Technical Services

 Pulp and Paper processing and Testing Laboratories

In Alabama Center of Paper and Bioresources Engineering, we have (A) the capability to perform a lab-scale processing of pulp and paper, (B)  a professional-scale testing services, and (C) other important testing capabilities.

 (A)Processing of pulp and paper Capabilities

wood chip Cocking (Kraft Pulping)

TAPPI T200 - Laboratory beating of pulp (valley beater method)

TAPPI T205 - Forming handsheets for physical tests of pulp

TAPPI T220 - Physical testing of pulp handsheets

TAPPI T236 - Kappa number of pulp

TAPPI T240 - Consistency (concentration) of pulp suspension

(B) Testing Capabilities:

For Physical Testing, we have the following equipment and methods:                                                                                                

  • Tensile Strength

Tensile strength is the maximum tensile force developed in a test specimen before rupture on a tensile tester carried to rupture under prescribed conditions. pulp1

Tensile Tester (TMI Monitor) is a vertical single-column tensile tester designed for testing of paper and low elongation films and foil.

On this machine, we can change sample width, gauge length, pretention and loading rate. Output results are paper strength in force units (standard or metric), elongation at break as a percent from the original gauge

Output results are paper strength in force units (standard or metric), elongation at break as a percent from the original gauge length. Tensile strength given is the force per the width of test specimen, which is 1 inch, usually 

Standard Method(s):

TAPPI  T494 - Tensile properties of paper and paperboard (using constant rate of elongation apparatus)

ASTM  D828 - Tensile Properties of Paper and Paperboard Using Constant-Rate-of-Elongation Apparatus

  • Bursting Strength

Bursting strength is the maximum pressure required to rupture the tested material. The sample is held at the perimeter while the hydrostatic pressure is increased at a controlled
pulp 2

constant rate under a rubber diaphragm until sample rupture. 

 The L&W Burst-o-matic is designed to measure the bursting strength of sheet materials.

Output results are paper burst strength in pressure units (standard or metric), commonly psi

Standard Method(s):

TAPPI T403 - Bursting strength of paper

TAPPI T807 - Bursting strength of paperboard and linerboard

TAPPI  T810 - Bursting strength of corrugated and solid fiberboard

ASTM  D774/D774M – Bursting Strength of Paper

  • Tearing Tester

The energy consumed to tear the test sample (usually 4 plies of the sheet material) a certain distance is used to calculate the average tearing force.   pulp 3

The L&W Tearing Tester measures the tearing strength of paper, fabric, plastic foil, ect. The tearing energy is measured through positional change of machine’s pendulum.

Output results is the paper tearing strength in force units standard or metric (usually pounds).

Standard Method(s):

TAPPI T414 - Internal Tearing resistance of Paper (Elmendorf type)

ASTM D689 – Internal Tearing Resistance of Paper

Folding Endurance     pulp 4

A strip of sheet (paper) under a standard tension is subjected to double folding oscillations until break. 

The logarithm to the base 10 of the number of double folds is considered as “Folding Endurance”. It measures the ability of a sheet of material (paper) to withstand repeated folding. It is also useful for indicating the deterioration of material upon aging.

 

Standard Method(s):

TAPPI T511 - Folding endurance of paper (MIT tester)

ASTM D2176 – Folding Endurance of Paper by the M.I.T. Tester

  • Short Span Compression STFI

A strip of sheet (paper) is clamped in two pair of clamps 0.7 mm apart. moving towards each other, sample is compressed in the edge direction.  The maximum force causing failure is measured and given in pound.sef

The L&W Compression Strength Tester uses the STFI method of testing for edgewise compression strength  of containerboard in the range of 100 – 400 g/m2.

