robotic applications, a hardware realization of an inverse kinematics algorithm is a challenging task. This paper adopts an incremental unit computation method to accomplish the inverse kinematics of a three-axis articulated robot. This method starts from defining incremental units in joint and Cartesian spaces, which represent the position resolutions in each space. With this approach, calculation of the inverse Jacobian matrix can be realized through a simple combinational logic gate circuit. Furthermore, the incremental direct kinematics can be solved by using a digital differential analyzer (DDA) integrator. The hardware architecture to implement the algorithm is also described. Applying the hardware implemented by an erasable programmable logic device (EPLD) to the straight-line trajectory of an experimental robot, the authors have obtained an end-effector's maximum speed of 12.6 m/s

41.1.7    A.S. Rao, K.Y. Goldberg, "Placing registration marks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 51-59, Feb 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In industrial assembly, a registration mark can be placed on parts to aid a computer vision system in determining the position and orientation (pose) of parts. However, when sensor noise and limits on resolution introduce errors in the measured location of the registration mark, these errors can propagate into the measurement of part pose. In this paper, the authors define the registration mark problem: given an n-sided rigid planar polygonal part and a set of k poses for the part, locate a point on the surface of the part that maximizes the minimum distance between transformed points. A registration mark at this point will be maximally robust to sensor imperfections. The authors give an O(n log n+k4 log k:log* k) time algorithm to solve this planar problem using a result from Schwartz and Sharir (see J. Symbolic Computation, vol.10, p.371-93, 1990), and demonstrate the algorithm using a commercial vision system. The results extend to classes of curved planar parts and polyhedral parts

41.1.8    G.J. Wiens, Ming-Shan Lu, Yuh-Wen Lin, J.T. Black, "Control of an industrial robot subjected to base mobility," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 60-69, Feb 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: To remove the cell size limitation and to make cellular manufacturing systems more flexible, research has been conducted in which an industrial robot has been given base mobility via an air pallet base and use of existing joint actuators and strategically located, compliant posts. For investigating this new approach of robot mobility within a cell, an appropriate control system has been designed and implemented that interfaces with the standard industrial controller. This paper is a presentation of the resulting control system consisting of multiple-sensor integration into its hierarchical levels. Using the concept of logical sensors, experimental verification is presented for each of the logical sensor subsystems and its successful integration with the existing industrial controller. Experimental results obtained for the fully integrated robot controller illustrate the effectiveness of the multiple-sensor, hierarchical controller for self-propelled mobile robots operating within a manufacturing cell

41.1.9    B.W. Bomar, "Low-roundoff-noise limit-cycle-free implementation of recursive transfer functions on a fixed-point digital signal processor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 70-78, Feb 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method is presented for realizing recursive digital transfer functions on a fixed-point digital signal processor. The method is based on the parallel connection of L∞-norm scaled first- and second-order state-space structures. Magnitude truncation of the state update equations is employed to render the realization free of both overflow oscillations and constant-input limit cycles. The roundoff noise and coefficient sensitivity of the realization are also near minimum, giving a realization with outstanding performance in terms of all finite wordlength effects. An implementation on the DSP56000 family of digital signal processors demonstrates that the realization is efficient enough to achieve high sample rates

41.1.10    Y. Tong, N.K. Sinha, "A computational technique for the robust root locus," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 79-85, Feb 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the authors present a modified method for generating multiparameter root loci of both continuous and discrete time systems. A more practical computational method for plotting the robust root locus is developed. The graph of the locations of the poles of the transfer function of the closed-loop system corresponding to each gain can be plotted readily and accurately with this method. The sensitivity of poles to the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial can thus be examined, and the appropriate tuning gain selected to achieve a better robustness. Also, a stricter bound of the zeros of the characteristic polynomial is given to further reduce the complexity of the computation of the robust root locus. The technique is applied to the design of robotic manipulators. Simulations of controller design for the PUMA 762 robot disk grinding process are included

41.1.11    T.A. Haskew, R.M. Nelms, "Real-time simulation of a 20 kHz parallel-loaded resonant converter using an IBM RISC system/6000 model 350," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 86-90, Feb 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Real-time simulation tools are useful in studying the large-signal behavior of power electronic converters in a system-level environment, and can provide a platform for the evaluation of hardware implementations of control loop designs. This paper presents an approach which allows real-time simulation of the open-Loop performance of a 20 kHz parallel-loaded resonant converter using an IBM RISC System/6000 Model 350. The state equations which describe the converter are transformed to recursive equations using finite-difference techniques. First- and second-order differencing schemes have been investigated and compared. The second-order method is superior to the first-order method because a time step of 3.5 μs executes in 3.33 μs with exceptional accuracy and negligible error propagation

41.1.12    A. Consoli, S. Musumeci, A. Raciti, A. Testa, "Sensorless vector and speed control of brushless motor drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 91-96, Feb 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the present paper an approach is presented to the speed control of permanent magnet synchronous motors without mechanical transducers. The rotor position, which is an essential component of any vector control scheme, is calculated through the instantaneous stator flux position and an estimated value of the load angle. A closed-loop state observer is implemented to compute the speed feedback signal. Experimental results on a laboratory tested motor drive are presented to validate the proposed procedure

41.1.13    Ting-Yu Chang, Ching-Tsai Pan, "A practical vector control algorithm for μ-based induction motor drives using a new space vector current controller," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 97-103, Feb 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a very simple vector control algorithm is proposed for μ-based induction motor drives. The proposed method controls the motor torque directly and linearly to achieve instantaneous torque response without oscillation. The merits of this control method include its simple architecture and obviating the coordinate transformation. At the same time, a new space vector-based current controller is proposed to serve as a quick response torque controller of the proposed drive system. In addition to the current error, information on the current error derivative is further employed so that one can take more advantages of adding the zero voltage vector for reducing the switching frequency. As a result, the efficiency can be greatly increased. It is seen that through integration of the above two parts, the proposed drive system is very simple to implement and has very good performance

41.1.14    A. Chandra, L.-A. Dessaint, M. Saad, K. Al-Haddad, "Implementation of self-tuning algorithms for reference tracking of a DC drive using a DSP chip," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 104-109, Feb 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the implementation of two self-tuning control algorithms for the speed control of a permanent magnet DC motor. The algorithms minimize a cost function incorporating system input, output, and set-point variation for reference tracking. Variable forgetting factor using data normalization with constant trace has been utilized. Self-tuning controllers have been implemented using a single-chip digital signal processor (DSP). It results in reduction of system hardware, cost, and calculation time

41.1.15    Hoang Le-Huy, K. Slimani, P. Viarouge, "Analysis and implementation of a real-time predictive current controller for permanent-magnet synchronous servo drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 110-117, Feb 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A real-time current controller for PWM inverter-fed permanent-magnet synchronous motor drives is presented and analyzed. The proposed current control scheme is based on predictive control with a parallel integral loop added to compensate for the inaccuracy of the motor model and for the variations of motor parameters and DC voltage source. The proposed current control scheme is analyzed and its performance is evaluated by computer simulation. An EPROM-based implementation is presented in which calculations and pulsewidth modulation are executed by lookup tables resulting in high-speed operation. The controller performance is evaluated using a prototype l kW PM synchronous servo drive. Experimental results are given and discussed

41.1.16    A.K.S. Bhat, "Analysis and design of LCL-type series resonant converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 118-124, Feb 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A series resonant converter modified by adding an inductor in parallel with the transformer primary (or secondary) is presented. This configuration is referred to as an “LCL-type series resonant converter”. A simplified steady-state analysis using complex AC circuit analysis is presented. Based on the analysis, a simple design procedure is given. Detailed experimental results obtained from a MOSFET-based 640 W converter are presented to verify the analysis. A narrow variation in switching frequency is required to regulate the output voltage for a very wide change in load, and the converter has load short-circuit capability. It is shown that by placing the parallel inductor on the secondary side, the parasitics of the high-frequency transformer can be used profitably

41.1.17    Yonghoon Kim, R.C. Luo, "Validation of 3-D curved objects: CAD model and fabricated workpiece," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 125-131, Feb 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a new method to describe and identify a 3-D curved object for the purpose of validating a fabricated object to the design specification. Curved 3-D objects are, in general, difficult to represent and identify because they lack distinct properties such as edges, planes, or cylindrical surfaces which are the building blocks in representing objects. In this paper, the authors propose to use principal axes of a 3-D object to establish a reference for the representation. A method of obtaining an inertia matrix from a 3-D range image is developed. The unique set of principal axes is obtained from the inertia matrix of an object with an arbitrary 3-D position and orientation, and the object can be described uniquely on these principal axes. On the principal axes, an object is described by a set of features describing the shape of the object such as spine, section size, section orientation, and section contraction. The features are used for comparing two objects for the validation purpose. The authors also propose a direct measure of similarity between two objects as a mean-squared difference of radii. As an experiment, two 3-D object models are designed through a CAD package, and fabricated objects are compared with the designed models for validation purposes

41.1.18    Hen-Geul Yeh, "Parallel implementation of the fast Fourier transform on two TMS320C25 digital signal processors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 132-135, Feb 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The author used two fixed-point TMS320C25 digital signal processors (DSPs) to implement in parallel the FFT. The significance of this multiprocessing system is: (1) the number of times block data transfer occurs between these two DSPs is minimum, (2) each DSP can independently perform the same FFT routine with different data set, and (3) the total computational load is nearly equally distributed to two DSPs. The speedup of this system over a single sequential processor is close to two

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 41,  Number 2, April 1994           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




41.2.1    G.M. Bone, M.A. Elbestawi, "Sensing and control for automated robotic edge deburring," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 137- 146, April 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the sensing and control elements of a system for automated robotic edge deburring. The deburring path, automatically generated bp a task planner, is corrected on-line by an active end effector with the objective of controlling the chamfer depth. The sensing system combines the information from force and vision sensors during deburring to provide an improved depth measurement. The vision sensor is then used to verify the deburring performance during an inspection pass. The control system incorporates a new form of adaptive Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) combined with learning control, termed GPC with Learning (GPCL). The system is tested through computer simulations and deburring experiments. The experiments were performed on steel parts with one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) edges. For the 1-D edges the depth's standard deviation measured on-line was 0.015 mm with nonadaptive GPC, 0.009 mm with adaptive GPC, and 0.006 mm with adaptive GPCL. With adaptive GPCL and the 2-D edge the deviation was 0.017 mm. This was confirmed by the inspection pass measurements which reported a mean of 0.39 mm and a deviation of 0.019 mm.<>

41.2.2    O. Vainio, S.J. Ovaska, "Tachometer signal smoothing with analog discrete-time polynomial estimators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 147- 154, April 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The design of sampled-data polynomial estimators for noise reduction in industrial instrumentation applications is discussed. Unlike conventional lowpass filters, an estimator causes no delay on the polynomial-like primary signal. A general purpose design approach is described, incorporating notch frequencies for removal of narrow-band noise components, such as the 50/60 Hz line frequency. A 24-tap FIR estimator is optimized for tachometer signal smoothing in motor control systems. An analog circuit architecture, targeted for silicon CMOS implementation, is described and simulated.<>

41.2.3    Jong-Hwan Kim, Jong-Hwan Park, Seon-Woo Lee, E.K.P. Chong, "A two-layered fuzzy logic controller for systems with deadzones," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 155- 162, April 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Existing fuzzy control methods do not perform well when applied to systems containing nonlinearities arising from unknown deadzones. In particular, we show that a usual "fuzzy PD" controller applied to a system with a deadzone suffers from poor transient performance and a large steady-state error. In this paper, we propose a novel two-layered fuzzy logic controller for controlling systems with deadzones. The two-layered control structure consists of a fuzzy logic-based precompensator followed by a usual fuzzy PD controller. Our proposed controller exhibits superior transient and steady-state performance compared to usual fuzzy PD controllers. In addition, the controller is robust to variations in deadzone nonlinearities. We illustrate the effectiveness of our scheme using computer simulation examples.<>

41.2.4    Wei-Shiu Wang, Chang-Huan Liu, "Implementation and experimental study of a multiprocessor system for real-time model-based robot motion control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 163- 172, April 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the design and implementation of a multiprocessor system for real-time robot motion control. Full inverse dynamics compensation control laws in both joint and Cartesian spaces are used for developing parallel computation algorithms. The algorithms are divided into subtasks which are distributed among a fixed number of processors based on heuristic scheduling algorithms. The control laws are real-time tested on an experimental robot. The results present a feasible way for improving controller performance of current industrial robots.<>