 

Standard Method(s):

TAPPI T826 - Short span compressive strength of containerboard

  • Stiffness Tester

The L&W Stiffness Tester is used to evaluate stiffness and resiliency properties using resonance length sdf

 

Standard Method(s):

TAPPI T535 - Bending stiffness of paper and paperboard-Resonance length method

  • Taber Bending Stiffness

This instrument measures the bending moment required to deflect the free end of a 1.5 in wide vertically clamped specimen 15º from its center line when the load is applied 2 in. away from the clamp. The resistance to bending is calculated from the bending moment and given in Taber units. 7

 

Standard Method(s):

TAPPI T489 - Bending resistance (stiffness) of paper and paperboard (Taber-type tester in basic configuration)

  • Huygen Internal Bond Tester

The Huygen Internal Bond Tester is designed to measure rapid “Z” directional ruptures of paper and paperboard samples. The unit uses Scott and American Sisal craft specimen technique. 8

 

Standard Method(s):

TAPPI T569 - Internal bond strength (Scott type)

  • TSO Tester:

The TSO Tester is an ultrasonic instrument for measuring Tensile Stiffness Index or Tensile Stiffness Orientation properties on sheets in machine and cross directions sheet (paper) samples. 9

  • L&W Crush Tester:

The L&W Crush Tester is used for testing liner, fluting, corrugated fiberboard, packaging, and similar products. 10

  • TMI Gurley

Gurley is the standard instrument for measuring porosity, air permeability, or the air resistance of paper products. 11

Standard Method(s):

TAPPI T460 - Air resistance of paper (Gurley method)

  • Hagerty Paper Smoothness Tester:

The Hagerty Paper Smoothness Tester tests the surface smoothness of paper especially coated.12

This method is a measurement of the air flow between the specimen (backed by flat glass on the bottom side) and two pressurized, concentric annular lands that are impressed into the sample from the top side. The rate of air flow is related to the surface roughness of paper or paperboard.

We use a Haggerty test device to measure Sheffield smoothness

Standard Method(s):

TAPPI  T538 - Roughness of paper and paperboard (Sheffield method)

Glossmeter Model T 480A:

The Glossmeter provides 75 and 20 specular gloss measurements 13

Its primary application is for coated papers but the machine may also be used on uncoated papers, most ink films, and paper or paperboard.

Standard Method(s):

TAPPI T480 - Specular gloss of paper and paperboard at 75 degrees

TAPPI T653 - Specular gloss of paper and paperboard at 20 degrees

 Brightimeter Micro S5:

The Brightimeter Micro S5 measures brightness, opacity, color, and fluorescence. 14

Standard Method(s):

TAPPI T425 - Opacity of paper (15/d geometry, illuminant A/2°, 89% reflectance backing and paper backing)

TAPPI T452 - Brightness of pulp, paper, and paperboard (directional reflectance at 457 nm)

TAPPI T524 - Color of paper and paperboard (45/0, C/2)

TAPPI T562 - Brightness of pulp, paper, and paperboard (directional reflectance at 457 nm) CIE whiteness and tint of paper and paperboard (using 45°/0° directional illumination and normal viewing)

TAPPI T646 - Brightness of clay and other mineral pigments (45/0)

ASTM D985 - Brightness of Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard (Directional Reflectance at 457 nm)

  • Electronic Micro Gauge:

The Electronic Micro Gauge measures specimen thickness within the 0 – 3 mm range.15

 

Standard Method(s):

TAPPI T411 - Thickness (caliper) of paper, paperboard, and combined board

ASTM D645/D645M - Thickness of Paper and Paperboard

(C) Other Capabilities

In our wet processing and testing laboratory, we have a whole line of machines from wood chip digesters, pulpers, repulpers, mixers, to handsheet paper making. Recently, we added to our lab a pilot scale Microfluidizer M-110EH-30. This machine adds to our capabilities to produce NFC (Nanofibrillated Cellulose) or MFC (Microfibrillated Cellulose) fibers that can be used in many applications. 



  • Microfluidics M-110EH-30

The M-110EH-30 Microfluidizer Processor uses interchangeable chambers of varying geometries to process a range of fluids such as fiber suspensions in multiple passes to break the fibers down to a micro or nano scale. 16

  • TAPIO

The TAPIO paper machine analyzer tests paper reels and other substrates for machine direction and cross direction variation. TAPIO equipment is capable of identifying variation at all wavelengths. 17

  • Paprican Ink Scanner:

The Paprican Ink Scanner is a high magnification image analyzer that rapidly and accurately quantifies microscopic residual ink specks of 8 um and larger during and after de-inking of recycled fiber pulps. Speck size, count and distribution are obtained.18

Testing Capabilities by Sdandard Test Methods

We have the capabilities to perform the following TAPPI and ASTM methods:

 

TAPPI T494 - Tensile properties of paper and paperboard using constant rate of elongation apparatus

ASTM D828 - Tensile properties of paper and paperboard using constant-rate-of-elongation apparatus

TAPPI T403 - Bursting strength of paper

TAPPI T807 - Bursting strength of paperboard and linerboard

TAPPI T810 - Bursting strength of corrugated and solid fiberboard

ASTM D774/D774M – Bursting strength of paper

TAPPI T414 - Internal tearing resistance of paper (Elmendorf type)

ASTM D689 – Internal tearing resistance of paper

TAPPI T511 - Folding endurance of paper (MIT tester)

ASTM D2176 – Folding endurance of paper by the M.I.T. tester

TAPPI T826 - Short span compressive strength of containerboard

TAPPI T535 - Bending stiffness of paper and paperboard (Resonance length method)

TAPPI T489 - Bending resistance (stiffness) of paper and paperboard (Taber-type tester in basic configuration)

TAPPI T460 - Air resistance of paper (Gurley method)

TAPPI T536 - Resistance of paper to passage of air (high-pressure Gurley method)

ASTM D726 = Resistance of Nonporous Paper to Passage of Air

TAPPI T538 - Roughness of paper and paperboard (Sheffield method)

TAPPI T480 - Specular gloss of paper and paperboard at 75 degrees

TAPPI T653 - Specular gloss of paper and paperboard at 20 degrees

TAPPI T425 - Opacity of paper (15/d geometry, illuminant A/2°, 89% reflectance backing and paper backing)

TAPPI T452 - Brightness of pulp, paper, and paperboard (directional reflectance at 457 nm)

TAPPI T524 - Color of paper and paperboard (45/0, C/2)

TAPPI T562 - Brightness of pulp, paper, and paperboard (directional reflectance at 457 nm) CIE whiteness and tint of paper and paperboard (using 45°/0° directional illumination  and normal viewing)

TAPPI T646 - Brightness of clay and other mineral pigments (45/0)

ASTM D985 - Brightness of pulp, paper, and paperboard (Directional reflectance at 457 nm)

TAPPI T401- Fiber analysis of paper and paperboard

ASTM D1030 - Fiber analysis of paper and paperboard

TAPPI T227 - Freeness of pulp (Canadian  standard  method)

TAPPI UM256 - water retention value (WRV)

TAPPI T221 - Drainage time of pulp

TAPPI T230 - Viscosity of pulp (capillary viscometer method)

TAPPI T410 - Grammage of paper and paperboard (weight per unit area)

TAPPI T211 - Ash in wood, pulp, paper and paperboard: combustion at 525°C

TAPPI T413 - Ash in wood, pulp, paper and paperboard: combustion at 900'C

ASTM D586 – Ash in pulp, paper, and paper products

ASTM D644 – Moisture content of paper and paperboard by oven drying

TAPPI T402 - Standard conditioning and testing atmospheres for paper, board, pulp handsheets, and related products

ASTM D685 – Standard practice for conditioning paper and paper products for testing

For additional information please contact
Dr. Ramsis Farag
Testing Services Manager
faragra@auburn.edu
334-444-0655
Last Updated: May 09, 2017