41.2.5    M. Saad, P. Bigras, L.-A. Dessaint, K. Al-Haddad, "Adaptive robot control using neural networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 173- 181, April 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper studies the trajectory tracking problem to control the nonlinear dynamic model of a robot using neural networks. These controllers are based on learning from input-output measurements and not on parametric-model-based dynamics. Multilayer recurrent networks are used to estimate the dynamics of the system and the inverse dynamic model. The training is achieved using the backpropagation method. The minimization of the quadratic error is computed by a variable step gradient method. Another multilayer recurrent neural network is added to estimate the joint accelerations. The control process is applied to a two degree-of-freedom (DOF) SCARA robot using a DSP-based controller. Experimental results show the effectiveness of this approach. The tracking trajectory errors are very small and torques expected at manipulator joints are free of chattering.<>

41.2.6    S. Casale, V. Catania, A. Puliafito, L. Vita, "A remote bridging technique to increase performability in distributed systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 182- 190, April 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper presents a network architecture and protocol to extend the facilities available on LAN's to a wider area. The proposal, based on a remote bridging technique, allows selective network reconfiguration and consequently high network availability and performability values. This make the system suitable for applications in environments characterized by hard reliability constraints. The proposed solution is assessed by modeling it through Markov chain theory.<>

41.2.7    T.H. Lee, T.-S. Low, K.-J. Tseng, H.K. Lim, "An intelligent indirect dynamic torque sensor for permanent magnet brushless DC drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 191- 200, April 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the authors present a technique for indirect sensing of the dynamic torque feedback signal which is applicable to permanent magnet brushless DC drives. This technique is based on a judicious use of the motor equations and on parameter estimation methods. It is intelligent in the sense that the technique provides self-calibration at start-up, and in the paper, the authors also present a design to extend the technique to overcome effects of parameter drifts by incorporating real-time online parameter estimation. The effectiveness of the proposed intelligent indirect dynamic torque sensor is demonstrated in a typical speed and position control experimental setup, where the performance obtained is shown to be superior to that obtained with conventional sinusoidal current controllers.<>

41.2.8    G.O. Garcia, R.M. Stephan, E.H. Watanabe, "Comparing the indirect field-oriented control with a scalar method," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 201- 207, April 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Two methods of induction motor control are examined. The indirect field-oriented (IFO) and the slip-control (SC) methods are formally compared. Their block diagrams are derived, analyzed and their similarities shown. It is demonstrated that the difference between the two is just due to a feedforward block that computes the current phase to be supplied to the motor in an IFO controller. This proves that the implementation complexity of either controller is almost identical. To perform comparative tests, both control methods were implemented using a single hardware. The torque rise time and frequency response of the speed control are presented. Based on experimental results, it is shown that the speed sensor resolution and the sampling rate of the controller strongly influence the dynamic response in the IFO method. The SC method is less sensitive to these parameters although it always presented a worse dynamic response. The IFO speed control presented a flat frequency response whereas the SC method presented a peak which could lead to an oscillatory speed response. It is also shown that the variation of the rotor electrical time constant influences strongly and in a similar way both control methods. Finally, it can be concluded that the implementation complexity of both control strategies are almost identical, although the IFO control method has a much better performance than the SC control method.<>

41.2.9    S.V. Cheong, H. Chung, A. Ioinovici, "Inductorless DC-to-DC converter with high power density," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 208- 215, April 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new type of switching-mode power supply containing no inductors or transformers is proposed. The controlled transfer of energy from a unregulated DC source to a regulated output voltage is realized through a switched-capacitor (SC) circuit. A duty-cycle control is used; the driving signals of the transistors in the SC circuit are determined by the feedback circuit. The absence of magnetic devices makes possible the realization of power converters of small size, low weight and high power density, able to be manufactured in IC technology. High efficiency, small output voltage ripple and good regulation for large changes in the input voltage and/or load values are other positive features of the new type of DC-to-DC power converter. The input-to-output voltage conversion ratio is flexible; the same converter structure can provide a large range of constant desired values of the output voltage for a given input voltage, by predetermining the steady-state conversion ratio. The frequency response shows good stability of the designed converter. The experimental results obtained by using a prototype of a step-down SC-based DC-to-DC converter confirmed the theoretical expectations and the computer simulation results.<>

41.2.10    G. Moschopoulos, G. Joos, P.D. Ziogas, "Input characteristics of variable modulation index controlled current source inverters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 216- 223, April 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Standard PWM current source inverters (CSIs) usually operate at fixed modulation index. The proposed modified current source inverter (MCSI) can operate with most pulse width modulation (PWM) techniques and with a variable modulation index, since the DC link inductor current freewheels on itself and not through the CSI. The use of variable modulation index control results in faster response times with no penalty on input power factor as compared to other variable modulation index schemes. This paper confirms this by investigating the input characteristics of the MCSI as seen from the AC mains. The quality of the input AC line currents is examined, and a design procedure for the input filters is given. Power factor and efficiency are discussed. Results are compared to those of other current source inverter topologies. Experimental results obtained from a 5 kVA converter confirm the theoretical considerations.<>

41.2.11    Yan Guo, Xiao Wang, H.C. Lee, Boon-Teck Ooi, "Pole-placement control of voltage-regulated PWM rectifiers through real-time multiprocessing," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 224- 230, April 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The voltage-regulated pulsewidth-modulated (PWM) rectifier is prone to instability. The system can be stabilized by proportional-plus-integral feedback control, but its transient response is slow. This paper describes results of a study of digital control to improve the system dynamic response by pole placement through state feedback. The control algorithm is implemented for real-time operation by using a custom designed system of three high-speed microprocessors. Results from an experimental study with a 1 kW hardware laboratory model of the PWM rectifier shows that the dynamic response can be significantly improved even when the DC link capacitor is substantially reduced.<>

41.2.12    C.M. Liaw, S.J. Chiang, C.Y. Lai, K.H. Pan, G.C. Leu, G.S. Hsu, "Modeling and controller design of a current-mode controlled converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 231- 240, April 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the reduced-order dynamic modeling and controller design of a push-pull DC-DC converter with current-mode control are presented. First, the small-signal equivalent circuit of the converter and its corresponding transfer function model are found. Then the selection of slope compensation and the model reduction are performed using the concept of dominant energy mode. Based on the reduced converter models, a quantitative design procedure is derived to find the parameters of the closed-loop controller such that the prescribed regulating specifications can be matched. Theoretic bases, the design and implementation of the proposed controller are described in detail. The performance of the converter and the validity of the proposed controller are demonstrated by some simulation and experimental results.<>

41.2.13    A. Brambilla, E. Dallago, P. Nora, G. Sassone, "Study and implementation of a low conduction loss zero-current resonant switch," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 241- 250, April 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Zero-current (ZC) resonant switches allow one to reduce the switching losses in high-frequency DC/DC switched mode power supplies. ZC resonant switches can be either unidirectional (half-wave) or bidirectional (full-wave). If a conventional power MOSFET is chosen to implement the ZC resonant switch, the turn-on of the slow intrinsic diode has to be avoided. This is usually done with a fast blocking diode, which is connected in series with the MOSFET. Furthermore, an antiparallel fast diode is added when a FW ZC resonant switch is required. The conduction losses are relevant in this implementation, owing to the threshold voltage and to the series resistances of the two diodes. In this paper, a low-conduction-loss FW ZC resonant switch has been proposed. Its implementation is based on a power MOSFET and a single antiparallel Schottky diode. The possibility of an implementation with a power MOSFET alone is also discussed. A control circuit suitable for the proposed ZC resonant switch has been described. The experimental results obtained from a ZCS-QR buck converter are discussed.<>

41.2.14    A.S. Simoes, M.M. Silva, A.V. Anunciada, "A boost-type converter for DC-supply of fluorescent lamps," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 251- 255, April 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A boost type converter is described that is suitable for low-voltage DC-supply of fluorescent lamps. It has inherent lamp current limitation (ballast action) and provides the high voltage pulses and electrode heating that are required for igniting the lamp. The proposed circuit is applicable in automotive, emergency, and portable light sources.<>

41.2.15    A. Cavallini, M. Loggini, G.C. Montanari, "Comparison of approximate methods for estimate harmonic currents injected by AC/DC converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 256- 262, April 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper concerns a comparative study on available estimators of harmonic current amplitudes injected in the AC network by six-pulse AC/DC converters. Current estimates are reached by approximate methods that resort to simplified current waveforms, as well as by an exact procedure that carries out the harmonic decomposition of the actual waveform. It has been shown that approximate procedures assuming ripple-free DC current can provide amplitude values significantly different from actual ones. In particular, it has been ascertained that the rectangular waveshape does not always correspond to the worst case as far as harmonic current amplitudes are concerned. The approximate methods that take ripple into account are generally more accurate, but the algorithms required for current amplitudes estimates are not as easy to apply as those valid for ripple-free waveforms. These findings should be kept in mind when systems for harmonic compensation, particularly filters, are to be designed. Moreover, national and international standards, when based on ripple-free DC current assumptions, should be carefully considered.<>

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 41,  Number 3, June 1994           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




41.3.1    P. Pleinevaux, "An analysis of the MMS object model," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 265-268, June 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: MMS (Manufacturing Message Specification) is an OSI application protocol designed for the remote control and monitoring of industrial devices. In this paper, we study the MMS object model: the notion of class, naming, inheritance and structuring. We show that MMS is designed for simplicity but that some notions are not dealt with homogeneously in all classes of MMS objects

41.3.2    T.H. Lee, W.K. Tan, M.H. Ang, "A neural network control system with parallel adaptive enhancements applicable to nonlinear servomechanisms," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 269-277, June 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we present a technique for using an additional parallel neural network to provide adaptive enhancements to a basic fixed neural network-based nonlinear control system. This proposed parallel adaptive neural network control system is applicable to nonlinear dynamical systems of the type commonly encountered in many practical position control servomechanisms. Properties of the controller are discussed, and it is shown that if Gaussian radial basis function networks are used for the additional parallel neural network, uniformly stable adaptation is assured and the approximation error converges to zero asymptotically. In the paper, the effectiveness of the proposed parallel adaptive neural network control system is demonstrated in real-time implementation experiments for position control in a servomechanism with asymmetrical loading and changes in the load

41.3.3    S.D. Round, R.M. Duke, "Real-time optimization of an active filter's performance," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 278-284, June 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Recent advances in power electronics have meant that many loads now draw a distorted current from the power supply. For the same real power consumed, the apparent power for the distorted load is greater than the equivalent sinusoidal load. A real-time active filter optimization algorithm has been implemented in a TMS320C30 DSP, with the aim of maximizing the monetary saving from active filtering by reducing the apparent power consumed at the point of supply. As the basis for this optimization a savings function which takes into account active filter efficiency, the cost of energy, and the supply and load current distortion before and after filtering, has been derived. A simplex optimization technique, which is able to find the optimum operating point even under varying load conditions, is used to maximize these energy savings

41.3.4    M. Gulko, S. Ben-Yaakov, "Current-sourcing push-pull parallel-resonance inverter (CS-PPRI): theory and application as a discharge lamp driver," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 285-291, June 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel topology, current-sourcing push-pull parallel-resonance inverter (CS-PPRI) was investigated theoretically and experimentally. The proposed power stage is built around a current fed push-pull inverter. The main features of the proposed inverter are: a load independent output current and zero voltage switching (ZVS). It is suggested that the proposed CS-PPRI is a viable alternative for realizing electronic ballasts for low and high-intensity discharge lamps

41.3.5    D.C. Hanselman, "Minimum torque ripple, maximum efficiency excitation of brushless permanent magnet motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 292-300, June 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Permanent magnet motors are usually driven in one of two ways. Sinusoidal currents are applied when the motor has a sinusoidal back EMF, and rectangular currents are applied when the back EMF has a trapezoidal shape. If implemented perfectly, each of these drive schemes is capable of producing ripple-free torque, which is desirable in many applications. However, in reality, permanent magnet motors never exhibit perfectly sinusoidal or trapezoidal back EMFs. Moreover, the power electronics used to drive the motor often has limitations that keep it from producing the required current waveform, especially as speed or load torque increases. In addition to these limitations, a permanent magnet motor often exhibits parasitic cogging torque that directly contributes to torque ripple. This work explores the relationships between motor current and back EMF, and identifies minimum torque ripple, maximum efficiency current excitations that can be implemented with finite bandwidth power electronics (current controlled VSI)

41.3.6    I. Husain, M. Ehsani, "Error analysis in indirect rotor position sensing of switched reluctance motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 301-307, June 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The phase excitation pulses of a switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive need to be properly synchronized with the rotor position for optimum torque production. Accuracy of this position information determines the efficiency and smoothness of the drive operation. This paper presents a method of analyzing the errors inherent to indirect rotor position sensing schemes. The error analysis in this paper breaks down the position error to its fundamental components in the position sensing system. As an illustration, the method is applied to two different indirect position sensing schemes. The same basic approach can be applied to evaluate other SRM position sensing schemes. The results are helpful in comparing the various sensing schemes, as well as focusing improvement efforts on the appropriate segment of the system

41.3.7    Ghang-Ming Liaw, Faa-Jeng Lin, "A robust speed controller for induction motor drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 308-315, June 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A speed controller considering the effects of parameter variations and external disturbance for indirect field-oriented induction motor drives is proposed in this paper. First a microprocessor-based indirect field-oriented induction motor drive is implemented and its dynamic model at nominal case is estimated. Based on the estimated model, an integral plus proportional (IP) controller is quantitatively designed to match the prescribed speed tracking specifications. Then a dead-time compensator and a simple robust controller are designed and augmented to reduce the effects of parameter variations and external disturbances. The desired speed tracking control performance of the drive can be preserved under wide operating range, and good speed load regulating performance can also be obtained. Theoretic basis and implementation of the proposed controller are detailedly described. Some simulated and experimental results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller

41.3.8    G.S. Buja, M.I. Valla, "Control characteristics of the SRM drives. II. Operation in the saturated region," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 316-325, June 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Part I of this two-part paper analyzed the control characteristics of switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives for operation of the motor in the linear region of its magnetic characteristics. This part completes the analysis, presenting the control characteristics in the saturated region. A description of the motor operation in the saturated region is first formulated. Then the control variables, the relationships between the motor torque and the control variables, and the torque capability are determined for both current-fed and voltage-fed SRM drives. The basic schemes for the speed control of a SRM are also presented

41.3.9    V. Vlatkovic, D. Borojevic, "Digital-signal-processor-based control of three-phase space vector modulated converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 326-332, June 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper presents the implementation of a DSP-based controller for three-phase, space-vector modulated converters. The implementation is illustrated for the control of a 2 kW, ZVS matrix power converter-based three-phase PWM rectifier. The controller features very high data processing speed (converter switching frequency of 100 kHz), and provides high-quality, low-distortion power converter input currents and output voltages. The controller can be implemented using only a few standard integrated circuits, providing high reliability and low cost

41.3.10    V.B. Bhavaraju, P. Enjeti, "A fast active power filter to correct line voltage sags," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 333-338, June 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An active power filter for compensating voltage sags that occur on a weak AC power system is described. The proposed active power filter is especially suitable in situations where sensitive data processing and other critical loads are to be operated on a weak AC system. The proposed filter is fast acting and simple in design. A design procedure based on IEEE/ANSI voltage withstand tolerance (IEEE standard 446-1987) is proposed. Laboratory tests on a prototype filter show fast response and linear correction characteristics

41.3.11    I.D. Nanov, "Large signal analysis of switching regulators employing adaptive gain current injected control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 339-343, June 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The large signal stability and transient response of a buck-boost programmable switching regulator employing adaptive gain current injected control (CIC) are investigated. The stability of the regulator is analysed studying the equilibrium points of the system. The type of the equilibrium points is determined by the linearized about the equilibrium point state space averaged model of the regulator. The linearized model is used also for proper initial selection of the feedback coefficients. The transient responses of the buck-boost programmable switching regulator employing normal and adaptive gain current injected controls are compared. It is found that the adaptive gain CIC improves the dynamics of the regulator working at different operating conditions. The simulation runs are verified experimentally

41.3.12    A.K. Khargekar, P. Pavana Kumar, "A novel scheme for protection of power semiconductor devices against short circuit faults," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 344-351, June 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Power semiconductor devices find wide application in modern power electronic converters. Protection of these devices against overload/short circuit conditions is of paramount importance. Present day protection topologies employing different circuits have invariably one main drawback in that the fault current reaches the set value before action is initiated to trip the system. This poses a severe stress on the device. Hence an adequate safety margin has to be necessarily provided to prevent excessive device stresses and care has to be taken to see that the device is operated well within its safe operating areas. The present paper proposes a method wherein the slope or rate of rise of the fault current is detected and once the slope exceeds the set reference, action is initiated to trip the system much before the fault current reaches dangerous levels. The method provides a fast means of detection of overload and short circuit currents and can be conveniently adopted for the protection of devices in power transistor/IGBT based inverters against short circuited load conditions or shoot through faults. The possible reduction of stresses in the power devices are also highlighted

41.3.13    R.S. Mitra, M. Kumar, A. Basu, "Design of microprocessor-based systems: a knowledge-based approach ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 352-360, June 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The widespread use of microprocessors in industrial applications such as process control, data logging, monitoring, etc., demand that the design of such systems be automated. Algorithmic methods are inadequate for this task, as knowledge from several sources need to be combined to produce the resulting design. In this paper the authors present a knowledge-based approach to the design of such systems, which includes the design of the hardware configuration as well as the application software. The knowledge requirements and the functional modules of the design task are elicited, and practical designs are demonstrated

41.3.14    R. Mandal, S.K. Basu, A. Kar, S.P. Chowdhury, "A microcomputer-based power factor controller," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 361-371, June 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper reports a laboratory model of a microcomputer-based power factor controller (PFC) for compensating the reactive power of rapidly varying loads by switching capacitors sized in a binary ratio, with the help of zero voltage static switches. Four types of control strategies were tried, viz., (1) unity step control method, (2) binary search method, (3) successive approximation method, and (4) look-up table method. Features like (a) independent control of current in each phase, (b) reactive current sensing and capacitor switching in one cycle, (c) zero voltage switching of static switches to prevent the occurrence of transients and harmonics, and (d) switch failure detection logic and their display, are all incorporated in the software programming. A comparative assessment of their performances using different control strategies has been reported. A number of experiments have been performed on this controller, viz., (i) experiments to verify the operating performance of the PFC under the four control strategies, (ii) experiments to prove its performance as a power factor controller and also (iii) as a static VAr compensator

41.3.15    S. Yuvarajan, Hwa-Liang Chiou, "A novel sine PWM scheme using waveform generators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 372-376, June 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper presents a novel circuit for generating the sine PWM control signals for a single phase inverter. Waveform generating ICs based on a JFET are used to generate the synchronized sine and triangular waveforms with a high accuracy and wide range of frequencies. Experimental waveforms and frequency spectra of inverter output voltage are presented

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 41,  Number 4, August 1994           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




41.4.1    J. Huber, V. Graefe, "Motion stereo for mobile robots," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 378-383, August 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method allowing a mobile robot to measure accurately its distance from external objects is introduced. It only requires a single uncalibrated camera and a dynamic vision system. The method was evaluated in an optical laboratory and also in outdoor-experiments. Even in outdoor-experiments with a vehicle moving at a speed of 30 km/h, errors of less than 1% of the true distance were achieved in real time. The accuracy achievable with the method depends on the nature of the image features used as a basis for the measurement. Laboratory experiments have been performed to investigate quantitatively the characteristics of the feature detectors under conditions of reduced lighting and, consequentially, reduced SNR, and with image features not matching the feature detectors perfectly. The best results can be achieved by using edge-like features. Point-like features do have certain desirable characteristics, but point detectors are more sensitive to noise than edge detectors. Hence, the accuracy achieved with corner detectors was less than the one achieved with edge detectors. Nevertheless, even with corner detectors the resulting error was less than 1%, despite the fact that the image of the target object did not contain good corners

41.4.2    H. Mori, N.M. Charkari, T. Matsushita, "On-line vehicle and pedestrian detections based on sign pattern," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 384-391, August 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Real time detection methods of moving vehicles and pedestrians for navigation of the mobile robot are proposed. The method is based on a locomotion strategy, viz. signature-based stereotype motion. Signature of the moving vehicle is the shadow underneath the vehicle which is darker than any other parts of the asphalt paved road. Signature of the pedestrian is rhythm of walking. Rhythm of walking is unique to the pedestrian, and not influenced by time, weather, sunlight, shadow, and distance. Moreover, it is independent from clothes the pedestrian puts on. The result of experiments verify the validity of the methods

41.4.3    A. Gilg, G. Schmidt, "Landmark-oriented visual navigation of a mobile robot," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 392-397, August 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a method of landmark based vehicle guidance used for navigation in corridors and similar indoor environments. Motion tasks are specified by a symbolic course description without providing explicit geometric information. A video sensor system is used for environmental perception and landmark detection. Aspects of sensor data processing and vehicle guidance are discussed. Experimental results are reported

41.4.4    S. Tsugawa, "Vision-based vehicles in Japan: machine vision systems and driving control systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 398-405, August 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper surveys three intelligent vehicles developed in Japan, and in particular the configurations, the machine vision systems, and the driving control systems. The first one is the Intelligent Vehicle, developed since the mid 1970's, which has a machine vision system for obstacle detection and a dead reckoning system for autonomous navigation on a compact car. The machine vision system with stereo TV cameras is featured by real time processing using hard-wired logic. The dead reckoning function and a new lateral control algorithm enable the vehicle to drive from a starting point to a goal. It drove autonomously at about 10 km/h while avoiding an obstacle. The second one is the Personal Vehicle System (PVS), developed in the late 1980's, which is a comprehensive test system for a vision-based vehicle. The machine vision system captures lane markings at both road edges along which the vehicle is guided. The PVS has another machine vision system for obstacle detection with stereo cameras. The PVS drove at 10-30 km/h along lanes with turnings and crossings. The third one is the Automated Highway Vehicle System (AHVS) with a single TV camera for lane-keeping by PD control. The machine vision system uses an edge extraction algorithm to detect lane markings. The AHVS drove at 50 km/h along a lane with a large curvature

41.4.5    I. Nagy, "Novel adaptive tolerance band based PWM for field-oriented control of induction machines," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 406-417, August 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Two levels of an innovative adaptive switching pattern (ASP) for use in the control of induction machines are described. The ASP is based on a tolerance band control strategy resulting in nearly sinusoidal stator currents. The first level (ASP1) significantly increases the switching time thereby eliminating the very fast switching sometimes experienced. The second level (ASP2) reduces the number of double commutations by one or two orders of magnitude. The price for applying ASP is only a small, irregular, consequential increase in the current error. A rotating reference frame fixed to the rotor flux is applied. This makes ASP especially suitable for application in the field-oriented control of current controlled voltage source inverter (CC-VSI) fed induction motor drives. The theoretical background supported by conclusive simulation results illustrates clearly the significant benefits of ASP over the regular switching pattern often used. To complete the picture a short survey of the various techniques used in the speed control of induction machines is presented in the introduction

41.4.6    M.C. Cosby, R.M. Nelms, "A resonant inverter for electronic ballast applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 418-425, August 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Electronic ballasts must provide enough open circuit voltage to start the fluorescent lamp and current limiting while the lamp is running. Resonant inverters may be utilized in electronic ballasts because of their load-dependent characteristics. The three basic types of resonant inverters, the series-loaded, parallel-loaded, and the series-parallel-loaded, are compared using fundamental approximation techniques for their applicability in electronic ballasts operating from a low voltage source. A parallel-loaded resonant inverter operating slightly above its resonant frequency is selected because of the high voltage gains possible. Operation above the resonant frequency allows zero-voltage turn on of the semiconductor devices. Zero-voltage turn off can be achieved with the addition of lossless snubber capacitors. Experimental results from a lab prototype are used to verify the design procedure

41.4.7    D. Kastha, B.K. Bose, "Fault mode single-phase operation of a variable frequency induction motor drive and improvement of pulsating torque characteristics," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 426-433, August 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Improved reliability and fault tolerant operation of power converter systems are extremely important for industrial AC drives. The paper considers variable frequency variable voltage operation of a three-phase induction motor in single-phase mode for two common faults of a three-phase inverter, i.e., open base drive and device short-circuit. The motor performance has been extensively analyzed in single-phase mode and remedial strategies have been developed to neutralize large second and other lower order harmonic pulsating torques. In a single-phase open loop volts/Hz control made of a faulty three-phase inverter, it has been demonstrated that odd harmonic voltages at appropriate phase angles can be injected to neutralize the low frequency pulsating torques so as to permit smooth drive operation. It has been shown that the pulsating torque can be further reduced by load dependent flux programming rather than operating with constant rated flux

41.4.8    Ching-Tsai Pan, Maoh-Chin Jiang, "A quick response peak detector for variable frequency three-phase sinusoidal signals," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 434-440, August 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An instantaneous peak detector for three-phase variable frequency sinusoidal signals is proposed. The three-phase characteristic is fully used in the proposed detector to achieve instantaneous response and frequency independence characteristics. A very simple hardware implementation circuit is also presented for minimizing the number of analog computational components. Moreover, the proposed detector possesses excellent linearity and low sensitivity to small voltage unbalance and harmonic distortion. Because of its promising accuracy and transient response, it can be used in many systems such as the voltage regulator of an uninterruptible power supply (UPS), an automatic line voltage regulator, or electric generators, etc., to improve the system transient performance. Theoretical analysis, hardware implementation, and some experimental results are also detailed in this paper

41.4.9    C.C. Chan, Kwok-Tong Chau, "Spectral modeling of switched-mode power converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 441-450, August 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new modeling approach for the spectral analysis of pulsewidth modulated (PWM) converters with independent inputs is developed. The key of this approach is to extend the Volterra functional series to nonlinear systems with multiple independent inputs. After formulating the state-space equations describing the dynamical behavior of PWM converters, the Volterra transfer function characterizing the output frequency response can be obtained, which is then symmetrised to form the spectral model. Since the model is developed in a closed form, it is suitable for computer analysis. The modeling approach has been applied to various PWM converters, and the results are verified. The spectral models of different power converters can readily be obtained by using this general approach

41.4.10    C. Rossi, A. Tonielli, "Robust control of permanent magnet motors: VSS techniques lead to simple hardware implementations," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 451-460, August 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: It is shown how very simple velocity-tracking robust controllers for permanent magnet motors driving nonlinear loads can be designed based on variable structure systems techniques. Very fast dynamics, accurate and robust velocity-tracking are achieved with very simple hardware components without resorting to powerful digital signal processors and related interface hardware. A cascade control structure is used to ensure maximum flexibility. The controller for a DC motor is considered in great detail. Extension to AC synchronous PM motors is also presented. At the different control levels robustness is addressed with specific algorithms and the simplest solution is always selected. The controller architecture for both DC and AC synchronous motor are presented and discussed in the paper. Experimental results related to the control of a DC motor driving a nonlinear load are also shown. They demonstrate feasibility and excellent performances of the proposed approach

41.4.11    A.A. Goldenberg, I. Laniado, P. Kuzan, C. Zhou, "Control of switched reluctance motor torque for force control applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 461-466, August 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper presents a method for controlling switched reluctance motor (SRM) torque for force control applications. SRMs are used in AdeptOne robots, and the authors perform experiments with two robots, controlled in coordination, in grasping and manipulation of various objects. The object and robot parameters are not exactly known, and adaptive methods are used to control the overall system. These methods are model-based control techniques which require high bandwidth torque control. This requirement is typical for high precision mechanisms. SRM characteristics are very nonlinear. In particular the torque ripple, friction, and the torque versus position and current relationships were analyzed in the context mentioned above, and specifically, for force control applications. The proposed method is based on a new commutation algorithm and a measured torque versus position and current relationship, used to smooth the SRM's torque ripple, hence generating a torque output nearly independent of position. Furthermore, the internal friction is estimated on-line, and compensated for. This renders a high accuracy torque tracking. The torque control method is based on feedback from the motor angular velocity, motor angle, armature current, and feedforward for friction compensation and cancellation of nonlinear effects. The method has been tested experimentally on Adept motors and the results were very encouraging. The method has been also used for adaptive control of two coordinated Adept robots

41.4.12    F.P. Dawson, R. Bonert, "High performance single-chip gating circuit for a phase-controlled bridge," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 467-470, August 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The increasing availability of single-chip low cost microcontrollers has made it possible to reconsider conventional hardware designs for a variety of gating circuits. This paper, in particular, presents the design of a gating circuit for a six-pulse phase-controlled bridge utilizing a single-chip programmable microcontroller. The dynamic performance of the proposed gating circuit is similar to an analog circuit implementation. The resolution of the firing angle is better than 0.1 degrees at 60 Hz. Moreover, the system is designed to operate over a frequency range of 3 Hz to 120 Hz, and to automatically adapt to changes in line frequency. The experimental verification of the performance criteria are also presented. Finally, an example of a special application for a dual-bridge AC to DC converter is presented

41.4.13    C.E. Lin, Y.-R. Sheu, "One-dimensional position measurement for large-gap magnetic suspension system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 471-473, August 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a one-dimensional position measurement for a suspended object in a large-gap magnetic suspension system which allows wider range of control. The position measurement system uses a linear photosensor array to detect the position of the suspended object. The proposed measurement is simple, effective, and less expensive than other methods in large-gap magnetic suspension systems

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 41,  Number 5, Oct 1994           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




41.5.1    M.E. Magana, S. Tagami, "An improved trajectory tracking decentralized adaptive controller for robot manipulators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 477-482, Oct 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A decentralized adaptive nonlinear controller for a robot manipulator is presented in this paper. Based on the promising results obtained by the decentralized adaptive PID control algorithms proposed by Seraji and other researchers, the authors redesigned the Lyapunov function, and as a result, achieved a further simplification of the control algorithm and better trajectory tracking performance. The main advantages of the proposed controller over similar controllers are the considerably faster convergence of tracking error, relatively simpler structure, and smoother control activity. Another advantage of this controller is that it only requires local position and velocity measurements, and it does not make use of the exact centralized mathematical model of the robot manipulator. Finally, the authors demonstrate through computer simulation the robustness of their controller against parameter variations and disturbances

41.5.2    Jung-Hoon Lee, Jong-Sun Ko, Se-Kyo Chung, Dae-Sik Lee, Ju-Jang Lee, Myung-Joong Youn, "Continuous variable structure controller for BLDDSM position control with prescribed tracking performance," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 483-491, Oct 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The continuous, accurate, and robust sliding mode tracking controller based on a disturbance observer for a brushless direct drive servo motor (BLDDSM) is presented. Although the conventional sliding mode control (SMC) or variable structure control (VSC) can give the desired tracking performance, there exists an inevitable chattering problem in control which is undesirable for a direct drive system. With the proposed algorithm, not only are the chattering problems removed, but also the prescribed tracking performance can be obtained by using the efficient compensation of the disturbance observer. The design of the sliding mode tracking controller for the prescribed, accurate, and robust tracking performance without the chattering problem is given based on the results of the detailed stability analysis. The usefulness of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through the computer simulations for a BLDDSM under load variations

41.5.3    Yu-Sheng Lu, Jian-Shiang Chen, "A self-organizing fuzzy sliding-mode controller design for a class of nonlinear servo systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 492-502, Oct 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A self-organizing fuzzy controller to augment a sliding-mode control (SOFSMC) scheme for a class of nonlinear systems is proposed. The motivation behind this scheme is to combine the best features of self-organizing fuzzy control and sliding-mode control to achieve rapid and accurate tracking control of a class of nonlinear systems. The chatter encountered by most sliding-mode control schemes is greatly alleviated without sacrificing invariant properties. A stability analysis is presented; the design guidelines and the class of applicable systems are clearly identified. To verify the scheme, the authors performed experiments on its implementation in a magnetic levitation system. The results show that both alleviation of chatter and robust performance are achieved; the advantages of the scheme are indicated in comparison with the conventional sliding-mode design

41.5.4    Kuan-Teck Chang, Teck-Seng Low, Tong-Heng Lee, "An optimal speed controller for permanent-magnet synchronous motor drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 503-510, Oct 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An optimal control system synthesis method which can achieve vector and speed control simultaneously for permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drives is proposed in this paper. A state-space multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) model for PMSM is first developed and the compensation for the nonlinearities in this model is discussed. A pseudo-linearized PMSM model is dynamically constructed through the state detection, and subsequently an optimal speed controller is developed based on this linearized model. The integral control technique is incorporated to eliminate possible speed offsets. A speed observer is further developed to eliminate the speed sensor from the drive

41.5.5    S. Morimoto, Y. Tong, Y. Takeda, T. Hirasa, "Loss minimization control of permanent magnet synchronous motor drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 511-517, Oct 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper aims to improve efficiency in permanent magnet synchronous (PM) motor drives. The controllable electrical loss which consists of the copper loss and the iron loss can be minimized by the optimal control of the armature current vector. The control algorithm of the current vector minimizing the electrical loss is proposed and the optimal current vector can be decided according to the operating speed and the load conditions. The proposed control algorithm is applied to the experimental PM motor drive system, in which one digital signal processor is employed to execute the control algorithms, and several drive tests are carried out. The operating characteristics controlled by the loss minimization control algorithm are examined in detail by computer simulations and experimental results

41.5.6    J.K. Pedersen, F. Blaabjerg, "Digital quasi-random modulated SFAVM PWM in an AC-drive system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 518-525, Oct 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A main research topic in PWM-VSI inverter-driven electrical machines is to reduce the generated acoustic noise which often is dominated by a multiple of the switching frequency in the inverter. This paper proposes a modulation scheme for reducing the acoustic noise effect from an AC machine which can be implemented digitally for low and high performance systems. The scheme is based on a stator flux asynchronous vector modulation (SFAVM) imposed by a digital band limited PWM white noise generator for varying the switching frequency randomly. The white noise generator can be used for 8, 16 and 32 bit microcontrollers. The modulation strategy is tested in a 1 kVA high performance 16 bit microprocessor controlled AC drive system. Voltage-spectra on the line-to-line voltage and the acoustic noise spectra are presented and show that the new modulation strategy can decrease the noise effect. The stator-flux-polygon and the line current are measured and demonstrate the random modulation strategy. Finally, the total sound pressure level from the AC machine is investigated with fixed switching frequencies and with different randomly modulated frequency spans. It is concluded that a properly chosen fixed switching frequency has the lowest total sound pressure level. However, the random modulation strategy distributes the noise frequencies and the noise is more comfortable and less annoying

41.5.7    D. Vincenti, Hua Jin, "A three-phase regulated PWM rectifier with on-line feedforward input unbalance correction," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 526-532, Oct 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The analysis and design of a direct six-switch three-phase PWM rectifier, capable of correcting input unbalance, is presented. Based on the input source positive and negative sequence components, an unbalanced transfer matrix in terms of input phase voltages is derived. An online method is used to implement the transfer matrix function and generate the switch gating signals. As compared to other unbalance correction methods, the proposed approach is very simple to implement. It uses only a few discrete analog and digital components. The algorithm of the proposed approach is described in this paper, and results are verified from a 1 kVA breadboard set-up

41.5.8    G.O. Garcia, J.C.M. Luis, R.M. Stephan, E.H. Watanabe, "An efficient controller for an adjustable speed induction motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 533-539, Oct 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The induction motor (IM) is a high-efficiency machine when working close to its rated operating point. However, at torques and/or speeds far from the rated values the efficiency is greatly reduced. In this work a new approach is proposed that minimizes the total copper and iron losses in a variable speed and/or torque IM drive, while keeping a good dynamic response. This method is based on a simple IM model that includes iron losses. The model, which only requires the knowledge of conventional IM parameters, is referred to a field-oriented frame. Using this model, the IM losses are quantified and an algorithm, based on a field-oriented scheme, is deduced. Simulation and experimental results are presented to validate the proposed method

41.5.9    C.M. Liaw, S.J. Chiang, "Design and implementation of a single-phase three-wire transformerless battery energy storage system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 540-549, Oct 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a single-phase three-wire (1φ3w) transformerless battery energy storage system (BESS). Its power circuit is simple, since it consists of only one power converter. It has three legs to provide 1φ3w 220/110 V output without the use of a transformer. For switching control, the BESS is decoupled into differential-mode and common-mode subsystems. Each subsystem has its own inner-loop current-forced switching control mechanism; their current commands at various operating modes are generated by outer-loop controllers. The controllers of the differential mode are designed to control the main voltage (220 V) source, while achieving the desired functions of BESS. As to the common-mode subsystem, its controllers are used to maintain the voltage balance of two subcircuits (110 V circuits) when the utility grid fails, and to keep the current in neutral line of utility grid at zero when the utility grid is in normal condition. The operation principle of the proposed BESS and the design of controllers in various operating modes are described in detail. Some experimental results are provided to show the performance of the proposed BESS

41.5.10    M. Prokin, "Extremely wide-range speed measurement using a double-buffered method," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 550-559, Oct 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An electric motor double-buffered speed measurement method for PC/AT computer application is based on 14.31818 MHz reference clock. The extremely wide frequency range of 4·109 (1.67 mHz to 7 MHz) is independent of sampling time, which can be chosen from 100 μs to 4.6 ms. Appropriate software provides real-time graphics presentation of measured speed versus time and storage for further analysis. The enclosed test diagrams cover DC motor speed reversal and an induction motor acceleration

41.5.11    N.R. Zargari, G. Joos, P.D. Ziogas, "A performance comparison of PWM rectifiers and synchronous link converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 560-562, Oct 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: PWM AC/DC power converters have been shown to be superior to thyristor phase-controlled rectifiers in terms of power factor and input current/output voltage harmonics. This paper presents a systematic comparison of the two topologies, the current-source topology and the voltage-source topology, from the point of view of power converter and switch kVA ratings, filtering requirements, power factor, operating regions, and control aspects

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 41,  Number 6, Dec 1994           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




41.6.1    R. Zurawski, MengChu Zhou, "Petri nets and industrial applications: A tutorial," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 567-583, Dec 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Petri nets, as a graphical and mathematical tool, provide a uniform environment for modelling, formal analysis, and design of discrete event systems. The main objective of this paper is to introduce the fundamental concepts of Petri nets to researchers and practitioners, both from academia and industry, who are involved in the work in the areas of modelling and analysis of industrial types of systems, as well as those who may potentially be involved in these areas. The paper begins with an overview of applications of Petri nets, mostly industrial ones. Then, it proceeds with a description of Petri nets, properties, and analysis methods. The discussion of properties is put in the context of industrial applications. The analysis methods are illustrated using an example of a simple robotic assembly system. The performance analysis, using Petri nets, is discussed for deterministic and stochastic Petri nets. The presented techniques are illustrated by examples representing simple production systems. In addition, the paper introduces high-level Petri nets, fuzzy Petri nets, and temporal Petri nets. This is done in the context of application prospects. The paper also briefly discusses some of the reasons restricting the use of Petri nets, mostly, to academic institutions

41.6.2    R. Zurawski, "Systematic construction of functional abstractions of Petri net models of flexible manufacturing systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 584-592, Dec 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The use of generic models in the synthesis of FMS systems, which allows for rapid modelling and analysis, does not ease the verification task difficulty. Even though generic modules can be verified separately, the verification of the interconnections between modules requires the whole model to be considered. A potential solution is to replace the generic modules with their functional abstractions which realize the external functional behavior of these modules. The number of places and transitions involved in realizing the required functionality is, typically, a fraction of that used to represent complete components. This reduces the complexity of the components of the modelled system, and thus the complexity of the verification model. The verification task can then focus on the correctness of the interfaces, rather then on the internal nature of the components. In this paper, for a class of Petri net models, which can be used to represent the primary components of AGV based FMS systems, a method that allows one to systematically construct functional abstractions is presented

41.6.3    Tien-Hsiang Sun, Chao-Weng Cheng, Li-Chen Fu, "A Petri net based approach to modeling and scheduling for an FMS and a case study," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 593-601, Dec 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a timed-place Petri net (TPPN) model for flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs) is constructed, which contains two major submodels: the stationary transportation model; and the variable process flow model. For multiple automated guided vehicle (AGV) systems, the authors embed a simple rule and introduce a push-AGV strategy in a TPPN model to solve the collision and traffic jam problems of such vehicles. Since a firing sequence of the TPPN from the initial marking to the final marking can be seen as a schedule of the modeled FMS, by using an A* based search algorithm, namely, the limited-expansion A algorithm, an effective schedule of the part processing can be obtained. To show the promising potential of the proposed work, a prototype FMS is used as a target system for implementation. The experiment results assert that the job-shop scheduling problem can always be satisfactorily solved

41.6.4    Doo Yong Lee, F. DiCesare, "Integrated scheduling of flexible manufacturing systems employing automated guided vehicles," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 602-610, Dec 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Centralized and distributed automated guided vehicle system (AGVS) models for materials handling, and the model for part processing are integrated into a single coherent model. This formulation can be used to collectively schedule and control the entire flexible manufacturing system (FMS) as opposed to the traditional separate scheduling of part processing and material handling. The two AGVS models are based on Petri nets and can be directly used in the scheduling method that uses Petri nets for formulation and heuristic search for solution. This method employs a global search to seek the optimal operation of an entire FMS. Scheduling examples are presented and the method compares favorably with the results simulated using heuristic dispatch rules

41.6.5    K. Venkatesh, MengChu Zhou, R.J. Caudill, "Comparing ladder logic diagrams and Petri nets for sequence controller design through a discrete manufacturing system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 611-619, Dec 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Design methods for sequence controllers play a very important role in advancing industrial automation. The increasing complexity and varying needs of modern discrete manufacturing systems have challenged the traditional design methods such as the use of ladder logic diagrams (LLDs) for programmable logic controllers. The methodologies based on research results in computer science have recently received growing attention by academic researchers and industrial engineers in order to design flexible, reusable, and maintainable control software. Particularly, Petri nets are emerging as a very important tool to provide an integrated solution for modeling, analysis, simulation, and control of industrial automated systems. This paper identifies certain criteria to compare LLDs and Petri nets in designing sequence controllers and responding to the changing control requirements. The comparison is performed through a practical system after introducing “real-time Petri nets” for discrete-event control purposes. The results reported in this paper will help: (a) further establish Petri net based techniques for discrete-event control of industrial automated systems; and (b) effectively convince industrial practitioners and researchers that it is worthy and timely to consider and promote the applications of Petri nets to their particular discrete-event control problems

41.6.6    T. Cao, A.C. Sanderson, "Task decomposition and analysis of robotic assembly task plans using Petri nets," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 620-630, Dec 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a framework for robotic task sequence planning which decomposes tasks into operations sequences for a generic robotic workcell. The approach provides robust execution of tasks through properties of: traceability-implicit mapping operations representation, and viability-retaining multiple execution. Given the descriptions of the objects in the system and all feasible geometric configurations and relationships among these objects, an AND/OR net which describes the relationships of all feasible geometric states and associated feasibility criteria for net transitions is generated. This AND/OR net is mapped into a Petri net which incorporates all feasible sequences of high level operations. The resulting Petri net is then decomposed in a stepwise manner into lower level Petri nets of which each transition can be directly implemented by control commands or command sequences based on devices and objects in the system, or, by lower level planning transitions corresponding to path planning, grasp planning, fine motion planning, etc. The property analysis for different levels of decomposition is also presented, and the inheritance of properties between levels is defined. All possible task sequences could be found using a search algorithm based on feasible system states. The shortest sequence may be chosen from the lowest level decomposition and is guaranteed to be the optimal output of the hierarchical planning system to efficiently implement the desired tasks

41.6.7    B.J. McCarragher, "Petri net modelling for robotic assembly and trajectory planning ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 631-640, Dec 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new approach to process modelling, task synthesis, motion control and trajectory planning for robotic assembly is presented. Assembly is modelled as a discrete event dynamic system using Petri nets, incorporating both discrete and continuous aspects of the process. A process monitor based on recognizing contact state transitions is presented. A discrete event controller is developed. The controller issues velocity commands that direct the system toward the next desired contact state, while maintaining currently desired contacts and avoiding unwanted transitions. A novel means of trajectory planning which incorporates the system's ability to both monitor and control the process is given. Experimental results are given for a dual peg-in-the-hole example. The experimental results not only demonstrate highly successful insertion along the desired trajectory, but also demonstrate the ability to detect, recognize, and recover from errors and unwanted situations

41.6.8    F.-Y. Wang, K. Gildea, H. Jungnitz, D.D. Chen, "Protocol design and performance analysis for manufacturing message specification: A Petri net approach," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 641-653, Dec 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The manufacturing message specification (MMS) is the ISO standard communication protocol specific to manufacturing. To analyze MMS design and performance, service unit automats are introduced to represent individual MMS services, while service connection Petri Nets (PNs) are constructed from these automats to describe MMS service connections and processes. This approach makes MMS protocol specification and analysis possible in terms of well-developed concepts and methods in PN theory. It leads to a distributed and hierarchical model of MMS software system by integrating service connection PNs. A generalized stochastic PN for MMS performance evaluation is obtained by incorporating service parameters and time factors into the model. A technique based on T-invariants is used to simplify the performance analysis

41.6.9    T. D'Orazio, F.P. Lovergine, M. Ianigro, E. Stella, A. Distante, "Mobile robot position determination using visual landmarks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 654-662, Dec 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper is concerned with the problem of determining the position of a mobile vehicle during navigation. In order to achieve this objective a multisensor navigation system for self location of the robot has been developed. By tracking a few known landmarks with a vision module, the system is able to monitor continuously its position and to integrate these estimates with the measures provided by the vehicle odometers. This paper describes in detail the vision module used by the navigation system

41.6.10    G.S. Buja, F. Todesco, "Neural network implementation of a fuzzy logic controller," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 663-665, Dec 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Fuzzy logic is an attractive technique for plant control but suffers from a heavy computation burden. A solution to this problem is proposed here and consists of implementing a fuzzy logic controller in a neural network. The solution is applied to the speed control of a DC motor drive and is validated by experimental results

41.6.11    N.M. Botros, M. Abdul-Aziz, "Hardware implementation of an artificial neural network using field programmable gate arrays (FPGA's)," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 665-667, Dec 1994.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the authors present a hardware implementation of a fully digital multilayer perceptron artificial neural network using Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Each node is implemented with two XC3042 FPGAs and a 1 K×8 EPROM. Training is done offline on a PC. The authors have tested successfully the performance of the network

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 42,  Number 1, Feb 1995           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




42.1.1    T. Kajima, Y. Kawamura, "Development of a high-speed solenoid valve: investigation of solenoids," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 1-8, Feb 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors have developed a high-speed solenoid valve with a 1 ms switching time to control diesel engines electronically. In this paper, the authors focused their attention on developing the solenoid itself, investigating methods to be used for the fast operation of the solenoid valve. First, by using a mathematical model, they quantitatively examined the effects of design particulars, such as the dimensions of the solenoids and the number of turns of coil, on the switching time. According to the results obtained by the above examinations, they studied an effective method for fast switching. Next, they investigated appropriate and comprehensive methods that would satisfy given specifications under the various restrictions inherent in the solenoid valve's operation. In the final stage, they manufactured solenoid valves in accordance with the investigated methods, and evaluated their performance

42.1.2    T.H. Lee, T.S. Low, J.X. Xu, H.K. Lim, "Offset-free combined neural network/switching control for nonlinear servomechanisms with DSP-based implementation," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 9-16, Feb 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we present a combined neural network/switching controller which is shown to provide offset-free regulation and control in the presence of disturbances. The controller is applicable to nonlinear servomechanisms of the type commonly encountered in motion control. In the paper, the properties of the controller are discussed and the implementation of the overall control system using a microcomputer host with a digital signal processor (DSP) accelerator is described. The paper also includes the results of real-time experiments in applying the proposed controller for position control of a nonlinear servomechanism which provides experimental verification of the effectiveness of the proposed method

42.1.3    Tian-Hua Liu, "A maximum torque control with a controlled capacitor for a single-phase induction motor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 17-24, Feb 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new method to achieve a maximum torque for a single-phase induction motor. An AC adjustable capacitor using an electronic switch in parallel with a capacitor is proposed. The capacitor is short-circuited in a different period by an electronic switch during each cycle to vary the effective value of the AC capacitor. Two new optimization algorithms, which obtain a maximum starting torque by adjusting the effective capacitor, are proposed. No starting capacitor or centrifugal switch is used here. A theoretical analysis, and simulated and experimental results are presented in this paper

42.1.4    Y.S. Kung, C.M. Liaw, M.S. Ouyang, "Adaptive speed control for induction motor drives using neural networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 25-32, Feb 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the adaptive speed control of induction motor drives using neural networks is presented. To obtain good tracking and regulating control characteristics, a digital two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) controller is adopted and a design procedure is developed for systematically finding its parameters according to prescribed specifications. The parameters of the controller corresponding to various drive parameter sets are found off-line and used as the training patterns to estimate the connection weights of neural networks, Under normal operation, the true drive parameters are real-time identified and they are converted into the controller parameters through multilayer forward computation by neural networks. The parameters of the 2DOF controller can be adapted to match the desired specifications under various operating conditions

42.1.5    A.-R. A.M. Makky, G.M. Abdel-Rahim, N.A. El-Latif, "A novel DC chopper drive for a single-phase induction motor," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 33-39, Feb 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper presents a new drive for single-phase induction motors. This drive employs a DC chopper circuit with a diode bridge rectifier connected with the stator in a nonconventional fashion. The speed of the single-phase induction motor is controlled by controlling the chopping frequency of the chopper switch. The attractive feature of the drive is that it effects both frequency and phase-angle control simultaneously. The drive performance has received both theoretical and experimental investigation

42.1.6    E. Ho, P.C. Sen, "High-performance decoupling control techniques for various rotating field machines," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 40-49, Feb 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a comparative study of different field-oriented rotating-field machines, including squirrel cage induction machines, series-connected wound rotor induction machines, and synchronous machines. Evaluation of various field-oriented rotating-field machines for high-performance applications is presented. The concept of torque linearization and decoupling control is studied and compared for the various field-oriented motors. Computer simulations, experimental results and space phasor diagrams are employed to illustrate the dynamics of decoupling control for the various field-oriented-control (FOC) systems. The control complexity and parameter sensitivity of various FOC drive motors are compared

42.1.7    A. Matsushita, T. Tsuchiya, "Decoupled preview control system and its application to induction motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 50-57, Feb 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper shows that optimal preview control system approaches to a decoupled preview control system as the weighting factors for the control input variables in the quadratic performance index tend towards zero. Therefore, to examine the characteristics of the decoupled preview control system also means to examine the asymptotic characteristics of the optimal preview control system. By this property, relationships between the design parameters and the response of the optimal preview control system become clear and the design of the optimal preview control can be simplified by utilizing the properties that the decoupled preview control system features. Further, the decoupled preview control method is applied to the vector control system for an induction motor drive. By this application, a trade off between the conditions of the vector control and the magnitude of input variables becomes easy. To demonstrate the significance of this proposed method, simulation results of this application are carried out

42.1.8    O. Vainio, S.J. Ovaska, "Noise reduction in zero crossing detection by predictive digital filtering," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 58-62, Feb 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A simple combination of nonlinear and linear digital signal processing methods is proposed for efficient noise reduction in zero crossing detectors. The method is very robust against strong impulsive noise, typically encountered in thyristor power converters, where reliable zero crossing detection is required for firing synchronization. A systematic design procedure is described for the proposed filter-based synchronization method, taking into account the specified line frequency tolerance. The fully digital signal processing approach allows compact implementations, and supports flexible interfacing to digital motor control systems

42.1.9    J.A. Sabate, M.M. Jovanovic, F.C. Lee, R.T. Gean, "Analysis and design-optimization of LCC resonant inverter for high-frequency AC distributed power system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 63-71, Feb 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The analysis and design of an LCC resonant inverter for a 20 kHz AC distributed power system are presented. Several resonant converter topologies are assessed to determine their suitability for high efficiency power conversion, under resistive and reactive loads. Two LCC-resonant inverter designs were implemented. One with all switches operating with zero voltage switching (ZVS), and another with two switches operating with ZVS and two switches with zero current switching (ZCS). The experimental results are presented along with a performance comparison of the two versions

42.1.10    M. Kazerani, Zhong-Chao Zhang, Boon-Teck Ooi, "Linearly controllable boost voltages from Tri-Level PWM current-source inverter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 72-77, Feb 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The peak line-to-line inverter AC voltage, in general, cannot exceed the supply DC voltage and transformers have to be used when voltage step-up is required. This paper describes how the necessity of using a Tri-Level PWM strategy in the current source inverter can be turned into an advantage by producing a voltage boost so that transformers are no longer required. During the frequent occurrence of the “shoot-through” states, which is the characteristic of the Tri-Level PWM-controlled inverter, magnetic energy builds up in the DC link inductor. At the end of these periods, the LdcdIdc/dt voltage across the inductor augments the inverter output voltage in the same way as in the basic boost type DC/DC power converter. The paper describes the circuitry required to ensure linear control. Analytical, simulation, and experimental results are given. Applications are found in all instances where the AC voltage is higher than the available supply DC voltage

42.1.11    A. Radun, "An alternative low-cost current-sensing scheme for high-current power electronics circuits," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 78-84, Feb 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A lightweight and low-cost current sensor for application in high-current, high-frequency inverters and power converters is described. The current sensor consists of three elements. The first is a Rogowski coil, also known as a Maxwell Worm, which is a nonmagnetic toroid wound like an inductor. The output voltage at the open terminals of this winding is proportional to the time derivative of the current flowing in a conductor passing through the toroid. The second element of the sensor is an integrator which has as its input the output of the Rogowski coil. The third element of the sensor is a circuit to reset the integrator to zero whenever the current through the Rogowski coil is known to be zero. Resetting the integrator prevents the error generated by the integration of offset voltages and biases, which cannot be avoided in practical integrators, from becoming unacceptably large. For the case of a semiconductor switch, the current through the switch is known to be zero when the switch is gated off. The results presented using this current sensing scheme demonstrate its feasibility for use in high-power motor drive applications. The sensor has its largest advantage for measuring currents with peak values greater than 50 A and with switching frequencies greater than 1 kHz

42.1.12    Shiguo Luo, Zhencheng Hou, "An adaptive detecting method for harmonic and reactive currents," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 85-89, Feb 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The conventional detecting methods for power system harmonic and reactive currents have various limitations. Based on adaptive interference canceling theory, a new adaptive detecting method for harmonic and reactive currents is presented, the corresponding detection system is developed, and experiments are performed which verify the feasibility of the method proposed. The new real-time detecting method is useful for dynamic compensation equipment such as active power filters, static VAr compensators, etc

42.1.13    On-Cheong Mak, Yue-Chung Wong, A. Ioinovici, "Step-up DC power supply based on a switched-capacitor circuit," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 90-97, Feb 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new step-up DC-to-DC power converter with high power density is presented. It contains no inductors or transformers. The controlled energy transfer from an unregulated voltage source to a regulated output voltage is realized through a switched-capacitor circuit. The operation of the switches in the power stage is dictated by a PWM-type feedback circuit. The new regulator is simulated by using an averaged state-space approach. The transient and steady-state waveforms, as well as the AC small-signal input-to-output and control-to-output transfer functions are obtained by both simulation and experiments. The power supply, implemented for a nominal power of 15 W, and input-to-output voltage ratio of 5/12, features high efficiency for this class of powers, small output voltage ripple, continuous input current, low weight and small size

42.1.14    F. Mihalic, K. Jezernik, K. Krischan, M. Rentmeister, "IGBT SPICE model," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 98-105, Feb 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: During the last few years, great progress in the development of new power semiconductor devices has been made. The new generation of power semiconductors is capable of conducting more current and blocking higher voltage. The IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) is an outgrowth of power MOSFET technology. More like a MOSFET than a bipolar transistor in structure, the IGBT has some of the electrical characteristics of both. Like a MOSFET, the gate of the IGBT is isolated, and drive power is very low. The on-state conduction voltage of an IGBT is similar to that of a bipolar transistor. However, SPICE users are constantly faced with the inability to analyze circuits that contain devices that are not in the SPICE library of the semiconductor models. With the authors' own computer program, a complete macromodel of the IGBT for the SPICE simulator has been computed. In this paper, a complete IGBT SPICE macromodel is described and verified with experimental results

42.1.15    K. Balasubramanian, "A flash ADC with reduced complexity," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 106-108, Feb 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An architecture for a flash ADC, with reduced circuit complexity is proposed. The design of this ADC is module oriented; a k,n-bit ADC is developed by just cascading k number of n-b flash modules. Making use of the proposed design approach, high resolution converters of 24 b and 32 b could easily be implemented with the low resolution flash modules

42.1.16    D. Czarkowski, L.R. Pujara, M.K. Kazimierczuk, "Robust stability of state-feedback control of PWM DC-DC push-pull converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 108-111, Feb 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A state-feedback control strategy was recently used to design a pulse-width modulated (PWM) power converter which accommodates disturbances as long as the system remains stable. A robust stability analysis of the closed-loop PWM push-pull DC-DC power converter with a state feedback is presented by using the Kharitonov theorem

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 42,  Number 2, April 1995           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




42.2.1    Weibing Gao, Yufu Wang, A. Homaifa, "Discrete-time variable structure control systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 117-122, April 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a treatment of discrete variable structure control systems. The purpose is to lay a foundation upon which design of such type of systems can be made properly. Phenomena of switching, reaching, and quasi-sliding mode are investigated thoroughly. Terms pertaining to discrete variable structure control are defined. A method of quasi-sliding mode design is given. The inherently existing quasi-sliding mode band is analyzed. A recently introduced “reaching law approach” is conveniently used to develop the control law for robust control. Comments are given regarding chattering. The design technique is illustrated by a simulated system

42.2.2    T. Murakami, N. Oda, Y. Miyasaka, K. Ohnishi, "A motion control strategy based on equivalent mass matrix in multidegree-of-freedom manipulator," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 123-130, April 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a decoupling motion control strategy based on an equivalent mass matrix in operational space. In the conventional approach, the equivalent mass matrix is defined as a function of Jacobian matrix and inertia of manipulator. Therefore, it is difficult to know the variation of the equivalent mass matrix precisely and to select it arbitrarily. This makes it difficult to realize the decoupling motion controller in the operational space. To improve the above problem, the authors introduce a robust control strategy based on a disturbance observer. In the observer-based approach, the equivalent mass matrix is determined arbitrarily independently of configuration and inertia variation of the manipulator. First, the equivalent mass matrix based on robust control is derived. Second, a simplification method of an operational space controller is discussed by using the equivalent mass matrix. Several experimental results are shown to confirm the validity of the proposed methods

42.2.3    P.V. Goode, Mo-yuen Chow, "Using a neural/fuzzy system to extract heuristic knowledge of incipient faults in induction motors. Part I-Methodology," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 131-138, April 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The use of electric motors in industry is extensive. These motors are exposed to a wide variety of environments and conditions which age the motor and make it subject to incipient faults. These incipient faults, if left undetected, contribute to the degradation and eventual failure of the motors. Artificial neural networks have been proposed and have demonstrated the capability of solving the motor monitoring and fault detection problem using an inexpensive, reliable, and noninvasive procedure. However, the major drawback of conventional artificial neural network fault detection is the inherent black box approach that can provide the correct solution, but does not provide heuristic interpretation of the solution. Engineers prefer accurate fault detection as well as the heuristic knowledge behind the fault detection process. Fuzzy logic is a technology that can easily provide heuristic reasoning while being difficult to provide exact solutions. The authors introduce the methodology behind a novel hybrid neural/fuzzy system which merges the neural network and fuzzy logic technologies to solve fault detection problems. They also discuss a training procedure for this neural/fuzzy fault detection system. This procedure is used to determine the correct solutions while providing qualitative, heuristic knowledge about the solutions

42.2.4    P.V. Goode, Mo-Yuen Chow, "Using a neural/fuzzy system to extract heuristic knowledge of incipient faults in induction motors: Part II-Application," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 139-146, April 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The use of electric motors in industry is extensive. These motors are exposed to a wide variety of environments and conditions which age the motor and make it subject to incipient faults. These incipient faults, if left undetected, contribute to the degradation and eventual failure of the motors. This paper uses a hybrid neural/fuzzy fault detector to solve the motor fault detection problem. As an illustration, the neural/fuzzy fault detector is used to monitor the condition of a motor bearing and stator winding insulation. The initialization and training of this fault detector is in accordance with the procedures outlined in Part I of this paper. Once the neural/fuzzy fault detector is trained, the detector not only can provide accurate fault detector performance, but can also provide the heuristic reasoning behind the fault detection process and the actual motor fault conditions. With better understanding of the heuristics through the use of fuzzy rules and fuzzy membership functions, a better understanding of the fault detection process of the system is available, thus better motor protection systems can be designed

42.2.5    P. Payeur, Hoang Le-Huy, C.M. Gosselin, "Trajectory prediction for moving objects using artificial neural networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 147-158, April 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method to predict the trajectory of moving objects in a robotic environment in real-time is proposed and evaluated. The position, velocity, and acceleration of the object are estimated by several neural networks using the six most recent measurements of the object coordinates as inputs. The architecture of the neural nets and the training algorithm are presented and discussed. Simulation results obtained for both 2D and 3D cases are presented to illustrate the performance of the prediction algorithm. Real-time implementation of the neural networks is considered. Finally, the potential of the proposed trajectory prediction method in various applications is discussed

42.2.6    Bum-Seok Suh, Dong-Seok Hyun, "A new gate drive circuit for high-speed operation of GTO thyristors ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 159-163, April 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new gate turn-off drive circuit for GTO thyristors, which can accomplish faster turn-off switching for high-speed operation of the GTO. The switching characteristics of GTO's can be improved by use of the gate drive circuit that is able to make a very high rate of the negative gate current. The major disadvantage of the conventional gate turn-off driving technique is that it has a difficulty in realizing higher negative diG/dt due to the maximum reverse gate-cathode voltage and the stray inductances within the gate turn-off drive circuit. This paper shows that this problem can be overcome by adding another gate turn-off drive circuit to the conventional gate turn-off drive circuit. Simulation and experimental results in conjunction with chopper circuit verify the performance of the proposed gate drive circuit

42.2.7    H. Kutsukake, Y. Tanno, "High-frequency oscillation parametric current sensor with feedback loop," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 164-168, April 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with a noncontact current sensor that operates from DC to high frequency. This sensor utilizes the phenomenon of parametric oscillation, whereby the parametric oscillation voltage is amplitude-modulated by the magnetic field of the measured current. The proposed sensor has been operated closed loop up to 3 kHz for measured current and as expected has better performance characteristics than the open loop version. In this paper, we describe the features of this novel current sensor and ways to extend the high-frequency limit. Experimental results are given to support the theoretical analysis

42.2.8    C. Rossi, A. Tonielli, "Robust current controller for three-phase inverter using finite-state automaton," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 169-178, April 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel feedback current controller for a three-phase load driven by a power inverter is proposed. The main design specifications are robustness to load electrical parameters, fast dynamical response, reduced switching frequency, and simple hardware implementation. To meet previous specifications a multi-variable hysteresis type controller is proposed, designed as a finite-state automaton and implemented with a programmable logic device. After a general introduction, system analysis is performed, control targets are specified, and the proposed control strategy is presented and discussed. Further, actual controller architecture, based on simple analog-logic hardware, is shown and experimental results are presented using an induction motor as the inverter load. However, this does not limit the wider applicability of the proposed controller that is suitable for different types of three-phase AC loads

42.2.9    Do-Hyun Jang, Gyu-Ha Choe, "Improvement of input power factor in AC choppers using asymmetrical PWM technique," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 179-185, April 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An asymmetrical pulse width modulated (APWM) control technique for AC choppers is proposed to improve the input power factor. The switching function for the proposed technique is derived and hence converted into the asymmetrical PWM waveform for practical implementation of an AC chopper. Through digital simulation several characteristics are investigated theoretically and then compared with those of the conventional PWM control technique. The proposed strategy is simplified to an approximate APWM which can be realized by the analog circuit. Practical verification of the theoretical predictions is presented to confirm the capabilities of the proposed technique

42.2.10    Yan-Fei Liu, P.C. Sen, Shi-Peng Huang, "Function control-a novel strategy to achieve improved performance of the DC-to-DC switching regulators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 186-191, April 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The control strategy of the DC-to-DC switching converters is studied to obtain the switching regulators with zero-voltage regulation. A novel control strategy, the function control, is presented for the DC-to-DC switching converters to achieve this objective. The control law and the corresponding feedback are derived directly from the equations governing the switching converters. With the function control strategy presented in the paper, the switching regulators become robust, i.e., the output is independent of the disturbances from either the supply voltage or the load and exhibits other desirable advantages. The strategy is applicable to all the four basic PWM converters, i.e., buck, boost, buck-boost, and Cuk. The analysis is confirmed by experiments and computer simulations

42.2.11    G.C.D. Sousa, B.K. Bose, J.G. Cleland, "Fuzzy logic based on-line efficiency optimization control of an indirect vector-controlled induction motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 192-198, April 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Improvement of adjustable speed drive system efficiency is important not only from the viewpoints of energy saving and cooling system operation, but also from the broad perspective of environmental pollution. The paper describes a fuzzy logic based on-line efficiency optimization control of a drive that uses an indirect vector controlled induction motor speed control system in the inner loop. At steady-state light-load condition, a fuzzy controller adaptively decrements the excitation current on the basis of measured input power such that, for a given load torque and speed, the drive settles down to the minimum input power, i.e., operates at maximum efficiency. The low-frequency pulsating torque due to decrementation of rotor flux is compensated in a feedforward manner. If the load torque or speed command changes, the efficiency search algorithm is abandoned and the rated flux is established to get the best transient response. The drive system with the proposed efficiency optimization controller has been simulated with lossy models of the converter and machine, and its performance has been thoroughly investigated. An experimental drive system with the proposed controller implemented on a TMS320C25 digital signal processor, has been tested in the laboratory to validate the theoretical development

42.2.12    M.K. Kazimierczuk, A. Abdulkarim, "Current-source parallel-resonant DC/DC converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 199-208, April 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper introduces, analyzes, and experimentally verifies a novel DC/DC converter called the current-source parallel-resonant converter. The converter consists of a large choke inductor, two switches, and a parallel-resonant circuit. Each switch consists of a MOSFET in series with a diode. It has a nonpulsating input current with a very low AC ripple. The MOSFETs are driven with respect to ground and, therefore, have a simple gate-drive circuit. The analysis of the converter is carried out in the frequency domain using Fourier series techniques. Analytical expressions are derived for performance parameters of the converter. A prototype of the converter circuit was designed, built, and tested. The theoretical results were in good agreement with the experimental results

42.2.13    C.M. Liaw, S.Y. Cheng, "Fuzzy two-degrees-of-freedom speed controller for motor drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 209-216, April 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A fuzzy two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF) controller and its application to the speed control of an induction motor drive are presented in this paper. The proposed controller is composed of two fuzzy controllers to obtain good tracking and regulating responses. Unlike the conventional fuzzy controller, the error between the outputs of a reference model and the controlled drive is used to drive the proposed fuzzy controller. The drive rotor speed response can closely follow the trajectory produced by the reference model, and good load speed regulating response can also be obtained simultaneously owing to the possession of two-degrees-of-freedom in structure. Moreover, these performances are rather insensitive to the operating condition changes. The dynamic signal analysis as well as the construction of fuzzy control algorithms are described in detail. Some simulated and measured results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy controller

42.2.14    S.P. Chan, "Comments on “A neural network compensator for uncertainties of robotics manipulators”," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 217-218, April 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: It is shown in this letter that the function of the neural network compensator proposed in the original paper is redundant. Perfect rejection of both structured and unstructured uncertainties in the robot dynamic model can be achieved directly without the compensator

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 42,  Number 3, June 1995           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




42.3.1    Long-Sheng Fan, H.H. Ottesen, T.C. Reiley, R.W. Wood, "Magnetic recording-head positioning at very high track densities using a microactuator-based, two-stage servo system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 222-233, June 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The storage capacities and areal densities found in magnetic disk drives are increasing very rapidly. Data is recorded in ever-narrower tracks which must be followed with extreme precision. Also, the advent of portable applications exposes these smaller drives to higher levels of vibration and shock. A description is given of the many factors which contribute to recording track misregistration (TMR) in today's drives. The mechanics of the drive and actuator and the architecture of the servo control system are also described. A projection is made for the TMR sensitivities and control system at an areal density of 10 Gb/in2, having roughly 25000 tracks/in. A two-stage servo may be needed to achieve such track densities. This would comprise a high bandwidth microactuator for rapid position corrections of the recording head, coupled with a conventional actuator. The characteristics of such a microactuator are discussed, and operational examples of fabricated electroplated microactuators, driven electrostatically, are shown. The mechanical behavior of the devices and some of the factors which would affect their implementation are also described

42.3.2    D.K. Miu, Yu-Chong Tai, "Silicon micromachined SCALED technology," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 234-239, June 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Silicon micromachining technology will play an important role in the fabrication of high-bandwidth servo controlled microelectromechanical (mechatronic) components for super-compact disk drives. At the University of California, Los Angeles, and the California Institute of Technology, for the last three years, we have initiated a number of industry-supported joint research projects to develop the necessary technology building blocks for an integrated drive design of the future. These efforts include a silicon read/write head microgimbal with integrated electrical and mechanical interconnects, which targets the next-generation 30% form factor pico-sliders, and an electromagnetic piggyback microactuator in super-high-track-density applications, both of which utilize state-of-the-art silicon micromachining fabrication techniques

42.3.3    S. Weerasooriya, D.T. Phan, "Discrete-time LQG/LTR design and modeling of a disk drive actuator tracking servo system," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 240-247, June 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the discrete-time LQG/LTR design of a disk drive track following servo system. The servo compensator designed through linear-quadratic Gaussian control combined with loop transfer recovery (LQG/LTR) consists of a Kalman filter for state estimation and state feedback for control. The desired tracking servo performance is first formulated through a frequency shaped return ratio of the Kalman filter and subsequently recovered at the output of the plant/compensator loop through the automatic design of a discrete-time linear quadratic (LQ) regulator. Particular attention has been given to modeling the calculation time delay and bias force estimation. The excellent robustness and performance characteristics of a continuous time LQG/LTR design are theoretically unachievable due to the extremely low sampling rate and nonminimum phase plant characteristics. However, both time and frequency domain simulations show that reasonable stability margins and performance can still be recovered. This technique nearly eliminates all the trial and error typical of a conventional pole placement design of a similar system. The direct discrete-time design can handle extremely low sampling rates associated with embedded servo systems. The technique can also be used for designing multi-rate and multi-input servo systems

42.3.4    T.H. Lee, T.S. Low, A. Al-Mamun, C.H. Tan, "Internal model control (IMC) approach for designing disk drive servo-controller," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 248-256, June 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a design procedure for disk drive servomechanism using an internal model control (IMC) structure. A typical disk drive actuator can be modeled as second order dynamics for low frequencies. However the response at higher frequencies shows resonant behavior which is difficult to model. We discuss the use of IMC structure for designing servo-controllers for disk drives. In this method, a second order nominal model of the plant is used to design an H 2-optimal controller to attain minimum integral-error-square (ISE) performance. Then to maintain robust stability at higher frequencies, sufficient roll-off at such frequencies is provided by an H optimization procedure. Here, the H2-optimal control is augmented by a low pass filter with sufficient high-frequency roll-off to ensure robust stability and robust performance. A multiplicative uncertainty bound is defined using the data of the disk drive servo plant's frequency response and the response of the nominal model, and this is then used to decide robust stability and robust performance bounds. Tuning of only one parameter of the IMC filter makes this design method easy and convenient. Simulation results for the designed controller are presented

42.3.5    Y. Kaneda, "Advanced optical disk mastering and its application for extremely high-density magnetic recording," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 257-262, June 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: As the demand for recording density becomes stronger, mastering technology becomes more important along with its level of mechanical precision. To visualize such an important technology, the author presents one of the latest examples of optical disk mastering technologies in the application of preembossed magnetic disks. The preembossed magnetic disks have emerged from the integration of two existing technologies: one is magnetic recording technology and the other is optical disk technology. The effect of precision machining for such development is described in detail, along with suggested possible directions of further development in precision mechatronics

42.3.6    J. Holtz, "The representation of AC machine dynamics by complex signal flow graphs," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 263-271, June 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Induction motors are modeled by nonlinear higher-order dynamic systems of considerable complexity. The dynamic analysis based on the complex notation exhibits a formal correspondence to the description using matrices of axes-oriented components; yet differences exist. The complex notation appears superior in that it allows the distinguishing between the system eigenfrequencies and the angular velocity of a reference frame which serves as the observation platform. The approach leads to the definition of single complex eigenvalues that do not have conjugate values associated with them. The use of complex state variables further permits the visualization of AC machine dynamics by complex signal flow graphs. These simple structures assist to form an understanding of the internal dynamic processes of a machine and their interactions with external controls

42.3.7    Y. Fujimoto, A. Kawamura, "Robust servo-system based on two-degree-of-freedom control with sliding mode," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 272-280, June 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A robust servo system, based on a combination of linear robust control and sliding mode control is proposed. This new control system can be said to be a nonlinear system (sliding mode control system) which has a inner loop of linear control (two-degree-of-freedom control). Due to this inner loop of linear control, a disturbance is strongly suppressed but not completely. Then, the outer loop of sliding mode control eliminates this disturbance suppression error. In this paper, a linear robust-servo design of two-degree-of-freedom control system is shown. Sliding mode control is applied to this system and the disturbance suppression characteristics are discussed. Through simulations and experiments, it is proved that the introduction of nonlinear control (sliding mode) drastically improves the disturbance suppression characteristics of a linear system (two-degree-of-freedom control)

42.3.8    Yu-Sheng Lu, Jian-Shiang Chen, "Design of a perturbation estimator using the theory of variable-structure systems and its application to magnetic levitation systems," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 281-289, June 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A perturbation estimator using the theory of variable structure systems is proposed to enhance the robustness of a pole-placement controller design. In its ideal form, the pole-placement design using feedback-linearization technique achieves a desired performance in nonlinear time-varying systems. However, its performance deteriorates rapidly with the presence of disturbance and parametric uncertainties, referred to as perturbation. The estimate generated by the proposed perturbation estimator is incorporated as an additional input to rectify the uncertainties in the nominal control model of the pole-placement design. The proposed scheme requires neither the measurement of the time derivative of the state vector nor the precise knowledge of system parameters, hut rather the bounds on system perturbation. Chatter and the adverse effects of conservative bounds on system perturbation, often encountered in conventional sliding-mode control (SMC), are alleviated for the controlled plant by the proposed scheme. The benefits of this scheme are demonstrated in this study practically on a magnetic levitation system and its performance is compared with that of the conventional SMC scheme

42.3.9    Mao-Fu Lai, Guan-Chyun Hsieh, Yan-Pei Wu, "Variable slope pulse pump controller for stepping position servo control system using frequency-locked technique," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 290-299, June 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A stepping position servomotor system based on frequency-locked technique is proposed for high-performance incremental position control. A novel microcomputer-based variable slope pulse pump controller (VSPPC) using multi-rate sampling technique is exploited. The proposed VSPPC can adaptively generate motor motion profile, and it can replace the traditional PID controller for applications in stepping motor position control. System models are constructed for stability study and computer simulation. A prototype is designed and implemented to verify the theoretical studies and examine the performance of the proposed system. Position and speed responses of a realized system for 0-50 cm movement with 10 mm resolution is investigated. With the variable slope technique employed in VSPPC, the acquisition time for long-distance movement is reduced significantly and is close to that of short-range movement. In particular, the position acquisition time has improved about 67-79% compared to the conventional position control system

42.3.10    Chichyang Chen, Y.F. Zheng, "Passive and active stereo vision for smooth surface detection of deformed plates," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 300-306, June 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Passive stereo vision is proposed for operation in a complimentary manner with active stereo vision for detection of smooth surfaces of deformed plates. Passive stereo vision is used to obtain the boundary of the smooth surfaces, whereas active stereo vision with the projection of structured light is applied to detect the details of the surfaces. An inherent problem in passive stereo vision, called the false boundary problem, is identified. The problem is solved by calibrating the structured light in active stereo vision and dynamically placing the cameras in passive stereo vision. The matching criteria in active stereo vision and the sensing process of the proposed approach are presented. An experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of the proposed approach

42.3.11    F.J. Azcondo, J.C. Blanco, J. Peire, "New digital compensation technique for the design of a microcomputer compensated crystal oscillator," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 307-315, June 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The study of the stability of frequency sources is a matter of major interest due to the evolution of communication and instrumentation systems resulting in increasing the number of channels in a limited spectrum, and reducing size and power consumption. The paper relates laboratory experiences that explain the behavior versus temperature of thickness-mode quartz crystal resonators (AT- and SC-cut crystals) that are applied to the control of frequency sources, and the performance of digital compensation techniques. Prototypes of microcomputer-compensated crystal oscillators (MCXO's) have been developed to compare the compensation performance using the resonator as the temperature sensor against the use of an external sensor and verify the reduction of compensation errors due to thermal lags and hysteresis. The design of a CMOS integrated circuit for the MCXO is also included. A frequency correction method that does not modify the crystal resonance has been implemented in the circuit. This allows sensing of the temperature by means of the crystal and improving its long-term stability (aging). A new frequency comparator is also introduced. Its aim is to obtain the difference between two very close frequencies at its output, without being affected by the phase variations that the new frequency correction method and the digital circuit introduce. This detector has been implemented to get a high-resolution thermometric frequency and to realize a frequency-locked loop that includes a crystal controlled local oscillator, allowing the use of the MCXO as a good short-term stability source

42.3.12    S.A. Schweid, J.E. McInroy, R.M. Lofthus, "Closed loop low-velocity regulation of hybrid stepping motors amidst torque disturbances," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 316-324, June 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: To regulate the velocity of hybrid stepper motor motion control systems, a control law which exploits the nonlinear dynamics to create an analog positional control in conjunction with a traditional linear control is introduced. This nonlinear approach allows a much coarser position sensor to be used, including position estimates based on back EMF measurements. The form of the control law admits the use of a wide variety of compensators, whereas earlier laws use only velocity damping compensation. Two specific compensators, i.e., velocity damping and integral control are analyzed in detail, then compared to each other and to open loop microstepping control. It is shown that velocity damping allows the design of the eigenvalues of the closed loop system and provides a linear system approach about a specified operating point. Unfortunately, this operating point includes the value of external DC torque (drag) present, so the closed loop dynamics cannot be guaranteed amidst steady state torque fluctuations. Integral feedback (within a PID controller) improves upon velocity damping by not only allowing the design of the closed loop eigenvalues, but also by completely linearizing the system regardless of external DC torque values. Furthermore, the integral feedback produces zero steady state position error (as expected from linear control theory) and significantly decreases the tendency of the motor to lose step. Experimental results validate the analyses

42.3.13    N.H. Rashidi, "Improved and less load dependent three-phase current-controlled inverter with hysteretic current controllers," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 325-330, June 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A concept of the so-called inner feedback in three-phase current-controlled inverters with hysteretic current controllers is introduced. Stability of the inverter at various frequencies under two different applied loads have been studied. An inertial feedback loop is added to each controller. This modification affects operating characteristics of the inverter by enforcing a switching pattern of low dependence on the load, resulting in significantly improved quality of the output current

42.3.14    J. Nieznanski, "The accumulator in integral-cycle AC power control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 331-334, June 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The letter suggests and supports the use of the accumulator, consisting of a parallel adder and a parallel-in/parallel-out register, as an AC-line cycle selector for integral-cycle power control. It indicates that the accumulator is the optimum cycle selector, meaning that the cycle distribution over time is as regular as theoretically possible; this property of the accumulator ensures that the low-frequency ripple in the output power is kept to a minimum

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

  IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 42,  Number 4, August 1995           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




42.4.1    M. Bodson, J. Chiasson, R.T. Novotnak, "Nonlinear speed observer for high-performance induction motor control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 337-343, August 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we consider the problem of estimating the angular velocity of an induction motor using encoder measurements. Two methods are compared. In the first method, the speed is found by calculating the backward difference of the position measurement and low-pass filtering the result. In the second method, the velocity is estimated using a nonlinear observer constructed using the known dynamic model of the induction motor. The performance of the two methods is evaluated in the context of their use for velocity feedback in a high-performance field-oriented control law. Experimental results demonstrate that the speed observer leads to a smoother operation of the motor in closed-loop. With the estimator based on differentiation, either the delay imposed by the low-pass filter is too large to maintain high bandwidth feedback, or the fluctuations in the estimated speed are so large that much more energy ends up being dissipated to achieve the same control task

42.4.2    M.P. Kazmierkowski, A.B. Kasprowicz, "Improved direct torque and flux vector control of PWM inverter-fed induction motor drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 344-350, August 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a direct torque and stator flux vector control system is presented. The principle of this method was proposed by Takahashi and Noguchi in 1985. In contrast to the field oriented control, no coordinate transformation and current control loop is required. In practical application, however, problems occur with starting and operation in the zero speed region. This paper shows how, by introducing an additional carrier signal to the torque controller input, a robust start and improved operation in the low speed region can be achieved. The simulation and experimental results which illustrate the performances of the proposed system are presented. Also, nomograms for controller design are given

42.4.3    G.S. Buja, R. Menis, M.I. Valla, "Disturbance torque estimation in a sensorless DC drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 351-357, August 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The estimation of the disturbance torque in a sensorless DC motor drive is carried out by extending the classical observer theory. Three estimation schemes are formulated according to the representation of the disturbance torque and the processing of the observer states. In addition to the disturbance torque, all the schemes deliver an estimation of the motor speed. Steady-state accuracy and dynamics of the schemes are first determined in nominal conditions, identifying the scheme with the best performance. The effects of variations in the motor parameters are then analyzed, with the finding that a proper modeling of the motor makes the steady-state estimation of the disturbance torque insensitive to any variation. As a test, the schemes are applied to a sensorless DC motor drive for both compensating for the disturbance torque and closing the speed loop. The responses obtained with the best-performance scheme are reported

42.4.4    M.K. Vukobratovic, A.D. Rodic, "Control of manipulation robots interacting with dynamic environment: Implementation and experiments," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 358-366, August 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, simulation experiments with different control laws are given, based on a new approach to solving the control tasks for robots in contact with the environment. The comparison of these control laws with the improved versions of the traditional hybrid control are also analyzed. The simulation experiments performed on a real-scale six-degrees-of-freedom industrial robot demonstrate the advantage of the new control concept and improved performances of the robot interacting with a dynamic environment. The tests conducted on industrial robot Manutec r3 are also presented

42.4.5    S.R. Bowes, "Advanced regular-sampled PWM control techniques for drives and static power converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 367-373, August 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Regular-sampled PWM techniques have been developed to reproduce the harmonic-elimination and harmonic minimization PWM power convertor characteristics. These new regular-sampled PWM control strategies significantly reduce the computational requirements for real-time microprocessor-based PWM implementation. This results in simplified and more efficient microprocessor software/hardware requirements, leading to real-time PWM generation with minimized harmonics, suitable for drives and uninterruptible power supplies

42.4.6    H. Grotstollen, J. Wiesing, "Torque capability and control of a saturated induction motor over a wide range of flux weakening," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 374-381, August 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The first part of this paper covers an investigation of the maximum torque which an induction motor with saturated air gap inductance can generate over its permitted speed range, when voltage as well as current are limited. From the investigation, three regions of operating speed are identified, based on limiting quantities which determine the maximum obtainable torque. In each of these regions a different control strategy must be applied. When maximum torque is not required, efficiency can be optimized but this strategy should not be applied at low torque levels when good dynamic performance is required. The second part illustrates how a modified rotor flux oriented control strategy is applied to achieve full utilization of the torque capability over the whole speed range. Several measures for improving dynamic and transient behavior of the drive in the flux weakening region are suggested. Performance of the new control strategy is verified by experiments

42.4.7    Jun-Keun Ji, Seung-Ki Sul, "DSP-based self-tuning IP speed controller with load torque compensation for rolling mill DC drive," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 382-386, August 1995.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the design and the implementation of a self-tuning integral-proportional (IP) speed controller for a rolling mill DC motor drive system, based on a 32-bit floating point digital signal processor (DSP)-TMS 320C30. To get a better transient response than conventional proportional-integral (PI) and/or integral-proportional (IP) speed control in the presence of transient disturbance and/or parameter variations, an adaptive self-tuning IP speed control with load torque feedforward compensation was used. The model parameters, related to motor and load inertia and damping coefficient, were estimated online by using recursive extended least squares (RELS) estimation algorithm. On the basis of the estimated model parameters and a pole-placement design, a control signal was calculated. Digital simulation and experimental results showed that the proposed controller possesses excellent adaptation capability under parameter change and a better transient recovery characteristic than a conventional PI/IP controller under load change